This blog is to encorporate discussions on Lost Continents, Catastrophism, The origin of Modern Humans and the Out of Africa theory, Genetics and Human Diversity, The Origin and Spread of Civilization and Cultural Diffusion across the face of the Globe.
From Robert Kline's Global Warming and Terraforming Terra site. To be fair, we've had some of these very old C14 dates for some time now, the information was just not known by the general public, it was not publicised.
In fairness, it was reasonable to expect as much since we know that the advent cattle husbandry began as early as the tenth millennia. This led directly to stable land ownership and boundaries and a natural need for monumental works.
The site then had to also be important as a population center long before the building of Stonehenge. This now becomes a fresh focus for new archeology. It is also a reminder of the productivity of cattle husbandry even by itself.
The more interesting question is just now crude were the astronomical alignments? Just aligning a couple of poles and observing shadows and sunrise each year will show long term predictable patterns easily discernible in a lifetime. All of this had agricultural value and was certainly applied.
I do not know when grain growing made its first appearance, but surely no later than the advent of the Bronze Age and its shipping. It would be nice to know just how far that may be pushed back.
Stonehenge was occupied by humans 5,000 years EARLIER than we thought
Human beings were occupying Stonehenge thousands of years earlier than previously thought, according to archaeologists.
Research at a site around a mile from Stonehenge has found evidence of a settlement dating back to 7500BC, 5,000 years earlier than previous findings confirmed.
And carbon-dating of material at the site has revealed continuous occupation of the area between 7500BC and 4700BC, it is being revealed on BBC One's The Flying Archaeologist tonight.
Research at a site around a mile from Stonehenge has found evidence of a settlement dating back to 7500BC, 5,000 years earlier than previous findings confirmed
Experts suggested the team conducting the research had found the community that constructed the first monument at Stonehenge, large wooden posts erected in the Mesolithic period, between 8500 and 7000BC.
Open University archaeologist David Jacques and friends started to survey the previously-unlooked at area around a mile from the main monument at Stonehenge, when they were still students in 1999.
The site contained a spring, leading him to work on the theory that it could have been a water supply for early man.
He said: 'In this landscape you can see why archaeologists and antiquarians over the last 200 years had basically honed in on the monument, there is so much to look at and explore.
'I suppose what my team did, which is a slightly fresher version of that, was look at natural places - so where are there places in the landscape where you would imagine animals might have gone to, to have a drink.
'My thinking is where you find wild animals, you tend to find people, certainly hunter-gatherer groups, coming afterwards.
Research at a site around a mile from Stonehenge has found evidence of a settlement dating back to 7500BC, 5,000 years earlier than previous findings confirmed. And carbon-dating of material at the site has revealed continuous occupation of the area between 7500BC and 4700BC.
'What we found was the nearest secure watering hole for animals and people, a type of all year round fresh water source.'
He described the site as 'pivotal'.
Dr Josh Pollard, from Southampton University and the Stonehenge Riverside Project, said he thought the team may have just hit the tip of the iceberg in terms of Mesolithic activity focused on the River Avon around Amesbury.
'The team have found the community who put the first monument up at Stonehenge, the Mesolithic posts 9th-7th millennia BC.
'The significance of David's work lies in finding substantial evidence of Mesolithic settlement in the Stonehenge landscape - previously largely lacking apart from the enigmatic posts - and being able to demonstrate that there were repeated visits to this area from the 9th to the 5th millennia BC.'
The Flying Archaeologist is being shown on BBC One (West and South) at 7.30pm tonight.
Robert Kline and I were discussung this matter last week and it is the reason for the last blog posting here, plus the next several ones to follow after this. However in order to better present the theoretical background, I intend to reprint his original blog postings on the catastrophe, in July of 2007.
There has been some slight reinterpretation of the data since 2007 and that will have to wait for a subsequent follow-up posting. Right now I just want to get the theory posted.
Pleistocene nonconformity - 1
I think it is timely to commence posting excerpts from chapter seven of my book Paradigms Shift. We will end up with a completely different appreciation of the Ice Age than is currently accepted and this will allow us to place global climatic behavior in a much broader perspective. Since the chapter is twenty pages long, I am going to post a page daily. This will let you read often dense material in digestible chunks and also give you a chance to comment. Enjoy.
The Pleistocene Nonconformity
It is now the time to deal with an extremely important event in human history. Over a period of approximately 3,000 years huge swathes of valuable prime coastal lands were inundated. Whatever came before, was uprooted and destroyed. We simply do not know what was lost. We also do not know precisely how sudden the onset was globally although cultural sources argue strongly for an abrupt transition.
This event, though attracting tremendous speculation thanks to extensive and possibly misleading cultural sources over the years, is also based on a physical fact pattern as compelling as the fact pattern originally supporting Wegener’s continental shift hypothesis before it was confirmed by ocean drilling and magnetic mapping. We will set out to introduce and describe one mechanism capable of causing this event and draw a number of key inferences.
Starting approximately 11,600 years ago we know that the sea rose over 300 feet due to the rapid melting of the northern ice caps. This event happened in two surges about 3,000 years apart. We also know that grain based agriculture appeared spontaneously in the aftermath in several locales globally. Large game populations collapsed and went extinct. Average precipitation on the Greenland ice cap was sharply changed according to the ice core data.
The rise in the sea level, whether slow or catastrophic would have liquidated all coastal antique civilizations such as may have existed. In the event of a slow rise, such civilizations would have lost access to rich delta lands, and would have been forced back onto lands already supporting a more primitive lifeway and rarely capable of supporting any other. In the tropics this meant slash and burn agriculture in the highlands where soil leaching made any other form impractical.
As suggested in the previous chapter, humanity has had the capacity to generate antique civilizations for as much as thirty thousand years. The best and most likely place for first emergence would be on the massive coastal plains in and around the Indonesian archipelago. These coastal plains were all submerged over a three thousand-year span beginning 11,600 years ago. What was a serious inconvenience to the continental based societies was a complete catastrophe to residents of the plains of the South China Sea. They absorbed a complete loss of their homeland leaving only the mountainous rim.
I will go further to suggest that such a coastal plain, fully exploited by agriculture as we described in the last chapter, would be hugely stable and unlikely to generate any prior out emigration with the exception of trading forays. We only have to look at China to see a country that for most of its history was the Promised Land, leading only to nominal out-migration, and then mostly to Southeast Asia.
Pleistocene Nonconformity - 2 - cultural references
This is the second page in which I briefly run over known but limited cultural information.
The Pleistocene Nonconformity - part 2
Additionally, antique civilizations had a poor capability to colonize slightly distant unconnected regions occupied by traditional village based hunter-gatherer societies. Local resistance was quite capable of concentrating and overrunning any static farm based colony town. Our own success in North America is the exception that came from a combination of vastly superior combat technique and firepower, and pandemic die-offs. Even then, it took a long time. Any real colonization would have more typically taken the form of trading factories under contract with the local big man. For most of human history, civilization was an island in a sea of warlike semi nomadic tribesmen.
We will now briefly discuss the more controversial pool of cultural information relating to the Pleistocene nonconformity. These are derived from ancient literary sources that reach farthest back into prehistory.
1 There exists extensive tales, worldwide, of an ancient global inundation going back to this era. And yes the natives can tell the difference between a local catastrophic flood and a mega event in which thousands of square miles are permanently destroyed.
2 We have the Atlantis myth that tells of a great seafaring civilization that sinks below the sea in a night. This tale also appears global in distribution. This begs the question of a purely localized event such as Santorini even though there is justification to suppose at least a mixing of the two tales. Good evidence exists for the commingling of the prior global tradition with more recent local events in many such tales. The global concept does come through as the one safe common element.
3 We hear a unique Indian tale of the earth standing still briefly, and when rotation renewed, the length of the day had changed. There isn’t really enough multiple support for this particular tale, but it is awfully suggestive of perhaps some form of crustal event.
4 It is learned from Sumer, via the Bible, the information of between seven to forty days of torrential rainfall.
Other related statements are made, but these are the salient claims. They are also extraordinary and if accepted can only be explained physically in terms of an event that affected the entire globe. Stripped of local observations, we have one claim only and that is that the globe may have received a major environmental shock that impacted around the world and generated extraordinary conditions.
This excerpt deals with the informative Atlantis legend. There was no room to stuff in a chart made up by Arysio that strongly supports a South China sea homeland for modern man Intriging at least, but so is Bronze Age Ireland. I do think it is well worth going to his site.
We will first discuss the famed Atlantis legend, which is best described as a possible antediluvian antique civilization with extensive maritime trading activities operating on a global scale. This is a great tale that was first told by Plato by way of Egyptian provenance that has since launched 10,000 books.
The salient difficulty that we must face with Atlantis is the simple fact that this putative civilization lived so deep in time that artifacts would now be extremely few in number and probably be unrecognizable in general. On top of that these artifacts are underwater in their heartland. This means that for now we can satisfy ourselves only to the extent of showing that it might have been.
What I will do now is introduce a chart generated by Arysio Nunes dos Santoson his website www.atlan.org.
He has done a splendid job of reinterpreting and assembling the known information showing the compelling case to be made for the Indonesian Archipelago. I personally had come to similar conclusions regarding the importance of this region for unrelated reasons long before I was aware of the areal extent of the submerged plains. His work takes what is likely the most accurate report (Egypt is about the only place that an accurate report might have been retained) and checks it against the many proposed locations of Atlantis.
In this checklist he compares the requirements of Plato with the characteristics of some of the proposed locations. He shows that only the plains of the South China Seas and its environs meet the requirements imposed by the cultural sources.
I consider that the most compelling evidence in support of the early emergence of an antique civilization is the huge areal extent of the tropical coastal plains now submerged. As in the Yucatan, a huge homogenous population could have slowly emerged and become stable enough to support the type of infrastructure such a civilization needs, as happened independently in Yucatan.
Arysio also makes clear that from the Mediterranean perspective, all the oceans, as we know them today, outside the Pillars of Hercules were one and the same. The holy mountains referenced would be those volcanic peaks in and around northern Java. These are some of the most violent volcanoes on earth. The checklist also emphasizes the depth of information provided by Plato. Whatever we make of the myth itself, the original informant was telling a tale describing the East Indies, rather than some Mediterranean locale.
Thus, if we are prepared to accept the existence of a huge, well developed and a probably still antique civilization with a global maritime reach prior to the Pleistocene nonconformity, we have clearly given it a viable homeland.
This is also a civilization that would have been hugely vulnerable to a large tsunami coming in from the northeast out of the Pacific. And the rise in sea levels from the ice melt would have forcibly driven the populations out onto the far less hospitable Chinese and Indian plains provided they had the time and shipping. With or without tsunamis, the one hundred and fifty-foot lift in sea level at this time forced the bulk of all lowland populations globally to move to higher ground. They were probably rushed. The one hundred and fifty foot lift that occurred about two to three thousand years later with the additional collapse of the Laurantide ice sheet was also just as catastrophic in shifting any large civilized areas out of their homelands. We are probably looking at a ten to one reduction in available land.
It is hardly a coincidence then that these great sub tropical plains of India and China and the Sumerian delta, as well as other locales worldwide suddenly and simultaneously developed agriculture. Refugees with plant growing skills would have moved into previously poorly exploited river valleys that were now becoming open to the seas and would have struggled vigorously to reestablish the agricultural economy and civilization that they were familiar with. Our own historical experiences of the difficulties involved in poorly supported colonization give us a pretty good sense of just how difficult this would have been even if the transition took 3,000 years.
I think every schoolchild should read some of the original accounts of pioneers who wintered over with Native Americans during periods of poor hunting. Even with all the skills available, the conditions become absolutely fearsome. It also becomes utterly clear why agriculture was adopted so enthusiastically where possible.
We can be pretty sure, however, that our putative original civilization on the South China Sea plains was itself never truly global in the first instance and that their knowledge base was never internally distributed throughout their civilization. We do not know how advanced their science was, although some cultural sources suggest that they reached technology levels we would recognize as modern. In any event it went unshared and became utterly lost in the exact way that Mayan science and engineering became lost. More likely, they perfected their limiting antique mathematica and applied it brilliantly. Mathematical innovation is the one piece of knowledge that was capable of surviving a holocaust. Try and imagine us losing the use of the zero or the meter stick.
A number of commentators have pointed to cultural evidence in India as support for advanced technology derived from this epoch. In practice, even if it did exist, and we do have suggestive physical anomalies that require explanation, there was a complete failure to preserve the knowledge and pass it down. Our entire knowledge base today is completely regenerated from recognizable antecedents within the past several thousand years, including even our agriculture. If such a civilization existed, it disappeared just as totally as the Mayan civilization in which no successor population could read the old glyphs.
Pleistocene Nonconformity - 4 - Making it happen
I have one additional comment since I wrote this and that is that the idea of a crustal imbalance generated by the ice cap build up merits far more attention than it has in the past in light of the apparent readiness of the crust to move at all.
There has been significant speculation regarding the possibility that the earth’s crust itself shifted with the axial tilt and its rotational speed also changing slightly and that this acted as the trigger for the Pleistocene nonconformity. This view was first voiced by Hapgood and more recently carefully documented and supported by Rand Flem-Ath and Colin Wilson in their book Atlantis Blueprint. They map out the substantial cultural support and some of the limited physical evidence such as exists.
What makes this proposition so enticing is that it would nicely resolve a number of troubling issues.
So the first issue we have to deal with is how? The suggestions put forth to date have been specious at best, generally contravening the laws of physics. There is only one good choice that is a massive impulse on the globe from a large incoming mass. Can we make such a model work?
The primary issue we must first overcome is the problem of surface energy release. Obviously, an asteroid that releases all its energy on the surface of the earth will extinguish life long before it imparts enough energy to affect global dynamics. The Cretaceous extinction centered on Yucatan demonstrates this rather vividly. The asteroid involved had an estimated diameter of 20km, a velocity of 10kps and penetrated 30km into the crust. Most of the impact energy was thrown back into the atmosphere.
If however the globe is struck at a high speed by an iron nickel asteroid whose density averages in excess of 5.0 grams/cc, while traveling tangentially to some sub radius of the core we get a different effect. Effective sizes can run from objects with radii of between 5 km to objects with radii of a hundred km. If the object is part of the solar system then the expected impact velocities are not less than 10 kps if originating from the asteroid belt and 30 plus kps if from the Kuiper Belt. However, if the object is not originally part of the solar system the velocity will likely be several times higher. In that case its arrival would also have been from a direction other than the rotational plane of the elliptic. Since the earth is clipping along at about 30 kps and an incoming dense asteroid could be traveling as fast as 70 kps, the combined event velocity could hit 100 kps.
This means an asteroid the same size and density as the Yucatan event would impact with one hundred times the energy as the original. This would probably penetrate the crust. If the density is increased two fold, crustal penetration is certain. Since it would arrive at an angle the penetration distance would be somewhat larger. At this velocity, the atmosphere would be crossed in a second and the crust itself in several minutes as extreme deceleration took place. Critically, the wound left behind would quickly collapse sealing off any rebound energy and limiting direct environmental destruction of the scope experienced at Yucatan.
The asteroid, because of density and speed punches through the crust, which minimizes the extent of horizontal shock. Virtually all its kinetic energy is then released into the core. The observation that a high-speed bullet will leave a small entry hole in the human skull is an appropriate metaphor.
The effect of this impact is to initially rotationally accelerate the core representing perhaps 99% of the earth’s mass in a minute manner. This immediately results in the earth’s crust been temporarily disconnected or at least accelerated away from the core along the crustal plate slip plane. The initial shock of this separation would be felt globally, but been centered deeply in elastic materials it would be cushioned. There would develop a great deal of vertical movement, and one could expect massive new faulting and reopening of old faults. All the generated heat would be initially contained within the core, including that generated by movement friction between the two layers.
Technically, the separation of the core and crust would have occurred on the internal surface of least frictional resistance. Although we assume that this separation was abrupt, this is not absolutely necessary. A short period of elastic stretching could have preceded separation possibly inducing a semi liquid zone because of temperature rise. Also the incoming mass does not need to cross this boundary. It is only necessary for the full energy release to be deep enough to prevent blowback and much orthogonal energy release on the horizontal plane while allowing the compression pulse to continue in same direction. If we assume liquidfication occurred within the boundaries of the pulse, then the energy could have substantially caused additional liquidfication of the movement surface, particularly if that surface is coincident with one of the major density change horizons where orthogonal energy displacement could be forced. In any event, this would all take place deep below the hundred-mile thick and brittle crustal zone. Regrettably, we have little meaningful understanding of the chemical makeup of this environment, let alone its physical behavior.
Fortunately this style of impact event is likely to be generally survivable, since the energy rapidly absorbed by the core can now be released partially back to the crust in the form of slow motion braking energy. All the original energy imparted by the impact is ultimately translated into heat and a modest change in rotational velocity.
The effect on the core by the crust as the two parts try to come back together would then be felt as a steady movement of the crust for a sustained period of time of at least a month or two. The legend of the crust decelerating to a stop and then reaccelerating to achieve a different rotational speed could have happened if the core first flopped over on its poles. The accelerations necessary for the crust to do this in the time frame suggested is impossible to survive. This does not mean however that the process could not have occurred over a much greater and much more likely time span of say two to three months. The lonely legend that we have remembers a reversal rather than precise details, and in any event, is not broadly supported.
The initial surface energy release from possible hundred mile wide penetration of the crust would still be massive, hurling tsunamis in all directions and sending a shock wave in the atmosphere many times around the globe. It almost certainly must have happened in the ocean were the crust is thinnest and the evidence could be buried.
The stressing of the crust would also have probably caused a strong jump in volcanic activity, but we should keep in mind that this activity is more a function of the developing chemistry and heat flow of local volcanoes whose roots are contained within the crust. The heat generated by the event was substantially below these local surfacing hot spots. In fact it is likely that the bulk of the generated heat could well be still down there since heat loss through the crust is extremely slow. One of the difficulties with postulating a heat pump model as the motive power behind plate tectonics is the sheer glacial slowness of it all and the minimal heat release, even along the mid Atlantic ridge.
It would take a long time for the entry hole to be filled by magmas. During this phase the ocean would pour into the hole and be converted into steam with some ash produced by the cubic mile. We would expect months of torrential rain from the steam generated by the ocean pouring into this hole. I observe that the chemical composition of the ash will be rather different from normal volcanic ash since it is partially derived from deep non-crustal rocks. Also, this deeper rock would not necessarily be water saturated, sharply lowering the potential for ash production.
If Iceland were not rather convincingly linked to the development of the mid-Atlantic ridge, I would pick it as our most likely touchdown point. I would even be tempted to try to link the loess deposits of Europe to this event. It is still suspicious enough to justify a careful reassessment. More likely though any such hole is on the ocean bed and is filled with ash and magma making it hard to spot.
I am been too gentle. Geological interpretation is a terribly inexact science. The first accepted efforts in this field came out of the study of European geology. There exists a huge body of relatively unchallenged interpretations that call out for a major effort to reconfirm in the light of modern knowledge and technique.
Having had the pleasure of dealing with geological information for many years, I have learned to be skeptical and to also appreciate how little hard data any given set of eyes will ever see in a lifetime when compared to the total available. This particularly plays real havoc with mapping where continuity is assumed between data points sometimes miles apart. The book has yet to be written describing high-resolution Pleistocene geological depositions for any continent and is in fact still premature.
Besides all this, the possible movement of the crust and its realignment is the real story. The effects on the coast in most parts of the globe would have been devastating with the ocean effectively coming on land and racing hundreds of miles inland. Yet other parts will have been relatively unscathed.
We cannot say a great deal about the dynamics of this purported event. Calculation may give us bounds and perhaps allow us to estimate the level of disturbance. This would still be a unique event in the earth’s history. We can say a lot about how it ended since we live with the end result. The crust itself ended up with the former poles tilted approximately thirty degrees from the new poles on a longitude running through the center of Hudson’s Bay.
There are also additional cultural markers that are global in extent strongly indicating that this was the case. They are argued extensively in Rand flem-Ath and Colin Wilson’s book Atlantis Blueprint previously mentioned. I do not find these markers necessary to the case at hand but they certainly are curious targets amenable to extensive archeological research. If these markers could be proven directly linked to the eras implied, then we can be confident that greater human remnants survived the event sufficient to generate the cohesiveness necessary to leave a record for us to interpret.
However this all happened, the human cost was catastrophic. If it was slow, then the survivors were those who were forced into the wilderness out of their ancestral homes. If quick, one morning an entire civilization of probably millions was extinguished. The only survivors were those at sea and along the axis of movement, only those in the high country. Of course Africa survived hugely. The simple fact that much of Asia was possibly repopulated from founder populations centered on the Caucasus and the Altais speaks to the abrupt elimination of all lowland peoples. This would simply not be possible otherwise since the natural populating process is the other way around. The better we prove a secondary genesis out of central Asia the better we prove the extent of the disaster.
Pleistocene Nonconformity - 5 - Crustal slipperiness
We now tackle the question of how the crust might be able to move at all. Recall that it was this objection more that anything else that doomed Wegener's hypothesis to obscurity for decades. Our evidence for a crustal shift is similar to his evidence for continental drift. That is, it is obvious to any school boy looking at a globe and following up on a little deduction once the key idea is picked up on.
The recognition of the reality of plate tectonics is one of the great triumphs of modern earth science. It has created order out of geological chaos and has hugely informed our understanding of all geological processes. In particular, mountain building can be seen as momentum discharge as one crustal plate crashes into another.
The catch is that the movement of the plates, which is measurable and ongoing, represents a serious energy puzzle. Practically, if we reasonably assume that the affected crust is approximately one hundred miles thick, then a one hundred mile wide section, lifted about one vertical mile by underlying fluid pressure and continuously replaced, generates enough force to push a one hundred mile thick plate continuously. Obviously, this could only happen if the underlying friction is negligible. Certainly global hydrostatic energy transmission is inferred and we can additionally infer movement along a low-viscosity fluidic boundary layer in the direction of plate travel. This is still not good enough since crustal integrity will generate overlaps into areas of counter flow. We quickly return to a situation in which it would be nice to see low friction along the crustal slip plane.
That we are dealing with a slip plane is nicely demonstrated by the passing of the Pacific plate over the apparent Hawaiian hot spot. I observe that if the Pleistocene crustal movement hypothesis is correct, then this particular hot spot has been shifted and will take a massive amount of time to re emerge. In the meantime the molten zones developed beneath the main island will continue to expel material. The vast majority of geologically active zones including plate consumption are contained within the crust and these are simply carried along by any crustal movement. The hot spot is an exception.
The absolute need for low viscosity is apparent. We observe that the deepest rocks we encounter on the surface are the Kimberlites, which rocket to the surface from the one hundred-mile depth associated with the deepest basement of the crust. The implied speed of travel of an estimated seventy-five miles per hour infers remarkable fluidity. More importantly, the source temperature and pressure eliminates all but the most chemically bound compounds. In other words, there is no water or other gases migrating to higher levels in the crust.
Perhaps we should take our cue from the Kimberlites, which are the primary host for diamonds. The diamonds precipitate out from pure carbon within the Kimberlites as they rocket to the surface. What is often forgotten is that the Kimberlites are rapidly shedding carbon all the way to the surface. This implies that the rock began as a fluid supersaturated in carbon. The fact that diamond crystals are formed at all presupposes a supersaturated solution. My speculation is that the crustal layer including the Asthenosphere lies on a layer of material supersaturated in pure carbon, thicker than previously supposed that is inherently slippery and having low viscosity. It seems unlikely that at these pressures, that the slipperiness of graphite is retained, but that may well be the case.
One feature of carbon that is often overlooked is its high melt temperature compared to other elements. It becomes molten at temperatures in excess of 3500o C. It boils at temperatures over 4000o C. Of the common elements and minerals entrained in the crust, carbon resists melting the longest. Add this to the fact of its low density as compared to these same materials and we have the necessary conditions for a concentration plane for carbon under the crust. Convection above would send non-molten carbon down into the carbon layer and convection below this layer would concentrate this layer by density. The Kimberlites merely confirm it.
The existence of this layer possibly answers another interesting problem. The implied high natural electrical conductivity of this layer makes it an excellent candidate for handling the massive global electron flow necessary to electrically affect the global magnetic field. The electron flow itself can be physically derived from the daily solar and lunar tides that will cyclically stress and relax the layer, inducing a steady build up of static charge and inducing electron flow within the conductive layer. The zone of maximum charging would be concentrated within belts paralleling the equator with the electron flow possibly either flowing towards the poles or flowing primarily along the equator following the tides.
We can certainly postulate a charging shell. The complexity of the tidal effect resulting from the twenty-three degree tilt of the globe prevents an easy configuration of the electron flow. This shell charging process needs to be cumulative over geological time periods until the process itself must discharge the buildup of electrical energy. The most certain way to do this would be to force the reversal of the earth’s magnetic field. This has in fact occurred often. This process is clearly benign and any shifts will be abrupt. They may even become predictable.
I do not have an exact electromagnetic model to describe this possible behavior pattern, and it may well turn out to be theoretically impossible. The only simple model that occurs to me is one in which the electron flow is nudged along by the daily tides until the electron wave is large enough to collapse and reverse itself jolting the magnetic field into a reversal. Thereupon the flow is reestablished against the new magnetic field and is built up to the point that it once again forces a pole shift draining off some of the accumulated energy. Then once again it builds up and strengthens the magnetic field until the wave once again collapse. This seems possible. On the other hand, I rather think the explanation will prove much more sophisticated.
Right now we simply do not know and any theoretical models will be difficult to prove.
Returning to the subject of crustal movement the possibility of extreme slipperiness does partially open the door to the possibility of the crust been much more mobile than has been reasonably expected. This needs to be investigated thoroughly on a theoretical basis. There may be subtle forms of dynamic instability that are built up by the application of tidal stress and released by floating the crust to a new orientation.
In any event, we have one mechanism in place by the high velocity high-density asteroid that is capable of generating the movements without obliterating all life. It also enables polar shifting as a result of the buildup of the polar ice caps as a second option which would be even more survivable.
We now come to the compelling part of this tale. That is the data itself. Quite bluntly, rotating the crust along the proscribed axis makes a large number of major difficulties with the currently held paradigm disappear. More importantly, the solution seems to be global, as it must. My natural concern is for this type of event to be anomalous and extraterrestrial in origins. A recurring earth based cyclic event would be a catastrophe for the future of our own civilization.
What makes the logic of this shift so compelling to myself is the elimination of a lot of theoretical impossibilities that the scientific community was forced to accept simply because they were there. We replaced Noah's ark as an explanation for an Ice age location or two that was simply impossible by climatic ideas of the past and I am rather certain, doubly impossible with today's climatic knowledge.
Resultant Crustal Changes
1 Hudson Bay, formerly the pole is shifted south by thirty degrees, taking the bulk of the massive north American Polar Ice sheet into temperate climes. This is extraordinarily important because it ultimately releases this ice into the ocean lifting sea levels over 150 feet. The Laurentian sheet finished melting out about 9,000 years ago, 3,000 years after the Scandinavian Sheet and the European Mountain glaciers which also contributed 150 feet in sea level gain.
2 Greenland migrates from one side of the polar region to its current locale staying within the Arctic Circle and permitting the survival to date of its ice cap. Precipitation levels change. This conforms to the anomalous precipitation levels currently experienced in both Greenland and Antarctica. Less precipitation is now associated with the thickest ice sheets and vice versa for both regions.
3 The Caribbean shifts from the Temperate Zone to the tropics commencing the full heat pump of the Gulf Stream. This leads directly to the warming of Europe and the swift removal of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet and the first major lift of the sea level. Between the two ice sheets enough fresh water was supplied for the sea level to rise 300 feet. Prior to the application of this heat pump the two sheets likely covered the entirety of the Arctic Sea and partially inland at all the margins. The only release was ice calving in the North Atlantic at the edge of the Arctic shelf and through the Davis Strait. There is no reason to assume that much of it was even floating since huge thicknesses existed. The Northern Hemisphere was much like Antarctica today with massive seaborne ice sheets struggling to reach open water.
4 Eastern Siberia migrates from cold Temperate Zone conditions to the sub Arctic. Conditions do not markedly change as we move from a world of extensive glaciation as existed in Europe to one further north and just as unpleasant. The major change comes over time as the grounded Arctic Ocean ice sheet dissipates and fresh water accumulations from the northern Siberian plains escape into the sea. Little is thoroughly understood, but it is likely that much Siberian Drainage had no escape route except to ultimately build ice on the Arctic Sheet. This may also hold for the Mackenzie River in Northern Canada.
5 Africa merely rotates around the center of rotation in the Congo. With the exception of a wave of earthquakes and tsunamis, life goes on virtually unscathed with minor climate changes. Africa retained massive genetic diversity, while the rest of the global population was almost wiped out, probably reduced to remnant hunter-gatherers in the hills with the necessary survival skills. Genetic diversity collapsed. It is also argued that since Africa is the homeland of all primate development, this diversity is it’s expected due. This might be true except there is no wall and movement and forced intermarriage is the norm for these populations. Because of the huge time frames involved, I am more inclined to expect close similarity in terms of genetic complexity in the Old World. Certainly any successful base population could cover the geography of the Old World in an historical eye blink.
In fact many of the putative successor populations in the Old World outside of Africa appear to be strongly linked to the mountainous regions of Central Asia. These were never areas famous for naturally promoting high population densities. Their genetic influence can only be possible if the much denser natural populations of the lowlands had disappeared.
6 Europe is tilted slightly northward, but the advent of a hugely strengthened Gulf Stream is now the major factor in climate change. The Mediterranean begins to warm up as the northern glaciers swiftly disappear inducing the first major lift in sea levels. The Scandinavian ice sheet and the extensive mountain glaciations are eliminated as well as near sub arctic to Arctic conditions.
7 The Amazon shifts from been largely north of the equator to been largely south of the equator. It remains in the tropics and experiences little change save coastal devastation.
8 India and Southeast Asia including southern China and most of Indonesia shift from the south tropical zone to the north tropical zone. Climatic conditions remain largely the same although a major redistribution of rainfall probably takes place. Inundation from the sea is at its worst here, simply because of the area’s total vulnerability to the likely maximum stroke of the tsunamis. There is no shelter from any direction except into the Himalayas. This area was on the arc of rotation.
9 Australia was deep into the temperate to sub arctic. It moved north into the warm temperate to sub tropical. Glacial cover as existed was removed, particularly in Tasmania.
10 The bulk of Antarctica stayed within the Antarctic Circle preserving the main ice cap. The remainder (Lesser Antarctica) which was sub arctic to almost temperate moved into the Antarctic Circle and started rapidly accumulating additional ice. A warm ocean current similar to the Gulf Stream may have originally bathed this area, leaving a lot of room for climate variation and habitability. Otherwise, it would certainly have been highly glaciated and cold prior to the crustal shift.
Let us take this a little further. We have already intimated that polar ice caps are just that. Global rotation forces atmospheric circulation in such a way as to create a profoundly stable accumulation environment at the poles. Antarctica is an excellent example. What went wrong in the Arctic? Millions of years of ice accumulation disappeared in a geological second. A huge part of the answer, at least for Europe, was the emergence of the Gulf Stream, which delivered the heat necessary to not only eliminate the Scandinavian icesheet, but also prevented the Arctic Ocean and the islands west of Greenland from been covered with ice as they should be.
Even if we do not accept the premise of a global shift of the crust we still have to explain where the heat build-up in the Atlantic tropics went for the preceding millions of years. This leaves only the South Atlantic and the Antarctic Archipelago, which is rotationally in the right direction. Pre shift we would still have a weak Gulf Stream that delivered plenty of moisture but far less heat, and a strong southern current that pumped heat and moisture into a temperate Lesser Antarctica.
11 The Pacific rotated like Africa on an axis near its center. Ferocious Tsunamis on its edges would have been restrained by the massive mountain ranges girding it with the exception of the area of Southeast Asia.
The most compelling argument for the validity of this event is the simple fact that it eliminates an even more troublesome theory. That the output of the sun declined so substantially as to expand subarctic and arctic conditions deep into the Temperate Zone. We do not have permanent ice on Baffin Island or Bathurst inlet or in Siberia today, yet the climate there is at the limit of our capability for sustaining a presence. And the Sun’s annually available energy there, is a fraction of what is received in Buffalo. For an ice sheet to develop and be sustained in the latitudes of Buffalo, the sun’s energy output would have to drop to much less than currently received today in the high arctic.
Other consequences of such low solar output would be the elimination of larger life forms in the sub Arctic at least. This includes Siberia. The tropics would see snow and killer frosts similar to current temperate conditions along with massive mountain glaciation, sharply reducing plant diversity. All the available evidence supports none of this. At the most an Antarctic style ice sheet chilled the Northern Temperate zone and generated a somewhat cooler sub tropical zone. This may have been more local than general.
The likely truth supported by our knowledge of stellar physics is that the sun’s energy output has only fluctuated mildly during the last three billion years. And this ultimately means that polar icecaps had to be at the pole, not the latitude of Buffalo. Polar icecaps form at the pole and spread out from there for a lot of good reasons to do with atmospheric convection and maximum heat loss. They do not form elsewhere.
The one major consequence of this type of event is that the North Polar Region is now largely oceanic. It may be that when the next cyclical cold spell arrives in about 18,000 years, this region will not be able to buildup the ice sheet normally associated with an ice age and the Northern Hemisphere will be largely spared. It will still be chilly.
Although this is off topic, a rather interesting geological consequence of the mile thick polar Laurentian ice sheet was that the land itself was depressed by perhaps up to a thousand meters. This depressant effect extended into the Western Canadian Sedimentary basin.
Now when organic material sinks below two thousand meters, heat, water and pressure combine to convert this material into oil. When this oil is formed it then migrates upward to the surface unless trapped by sealed strata. In practice most of this oil escapes back into the surface environment leaving a scant remnant behind, which is the source of all our oil industry. During the million-year life of the polar ice sheet the eastern edge of the sedimentary basin was pushed down, sending a huge thickness of organic bearing strata into the oil production zone. As a result the produced oil came to the surface and was initially preserved by the extreme conditions associated with the high latitudes. These today form the Canadian Tar Sands, which today represents a possible twenty percent of the global oil reserve.
On an optimistic note, related subsurface heavy oil deposits in combination with the Tar Sands could approach one trillion barrels of producible reserves. This is as much as has been used globally over the past one hundred years. And the necessary production technique breakthroughs are happening now.
We have no way of precisely knowing the level of disturbance generated by the projected impact event worldwide. We project massive flooding in a belt downwind from the impact area from the precipitation of the steam generated. If Mesopotamia was hit then it is a certainty that North Africa and Southern Europe also received torrential rain. The trickier question is to determine the extent of tsunami activity. Tsunamis scour the coast as far inland as they go. They can be expected to rush up river valleys tearing up sediments and on reversing to take the bulk of these sediments with them, releasing most back offshore. Scouring does not leave a convenient sedimentary sequence. More likely it will leave non-conformities in the sedimentary record. Sunken deltaic deposits should be scoured worldwide in order to determine if this event occurred in fact. A massive non-conforming sunken flood layer of extreme thickness would be an excellent indicator.
The other problem we have is that the evidence for all tsunamis under 300 (estimate – sea level maxima at approx. -300 ft) feet in height is submerged. That still leaves two excellent places to look in any event. The northern shore of South America should have received a maximum tsunami inundation, as should the islands of the Indonesian Archipelago wherever insufficient coastal plain existed to absorb the inundation.
Massive debris fields should be discoverable somewhere. These are thick accumulations of knocked down trees that are slowly been converted to coal. There are plenty of isolated debris fields in the geological record representing a variety of local catastrophes over millions of years. We are looking for a global mapping of cases that can be carbon dated up to twelve thousand years ago.
The best piece of evidence to locate would be the hole left behind at the impact site. It might have a strong and deep circular magnetic signature. The second best evidence would be datable seashells and bones buried at high elevations with a broad confirming distribution pattern. Otherwise, the vast majority of supporting evidence will be underwater.
In fairness, there is a great deal of suggestive data out there. It has not been correlated or even identified as anomalous. Just as plate tectonics required widespread sampling and a joining of the dots, so does any other anomalous data. The difficultly has always been in motivating the observer to do his job when there is no acceptable working theory. How well have the erratics scattered about Europe been studied and mapped? The phenomena itself could hardly be better defined.
The existence of oceanic or even fluvial debris at high elevations in various locales is absolutely an indicator of past geologic disturbance, localized or otherwise. The evidence is ample and global in extent. Mapping such is a practical proposition. It is the lack of a non controversial model that has sapped the will of the professional observers. Recall that it was not until the eruption of Mount St. Helens that it became possible to fully reconstruct what had occurred at Vesuvius in 79 AD.
We have reasonably shown that it is physically possible to account for the Pleistocene nonconformity in terms of ordinary dynamics over a wide range of likely initial impact conditions. We have also shown that it would be convenient if the crust had moved as described. And the mechanism used permits the survival of life even in some of the most affected areas. The bulk of the population in the highlands certainly had the best chance. However, the only surviving remnants of any projected antediluvian antique civilization(s) on the coastal plains would be those living in outposts in the highlands and those at sea.
There is some cultural evidence that there was at least some partial survival of the antediluvian knowledge base. This has shown up in the suggestive global placement of pyramids and sacred sites (the pyramids were built much later) apparently dating from shortly after the collapse. Other physical evidence is probably there, but has likely been misdated, misinterpreted and more critically, ignored.
There is also some doubtful cultural evidence that technical capability may have been far more advanced than seems reasonable within the context of the available mathematica. Empirical methods could have made up for some of the difference.
What did not emerge in this putative antediluvian civilization, or during the Bronze age for that matter, was a consumer driven society, marketing innovations globally. The old lock by a few on all scholarship certainly still existed. In any event, any such survivals of the old knowledge were available in only a few locales, perhaps inspiring a recreation of some of the knowledge base. And as civilizations rose and fell these remainders were subsumed or washed away by growing alien populations.
Importantly, with or without a crustal shift, 3000 years of rising sea levels shifted and disrupted any putative antique civilizations and sent the populations out into new lands with all the conflict that entails. The out of Eden myth has a lot going for it. This out migration notably failed to impact Australia which supports the argument for a far lower technological level than the more optimistic commentators have suggested.
I think that the balance of probabilities support the existence of a large antique civilization representing many thousands of years of human history, not too unlike the Mayan, but much more stable, that had a healthy seaborne trade and a solid labor-intensive tropical agricultural toolkit. The sea overwhelmed this civilization, but it still may have had the time (even centuries) that was needed to evacuate thousands of emigrants to new locales at substantial distances from this homeland. This is why we even have a cultural memory of the event. It could also be that this movement only took place after the second rise of the sea about nine thousand years ago.
We have a likely history of movement, the bulk of which is submerged by the second rise in sea levels. One clear argument for the complete obliteration of the original population is the slow reemergence of any form of civilization in the aftermath. Had they had three thousand years to adjust, it seems that retention of city life would have been possible in numerous locales, not least in South East Asia. After all we have ancient Bronze Age cities today in Java, to say nothing of the Indian and Chinese plains. It is possible that we simply have not found more ancient cities yet. We certainly need to dig much deeper and more broadly just to be sure
What is important to remember is that there is no special need to rely on anything prior to the Pleistocene event for a single innovation, necessary to the civilization that has since arose during the past 10,000 years. It is romantic to think that there was more influence. At the best the idea of plant husbandry came through and was recreated locally with some real prior skill. The singular lack of ten thousand-year-old inscriptions in graves anywhere in the world bodes poorly for any survival of a previous cadre of scholar priests.
The end of the Ice Age forever
For the last two weeks, I have posted my chapter on the Pleistocene Nonconformity in order to fully present and properly develop my principal thesis that the million year ice age ended permanently 12,500 years ago, because the earth's crust slipped thirty degrees.
Our climate is still adjusting, but we can make some general conjectures.
1 The Antarctic sea ice perimeter, stabilized around the time the Bronze Age ended causing a slight drop in ocean temperatures.
2 The invigorated Gulf Stream, a direct result of the nonconformity will continue to dump heat into the Arctic. Will it be enough to eliminate the multiyear sea ice pack?
We can also state a couple of iron clad facts:
1 Solar output variation is subject to extremely minor variation, simply because the inputs are almost invariable, certainly by human time scales. There is no more hydrogen been added. And yes, we have just come off a variation high and it has gone back to rest. These are almost predictable.
2 Polar ice caps are polar ice caps. No other type can exist at sea level and their natural perimeter is within 15 degrees of the pole. All the apparent counter evidence we have immediately disappears with the Pleistocene Nonconformity.
You can now perhaps understand my global perspective on the issue of climate change a little better in my future posts.
This is the last part of chapter 7 and it is an add on to the principal thesis of the chapter. This was just the only half good place to put it. Enjoy!
The Velikowsky Paradigm
This chapter would not be complete without a discussion of the work of Immanual Velikovsky (1905 – 1979). I will admit that I was uninspired by his work when I first came across it. His failure to embed his findings in the language of physics was off putting and led me to dismiss his ideas on the basis of the physics as described. It seemed all misguided. It is also rather likely that he did not have a translator up to the task. I have since come to a different appreciation upon reading James Hogan’s book ‘Kicking the Sacred Cow’.
The model effectively espoused by Velikovsky suggests that the creation of a solar system occurs in a different manner than what has been accepted to date. The primary engine is the establishment of an accretion body that orbits the star. In our case, this is Jupiter and we may as well name it the Jupiter engine. As it accretes material, the angular momentum increases until rising rotational speed takes it past the stability point were equatorial gravity approaches zero. Thereupon, a part of the mass becomes a bulge and starts to separate. This process may take a great deal of time, particularly if it remains necessary to acquire more mass before separation is successful. It may also be very quick.
The result is the production of a number of Planets and debris effectively recycling the remnants of the accretion disc left over from the formation of the star. They obviously end up in the same orbital plane described by the Jupiter engine. While these objects first travel extremely elliptic orbits, they soon settle down into nearly circular orbits due to tidal action on these initially very plastic bodies. Velikovsky also argued strongly for electro magnetic damping. This possibility appears supported by the reality of appropriate field strengths since demonstrated by a large body of confirming observations.
This is all pretty simple and satisfying. It is even easy to see now a great deal of lighter material will end up in the outer reaches of the solar system and that a large number of fairly decent sized objects will get chucked out there also (particularly now that we are finding them).
It has taken us a mere four paragraphs to sketch the concept and we can assure you that the mathematics also works. If Velikovsky had quit here, then he would have had the pleasure of seeing a steady stream of new data and theoretical work showing no conflict with this model. Acceptance and recognition would perhaps have followed.
Unfortunately or fortunately, depending on one’s point of view, Velikovsky was trained as a medical doctor, not as a physicist. He may not have had a mathematical bone in his body and could not use the language. He was however, a scholar of ancient writings derived from the Jewish and Egyptian traditions. He was able to create a corrected Egyptian chronology that eliminated 600 years of erroneous interpolation and brought the two traditions into alignment. This new chronology is well on the way to been fully accepted since it has been successful in consistently matching historical events that began to be continuously chronicled in the early Bronze Age. This was an important contribution that once and for all places Old Testament Chronology in pride of place as to accuracy. This is unsurprising since it was created and maintained as a continuing historical document in the first place.
This was the point of departure for his work on planet creation. He found that his research on the ancient texts was telling him that a planet forming event took place with Jupiter several thousands of years ago. The planet in question is now known as Venus. The barebones description that he winnowed from the ancient records conforms nicely with our expectations regarding such an event using his planet formation theory.
Unfortunately, he did not stop there. This hypothetical object was then dragooned into the role of Deus ex Machima for all the apparent unusual events surrounding the events of the Exodus. Not only was this unnecessary, once the chronology was straightened out, but it created a set of hard to prove and unlikely conjectures in addition to the controversial core conjecture.
In fairness, this obsessive reliance on the ancient chronicles has awoken interest among scholars as to the nature of these past events. The reader need only recognize that any contemporaneous interpretation and even gathering of data must be extremely distorted by the attempt to find an appropriate language. The modern interpreter must try to limit himself to the simplest likely causative agent to explain such an ancient tale. Even then it is merely speculation. As an aside, a simple comet reacting with the Earth could easily have generated the visible portion of the display, while the physical components observed could easily be simple misinterpretations by excited observers.
Let us recreate then, the birth of Venus from the Jupiter engine. Sometime in the distant past, a large planet sized object(s) likely crashed into Jupiter and was absorbed. This took Jupiter’s rotation back up over the instability threshold, perhaps for the first time since the early beginnings of our solar system. It is noteworthy that the other inner planets appear to be nearly as old as the solar system, at least as far as we can tell.
A proto-planet then eventually calved off from Jupiter, perhaps after a long period of rotation in which the excess mass came to form a lobe and eventually a moon, which after many cycles perhaps lasting millions of years, finally parted company. This could have been finally triggered by some additional close disturbance from another planet like object. However it came about and in whatever direction Proto-Venus exited Jupiter; it was soon headed for the sun with a huge tail of debris in tow. The initial orbit was thus established with aphelion reaching close to the orbit of Jupiter and perihelion extremely close to the Sun. A great deal of the debris most certainly ended up in the asteroid belt and may well have been seeded there by the Proto-Venus while it still orbited Jupiter. It is even possible that this Proto-Venus has been around since the early beginnings of the Solar System and was then reheated by recent close passes to the Sun.
The Red Spot argues otherwise, though. This is a recent event that possibly marks the impact of a large object that simultaneously caused Proto-Venus to decouple its orbit from Jupiter. I am more inclined to see the red spot as the scar left by the separation event itself.
This orbit began to slowly circularize. Now although the path of this body cuts through Earth orbit twice during each orbit, while aphelion is distant from Earth orbit the dwell time is small. We are still looking at a great deal of disturbance in the orbit though with only modest changes taking place overall. A little like stretching elastic. This definitely would be annoying and fearsome but still largely survivable. It could also have made a modest change in the length of the year as was suggested.
At some point in this circularization process, aphelion passed through Earth orbit. It is hard to imagine Earth not getting thoroughly bombarded possibly several times over a number of years while this took place. After all, the Venus debris tail is traveling at the slowest part of its orbit and has a high dwell time.
With this aphelion passage through Earth orbit over, things began to quiet down. The circularization process continued to accelerate as the final Venusian orbit was established and was probably finished within a thousand years. The tail was also quickly consumed by Venus once a circular orbit was established. Venus gained the characteristic display of impact craters. The current configuration of the Solar system was now stabilized.
The remaining open question is whether this could have happened inside the time frames required for the putative ancient observations. Is one to two thousand years enough to fully circularize the Venus orbit? If not, then we still have a valid scenario without the benefit of eyewitness reports since it would then have happened perhaps millions of years ago.
This is all a rather amazing tale. First off, it could have happened. However, it is difficult to prove that it happened during the Bronze Age. Our cultural records will always be disputed, even though the information is plausibly verified by widely separated ancient observers. In fact a great deal of additional information is provided, all of which somewhat conforms to the tale and its likely consequences. At least mankind appears to have survived with its cultural levels sufficiently intact to write about it.
If it did happen, then we were very lucky. A really close encounter of the planet itself would have broken us up and jack hammered life back to the near cellular level if life survived at all.
Of particular note, Venus is a new planet. It is making its own heat far in excess of what it is acquiring from the sun. The atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide with some sulphur compounds and nitrogen, similar to the model for primeval Earth. What it needs now is to be bombarded with as much ice as possible and some sulphur loving bugs to drop the temperature and to provide an oxygen supply. The planet is quite capable of becoming as habitable as Earth with a minimal expenditure of energy and a fair chunk of time. At least the surface is not molten and has not been for sometime. An ocean of water would hugely accelerate the cooling.
One other aspect of Venus not remarked on is the fact that the impact fields are intact and neither eroded out of existence nor buried by dust in the face of a dense and violent atmosphere. This is rationally impossible unless the impacts are recent. Once one is looking for more supporting evidence, the literature shows it is forthcoming.
The Velikovsky paradigm for Solar System formation, however arrived at originally, is credible and satisfying in that it mops up the loose ends weakening the slow accumulation model accepted to date. The possibility that Venus was generated recently with human observers watching, billions of years after the initial creation of the Solar System, seems incredibly improbable. On the other hand, it is not impossible. The door thus opens for a program of theoretical research, space borne sampling and re-interpretation.
It is telling that as new information has been acquired from the efforts of the space program over the past forty years, we have seen apparent confirmation and elucidation rather than direct contradiction. The data continues to conform to the Velikowsky Paradigm. I remind the reader that the science itself is simple and satisfies the current observational regime. The remaining areas of contention are the actual timing of the ejection of Venus from the Jupiter engine and the time required for a planet sized object to circularize its orbit around the Sun. My personal instinct is to budget a huge amount of time, but I also know that I will be wrong since it is impossible to intuitively account for the orbit altering ability of Jupiter as many scientists have learned to their sorrow for every other solar orbit ever mapped.
If ancient records had said nothing on this matter, then decades of observation and research would be necessary to put this puzzle back together if it could be done at all. Our only theoretical starting points would be the Red Spot on Jupiter and the unusual high temperature of Venus itself. We already have alternate explanations. Instead we are given a testable hypothesis that stimulates further study.