Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Sunday, August 3, 2014

Resource: Younger Dryas Impact

From the PNAS in 2012. This has the same Carbon-14 dating problem that everything else from that horizon has and there is a strong possibility that such an impact drastically altered the atmospheric balance of Carbon isotopes :

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America      
PNAS July 10, 2012 vol. 109 no. 28

Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago

  1. James P. Kennettq
  1. Edited by* Steven M. Stanley, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, and approved April 30, 2012 (received for review March 19, 2012)


It has been proposed that fragments of an asteroid or comet impacted Earth, deposited silica-and iron-rich microspherules and other proxies across several continents, and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling episode 12,900 years ago. Although many independent groups have confirmed the impact evidence, the hypothesis remains controversial because some groups have failed to do so. We examined sediment sequences from 18 dated Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) sites across three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia), spanning 12,000 km around nearly one-third of the planet. All sites display abundant microspherules in the YDB with none or few above and below. In addition, three sites (Abu Hureyra, Syria; Melrose, Pennsylvania; and Blackville, South Carolina) display vesicular, high-temperature, siliceous scoria-like objects, or SLOs, that match the spherules geochemically. We compared YDB objects with melt products from a known cosmic impact (Meteor Crater, Arizona) and from the 1945 Trinity nuclear airburst in Socorro, New Mexico, and found that all of these high-energy events produced material that is geochemically and morphologically comparable, including: (i) high-temperature, rapidly quenched microspherules and SLOs; (ii) corundum, mullite, and suessite (Fe3Si), a rare meteoritic mineral that forms under high temperatures; (iii) melted SiO2 glass, or lechatelierite, with flow textures (or schlieren) that form at > 2,200 °C; and (iv) particles with features indicative of high-energy interparticle collisions. These results are inconsistent with anthropogenic, volcanic, authigenic, and cosmic materials, yet consistent with cosmic ejecta, supporting the hypothesis of extraterrestrial airbursts/impacts 12,900 years ago. The wide geographic distribution of SLOs is consistent with multiple impactors.

More associated references:

Additional information on Metallurgy and "Prospectores"

 [reprinted article]

A physico-anthropological study of skeletal material from Neolithic age to Hellenistic times in Central Greece and surrounding region

I have located the text of George Panagiaris important 1993 doctoral thesis on Greek skeletal material. This may be one of the most comprehensive efforts to study the Ancient Greek population from a physical anthropological perspective (413 male and 354 female crania, using 65 biometric characters as well odontological traits).

Panagiaris' conclusions in English can be found in p.10 of the document. He confirms that the greater period of discontinuity in the material is observed during the Helladic period (=Bronze Age in Greek archaeology), where broad-headed incoming groups appear, side by side with the older Mediterranean population. He attributes this to the arrival of such people from the highlands Pindos range, although he sees the possibility of Anatolian influences as well, but has no comparative data. He cites the tendency for broader skulls in higher latitudes, although this general trend in H. sapiens probably does not explain the local trend within Caucasoids where the key difference is between mountaineers (where the Alpine, Dinaric, Armenoid, and Pamir-Ferghana types are well-represented) and lowland folk. Perhaps, if various ancient DNA projects manage to study some Greek material we may be able to ascertain the events that were taking place in Greece at that time.

Of course, the issue cannot be seen in isolation, because at this time we see an increase in brachycephalic types in Crete and Anatolia, the appearance of the intrusive brachycephalic Bell Beaker folk in Western Europe, and perhaps even the presence of the interfluvial type (Pamir-Ferghana type) in the eastern Saka. 

Personally, I see something importantin these developments: why would broad-headed mountaineers make their appearance in the lowlands at this time in history? I am strongly leaning towards the idea that this has to do with metallurgical innovation during this time. According to Roberts et al. (2009), from which the figure on the left [above]is taken:

Metallurgy in Eurasia originated in Southwest Asia due to the widespread adoption of, and experimentation in, pyrotechnology and the desire for new materials to serve as aesthetic visual displays of identity, whether of a social, cultural or ideological nature. This can be demonstrated through the early use of metal for jewellery and the use of ore-based pigments along with the continued use of stone, bone, and other materials for most tools. The subsequent appearance of metals throughout Eurasia is due to the acquisition of metal objects by individuals and communities re-inventing traditions of adornment, even in regions hundreds of kilometres from the nearest sources of native metals or ores. The movement of communities possessing metallurgical expertise to new ore sources and into supportive societies led to the gradual transmission of metallurgy across the Eurasian landmass. By the second millennium BC, metallurgy had spread across Eurasia, becoming firmly rooted in virtually all inhabitable areas (Sherratt 2006). The ability to smelt different ores, create different metals or increase metal production did not occur in a linear evolutionary fashion throughout Eurasia, but rather appeared sporadically over a vast area – a result of regional innovations and societal desires and demands. 

There is no evidence to suggest that metallurgy was independently invented in any part of Eurasia beyond Southwest Asia. The process of metallurgical transmission and innovation created a mosaic of (frequently diverse) metallurgical traditions distinguished by form, composition and production techniques. It is within this context that innovations such as the earliest working of gold in the Balkans or the sudden emergence of distinctive tin-bronze working in Southeast Asia should be seen. 
[This ignores the independent evidence for copper and gold metallurgy in Western Europe, especially the Southern Iberian Peninsula, where some of the evidence has been stated to be equally as old. I do also note that in the second map the Southern Iberian area has been darkened (is older) and is indicated to be separate from the larger areas of activity in the East-DD]

The richest ore deposits were found in mountain areas as Thornton (2009) makes clear:

Models for the development of metallurgy in Southwest Asia have for a long time been focussed on research carried out in the lowland regions of the Levant and Mesopotamia. These models do not take into account the different developmental trajectories witnessed in the resource-rich highlands of Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iran. In this paper, the beginnings of the use and production of metals in Iran will be juxtaposed with a cursory overview of the lowland model (the ‘Levantine Paradigm’) in order to highlight these differences. By synthesizing data from a number of current research projects exploring the early metallurgy of the Iranian Plateau, this paper demonstrates how at least one of the highland regions of Southwest Asia was at the very forefront of technological innovation from the seventh through the second millennium BC.  
I had planned to write a separate post on the interplay between metallurgy and the rise in social complexity that led to the spread of (at least some branches of-) Indo-European and Semitic during time, but this is probably as good a place as any to summarize the argument:

The practice of metallurgy launched the first globalization: in order to produce high quality metal objects, one needed a variety of specialized workers: prospectors, miners, metalworkers. The necessary ores do not occur everywhere on the map, and production requires a complex logistic operation to manage resources and talent. One needed, in addition, to establish a network of traders and warriors to carry out and supervise the trade, since demand for metal objects was wide and not limited to the vicinity of their production.

Production and trade networks facilitated the flow of ideas, and necessitated the flow of peoples, both because expertise was non-local, and also because the producers wanted to supervise their profitable business. There is an advantage to being an early adopter of new technology; many of the shifts in power in world history depended on a technology differential (European guns in the New World, mounted archers on the Eurasian steppe, triremes in the Mediterranean, Macedonian long-spears vs. Persian light infantry being some examples).

The technology differential eventually dissipates as everyone gets access to the new inventions. This process may take several centuries, but in the meantime those monopolizing them enjoy a triple advantage:

  1. There is demand for their product
  2. They have the better weapons
  3. They are part of broader communities that can muster resources against anyone who crosses them
It is no accident that the Bronze Age started with technological innovation and ended up in a series of military conflicts. What began as a transformation of Neolithic communities by monopolizing guilds of the bearers of the new technologies ended up with everyone having access to them, and of course they went to war.

Getting back to the topic of Panagiaris' dissertation, I might try my hand at translating some interesting portions. These will be posted as updates in the space below.

Olmec Tikis

Above is an Olmec "Potbellied" figure and looking very similar to statues associated with the Megalithic period of Southeast Asia and then again more recent "tiki" statues of Polynesia: similar statues also appear in the Archaeological record of South America.

I had just been noticing stylistic similarities between the Olmecs and older Polynesians in the jade work when I started seeing that some of the themes and subject matter were also the same. For one thing, some of the little jade human figures were evidently meant to represent fetuses (as are also the Hei Tikis of New Zealand) and some of the jade spirals were meant to be dragons (Taniwhas).

Saturday, August 2, 2014

Atlantean Warfare in Egypt at the End of the Ice Age

This is a matter we have discussed before on the blog. The date is Younger Dryas and it is subject to a known vacillation in the Carbon-14 proportion. The direct dating of this event is about 10000-11000 BP (and not BC) without using the so-called correction factor, which ignores the known vacillation in C 14 at the time. -DD

The first race war? Scientists investigating after 13,000-year-old bodies are discovered on the edge of the Sahara

  • Skeletons from first human massacre will be displayed at British Museum
  • Remains from 11,000BC found in Jebel Sahaba cemetery in Sahara desert
  • Scientists say mass murder caused by 'environmental disaster' of Ice Age
  • At least 60 individuals found in excavation by American archaeologist
[At the end of the Ice Age and during the Mesolithic we have two sites with clear evidence of invasion and massacre, one in Europe at Ofnet, Bavaria, and this one in the valley of the Nile. Both are associated with the same ethnic type of invaders that are elsewhere identified as Atlanteans. both of them are very telling.-DD]


150 Mummies of Ancient Unknown Civilisation Discovered in Atacama Desert
These burials are contemporary with the early Mayan period and the Dark Ages of Europe before the Viking Age. Some of the material is probably even older than that. -DD


Peru: 150 Mummies of Ancient Unknown Civilisation Discovered in Atacama Desert

A team of archaeologists from universities in Poland, Peru and Colombia have discovered 150 mummies in the Atacama Desert belonging to an unknown culture that predate the Tiwanaku and Inca civilization by almost 500 years.
The bodies were mummified naturally by being buried directly in the sand with no stone structures, wrapped in cotton veils, reed mats or fishing nets, and radiocarbon dating shows that the oldest mummies came from 4th century AD, while the youngest mummies came from 7th century AD.
Peruvian mummies 1
Mummies of an unknown culture found buried in the Tambo River delta.
One mummy has a bow and all are wrapped in shrouds and mats.Project Tambo, University of Wrocław.
Peruvian mummies 7
Close-up of a mummy buried with some small objectsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
The Tiwanaku civilisation is believed to have existed between 500AD and 1,000 AD, covering much of what is Peru and Chile today.
Under Project Tambo, the team have been excavating in the Tambo River delta in the northern region of the Atacama Desert since 2008 and the first mummies were found in 2012, but it took until March 2014 for the team to make major discoveries.
Peruvian mummies 7
A shroud covering a mummy in the Tambo River deltaProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Peruvian mummies 3
A mummy buried with assorted grave goods, including a beautifully painted potProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Together with the bodies in individual graves, the archaeologists found numerous grave goods, such as weapons like bows and quivers with arrows tipped with obsidian heads, and maces with stone or copper finials.
There were also richly decorated weaving tools, jewellery made from tumbaga (a gold and copper alloy) and copper, reed withes attached to the ears of the dead and beautiful intact pottery.
Peruvian mummies 5
A collection of pottery and other grave goodsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
According to Professor Józef Szykulski, leader of the research project from University of Wrocław, the mummies are of virtually unknown people, and the bows are a particularly interesting find that possibly symbolised power, which could mean that people buried in the Tambo River delta were nobility or the society’s elite.
Peruvian mummies 2
A close-up of the mummy buried with a bow, which is possibly a symbol of powerProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
“Bows are extremely rare among the finds from the area of Peru. We have seen them however, in areas further south like Chile and further east in Amazonia. The issue, however, requires a deeper study,” Szykulski tells IBTimes UK.
In one grave, the archaeologists even found the remains of a llama, which would mean that the animal had been brought to the region much earlier than previously thought.
“Llama burials are quite common in the pre-Columbian cultures,” says Szykulski.
“We learned a lot about what equipment had been used, such as baskets and fishing nets, what these people were doing, which was agriculture and fishing, how they dressed, what ornaments they wore and even how they combed their hair.”
Peruvian mummies 4
Some of the jewellery recovered from the burialsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
The Polish archaeologists will be returning to Peru in October for further excavations, both in the cemetery where they found the unknown mummies, and in an adjacent cemetery where burials belonging to individuals from the Tiwanaku civilisation were found.
The Tiwanaku people were not believed to have ventured as far as the Tambo River delta, and the discovery of these tombs will help to increase understanding of pre-Columbian civilisations in Peru.
Peruvian mummies 6
A mummy in a curled up position, which seems to have an elongated skullProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Project Tambo is a joint effort between University of Wrocław, University of Szczecin, University of Poznań, University of Silesia, the Archaeological Museum in Głogów, Universidad Católica de Santa Maria in Arequipa, Universidad Nacional in Ica, the Universidad Central in Bogota (Colombia), Jagiellonian University and the University of Łódź

Geometric Signs from Genevieve Von Petzinger

Genevieve Von Petzinger has been doing some very exciting work which goes a long way toward confirming my own suspicions derived from independant study (The equivalent material has been lying around my library in unpublished manuscript form for the last 20 years or so). Basically, her thesis is that all rock art worldwide contains certain  regularly recurring symbols which are probable forerunners to later written records, and that they seem to have come Out of Africa along with the last great migration at the beginning of the Cro-Magnon period in Europe.

My additional comments include: The same symbols are also found in Australia and the Americas, from the oldest rock art and carried forward from that point. Some of the signs definitely occurred in the Neolithic as "Pottery signs", some were definitely being used in Egypt from before the development of Hieroglyphics, and some of them were incorporated into later regular alphabets that continue to be used. Several of these symbols are the same as appear on the Azilian pebbles. This does also connect up with Alexander Marshak's theories about astronomical notations since some of the symbols are associated with such notation (Some of them even greatly resemble later Roman Numerals and they include regular and repeated use of the signs I,V and X)
Many of these symbols are associated with Megalithic culture (eg, cupmarks) and it has been suggested that several signs are tracing shapes which appear to the eyes automatically during drug-induced hallucinations and trance states. In early Europe this has been linked to the use of the Amanita muscaria mushroom: in other areas other drugs must have been substituted.
As far as patterns of diffusion go, the distribution includes both TransAtlantic and TransPacific continuities and both were definitely accomplished facts before the end of the Ice Ages in the Younger Dryas event.

For further information please follow these links: