Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Re-Examining the Out of Africa Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy

Essentially this says that the European male lineages include a pre-modern "Out Of Africa" component from the Neanderthal age. That would be in the Neanderthal age, and the time distance between the two populations is pretty exactly the span of the Neanderthals in Europe. I don't think any of the reviewers have remarked on that aspect of this yet. The Out of Africa branch as identified here is definitely the "Naked", tropical-African variety of Homo sapiens as we commonly recognise it: the non-African branch here identified would be the "Hairy" component

Re-Examining the "Out of Africa" Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy

Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and timespans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named β-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and β-haplogroup, coined the α-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups α- and β-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from β-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups. 
More Info: Author(s) Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii

Copyright © 2012 SciRes.84


This study concerns the origin of anatomically modern hu-mans, which presumably belong to Y chromosomal haplogroupsA through T according to the classification developed in humangenetics and DNA phylogeny of man. This paper 1) sets forth atimeframe for the origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids); 2) identi-fies their position among all haplogroups (tribes) known todayon the haplogroup tree; and 3) offers evidence to re-examinethe validity of the "Out of Africa" concept.

The principal difference of our approach from those knownin human genetics is that our methodology is based on the iden-tification of branches of haplotypes in each haplogroup and its subclade (each branch is descended from its only common ancestor), and, in each case, is calculated a timespan from a com-mon ancestor of the branch by verifying that the branch is in-deed derived from one common ancestor and by using the crite-ria described in (Klyosov, 2009a; Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011;Rozhanskii, 2011). As a result, we obtained a chronology of allavailable branches in each haplogroup and in their total en-tirety—from A to T (in the current classification). In other words, for each haplotype we successfully identified its place inthe whole multi-haplogroup system of mankind. It is reasonableto assume that haplotypes of the whole of mankind form a con-tinuous system, albeit locally interrupted by "population bot-tlenecks" which essentially disrupt the initially continuous fab-ric of haplotypes. This fabric can be reconstructed based on itsfragments and in the same manner as the kinetics of chemicalreactions can be reconstructed based on relatively few experi-mental points. This analogy is rather close since mutations inhaplotypes obey the same laws of chemical kinetics, this wasdiscussed in the first paper of this series (Rozhanskii & Klyosov,2011).

Thanks largely in part to geneticists, the "Out of Africa"concept was popularized during the last two decades, yet it was never directly proven; however, for many specialists its appealwas undeniably convincing. The concept was based primarilyon the premise that Africa possesses the highest variability, or variance, of the human DNA and its segments. Set apart, it isnot a strong argument because a mix of different DNA lineagesalso results in a high variability and, as we show below, it islargely what occurs in Africa. Moreover, a genomic gap exists between some Africans and non-Africans, which has also beeninterpreted as an argument that the latter descended from Afri-cans. A more plausible interpretation might have been that bothcurrent Africans and non-Africans descended separately from amore ancient common ancestor, thus forming a proverbial fork.A region where this downstream common ancestor arose wouldnot necessarily be in Africa. In fact, it was never proven that helived in Africa.Research into this question has served as the basis for and thesubject of our work. We have found that a great diversity of Y chromosomal haplotypes in Africa is a result of the mixing of several very distant lineages, some of them not necessarilyAfrican, and that Europeiods (at least) do not contain "African"SNPs (those of haplogroups A or B). These important findings put a proverbial dent in the "Out of Africa" theory.

Results and Discussion

The 22 marker haplotypes, which are the "slowest" in termsof their mutation rate constant, described in (Klyosov, 2011a,2011b; Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011) were mainly used in this study. They are best suited for chronological calculations downto 100,000 years and deeper in time. This is because one muta-tion in these haplotypes occurs on average once in 4250 years,while in 67 marker haplotypes, for example, one mutation oc-curs—on average—once in 208 years (ibid). However, the 22marker haplotypes include a part of the last panel of the 67marker haplotypes and hence, 67 marker haplotypes wereneeded for the study.

Haplogroup A

Extended haplotypes of haplogroup A collected in variousdatabases (YSearch, FTDNA Projects), split into at least four different and distinctive DNA lineages, each with its base hap-lotype. This is essentially represented with a series of 32 marker haplotypes ( Figure 1) and 37 marker haplotypes ( Figure 2).In a simple, uncomplicated case, the base haplotype is equi-valent to the ancestral haplotype in the lineage. This is obvious in recent lineages, in which most haplotypes still represent the non-mutated ancestral haplotype. For more ancient lineages the


A tree of 141 of 32 marker haplotypes of haplogroup A. Haplotypes were  taken  from  SMGF and  FTDNA’s “Y-Haplogroup A Project”(
A series of previously unreported haplotypes from Cameroon was assigned to A1b subclade according to STR values, being nearly identical  to those  found  in  Bahamas ( Simms et al., 2011).
Figure 1

A tree of 31 of 37 marker haplotypes of haplogroup A with somesubclades. Haplotypes were taken from YSearch FTDNA’s "African Project"(
Figure 2
base haplotype is obtained by the minimization of mutations in the haplotype dataset; therefore, the base haplotype represents the deduced ancestral haplotype. The four base haplotypes of haplogroup A in the 22 marker format are as follows:

12 11 11 - 9 11 - 10 - 10 9 12 12 7 10 8 null 13 11 16 1014 9 11 11

12 10 11 - 7 13 - 8 - 10 8 15 17 6 10 9 12 13 11 16 8 1311 11 12

13 11 12 - 10 11 - 16 - 10 9 14 14 8 8 8 9 12 11 12 8 1212 11 11

12 13 10 - 10 11 - 10 - 11 8 15 15 8 9 8 null 10 9 14 8 128 11 12

These base haplotypes have been assigned to subclades A3b2,A1a, A(P97+, SRY10831.1-), and A(M23-, M32-, P108-,SRY10831.1-), respectively. It was calculated that the common ancestors of the branches lived 5500, 5000, 600 years before present (ybp), and the last one is an individual haplotype. It is clear that these four haplotypes are tremendously distant from each other, and this is taking into account the extremely low mutation rates of the markers. The deduced base haplotype for
haplogroup A from the available data is as follows:12 11 11 - 9 11 - 10 - 10 8 14 15 7 10 8 12 13 11 16 8 139 11 12

Since alleles in the four haplotypes above vary significantly,the permutation method was applied (Klyosov, 2009a) for cal-culation of a timespan to their common ancestor. The averagesquared sum of all mutations in the four haplotypes aboveequals to 984, and the number of conditional generations to acommon ancestor is 984/22/2/16/.00027 = 5177. That is,132,000 years to a common ancestor of all the available haplo-types of haplogroup A. In the formula above, 22 is the number of markers in each haplotype; sixteen (16) is the square of thenumber of haplotypes in the dataset, 2 is introduced because thenumber of mutations was counted twice (all permutations),and .00027 is the mutation rate constant per marker in the 22marker haplotypes (Klyosov, 2011a, 2011b). A correction for

back mutations is not required in the permutation method(Klyosov, 2009a).Pairwise calculations of the dataset above give, as it should be, slightly lower values of timespans to a common ancestor.For example, base haplotypes of the A1a and A3b2 subclades (see Figure 2) differ by 25 mutations in all 22 markers, which places their common ancestor at 4167

8576 conditionalgenerations, that is 112,000 ybp. Two haplotypes with null-mutation differ by 27 mutations, which places their commonancestor at 4500

9922 conditional generations, that is127,000 years to a common ancestor (see Materials and Meth-ods for the principles of calculations). This gives an additionalsupport of the obtained "age" of haplogroup A as 132,000 ±20,000 years.

Haplogroup B

A similar approach was applied to haplogroup B, and thefollowing 22 marker base haplotype was obtained for a com-mon ancestor who lived 46,000 ybp (Klyosov, 2011b):11 12 11 - 11 11 - 10 - 11 8 16 16 8 10 8 12 10 11 15 8 1211 12 11It differs from the base 22 marker haplotype of haplogroup A by 18 mutations, which gives 18/.006 = 3000 generations. Witha correction factor (for back mutations) of 1.633, the resultconstitutes 123,000 years between common ancestors of hap-logroup A and B. Because they lived 132 and 46 thousandyears before present, respectively, their common ancestor livedapproximately 150,000 years before present (see Materials andMethods).The ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogy)annual review in 2010 and earlier stated "

The BR haplogroupsplit off from haplogroup A 55,000 years before present ( bp)

.It probably appeared in North East Africa". Since the ISOGG-2012 stated, "The A haplogroup is thought to have been defined about 60,000 years bp

" then haplogroups A and B should be separated by only several thousand years, or by 2 - 3 mutations in their slow 22 marker base haplotypes. It is not so, and between their base haplotypes there are as many as 18 mutations in the 22 markers, which translates to 123 thousand years (see above).This finding indicates that haplogroup B did not descend from haplogroup A. Rather, they both descended from a com-mon ancestor who lived ~150,000 ybp, and he was not necessarily living in Africa. Since he belonged to a haplogroup up-stream from haplogroups  A and B, his haplogroup can be named "alpha-haplogroup". It is a matter of taste and belief to call it "Adam" or not.

Haplogroups C through T
The same methodology was applied to 7415 of 67 marker haplotypes of all known haplogroups and their subclades, re-duced to the slow 22 marker haplotypes, taken from databasesYSearch and SMGF and a multitude of FTDNA Projects (see Appendix). The base haplotypes of principal haplogroups andsome of their subclades, including those of haplogroups A andB, are listed below, and chronology of their appearance is shown in Figure 3

Pairwise calculations of mutation distances between the base haplotype of haplogroup A and each of the base haplotypes of other haplogroups place a common ancestor of the α-haplogroupat 160,000 ± 12,000 years before present. For example, 18 mu-tations between A and B base haplotypes, as it was describedabove, result in 150,000 ybp for their common ancestor. Twenty-one (21) mutations with haplogroup DE base haplotype give167,000 ybp for their common ancestor. Twenty-three (23)mutations with haplogroup H base haplotype result in 171,000ybp for their common ancestor with haplogroup A. For hap-logroup I (21 mutations) it is 161,000 ybp. For haplogroup Q(22 mutations) it is 166,000 ybp. For haplogroup R (21 muta-tions) it is 160,000 ybp. The distance in 19 mutations betweenthe base haplotypes of haplogroup A and β -haplogroup places α-haplogroup at 165,000 ybp. Clearly, the base haplotype of haplogroup A and its subclades is very remote from all other haplogroups.Similar pairwise calculations with the base haplotype of haplogroup B as well with all other haplogroups (besides A) place a common ancestor of beta-haplogroup to 64,000 ± 6000years before present (see Figure 3). This haplogroup is close toor identical with the BT haplogroup according to the currentclassification. Figure 3 shows a topology of the current haplogroup tree. The α-haplogroup which is the ancestral one with respect to both African (left branch) and non-African haplogroups (right branch) arose around 160,000 ybp, and 132,000 ybp gave riseto haplogroup A. Another, quite different branch, had formed afork, then apparently went through a population bottleneck around 70 - 60 thousand ybp (perhaps the Toba event), andgave rise to β -haplogroup, ancestral to non-African haplogroups, 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. Apparently, haplogroup B was initially not of an African origin. It could have migrated to Africa and mixed there with a local population. A common ancestor of the present-day bearers of haplogroup B lived 46,000 ybp. A similar story had occurred with a group of bearers of haplogroup R1b1around 4000 ybp, who ventured to the center of African continent during their westward migration along the African Mediterranean shore, and became a Negroid population having an unusual (for Africa) haplogroup (Cruciani et al., 2010; Klyosov,2012).The Mongoloid and Austronesian haplogroup C split ~36,000 ybp and gradually populated regions of Central Asia, Australia and Oceania. Haplogroup DE split to D and E around 42,000 ybp, and currently populates vast territory from North Africa to the west to Korea and Japan to the east.The family of haplogroup from F through T is largely theEuropeoid (Caucasoid) family. Most of bearers of these hap-logroups remained Europeoids; however, some populations have acquired racial features of the prevailing races in a given region, recently or in the long past.Based on the calculations given in this study, we know thatthe far most bearers of haplogroup A live in Africa, and they lived there probably all or most of those 132,000 years since haplogroup A arose. It cannot be excluded, of course, that hap-logroup A might have been appeared elsewhere and then mi-grated to Africa. However, there is no reason to believe (andfewer reasons to insist) that the Europeoid family originated in Africa.

Lack of the African SNP (Haplogroup A) in Non-Africans
A critical datapoint has emerged that disproves the "Out of Africa" concept; specifically, recent data shows that non-African people have neither M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114,P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs), nor M60, M181, P90 (hap-logroup B SNPs) in their Y-chromosomes.In fact, according to the data obtained from the "Walk Through the Y" (chromosome) international project conducted by Family Tree DNA (Texas and Arizona) [see Appendix] notone non-African participant out of more than 400 individuals inthe Project tested positive to any of thirteen "African" sub-clades of haplogroup A, SNPs for which indicated above. If totake, for example, bearers of R1a haplogroup, they each have the ladder of SNPs from M42 and M139 (haplogroup BT, butnot haplogroup B, which, as it was described above, split andmigrated to Africa around 46,000 ybp or earlier), through M168and M294 (haplogroup CT), P143 (haplogroup CF), M89 andP158 (haplogroup F), L15 and L16 (haplogroup IJK), M9(haplogroup K), М 74, L138, P69, P230, P243, P244, P280,P284, P286 (haplogroup P), М 207, P224, P227, P229, P232,P280, P285 (haplogroup R), P231, P241, P242, Р 245, Р 294haplogroup R1), L145 and L146 (haplogroup R1), L120 and


A haplogroup tree of Y chromosome derived from base haplotypes of haplogroups and subclades and their TMRCAs, systemati-cally calculated as described in this study. 7415 haplotypes from 46 subclades of 17 major haplogroups have been considered for the tree design. Timescale on the vertical axis shows thousands of years from the common ancestors of the haplogroups and sub-clades. The tree shows the alpha-haplogroup, which is the ancestral haplogroup of the African and non-African haplogroups, andthe beta-haplogroup, which is the ancestral haplogroup, close or identical with BT haplogroup in the current classification. The left branch represents haplogroup A (arose ~132,000 ybp) and its subclades. The right branch of haplogroups F through R including T) represent Europeoids (Caucasoids) arose ~58,000 years before present. Haplogroup B (arose ~46,000 ybp) migrated to Africa, theMongoloid and Austronesian haplogroup C split ~36,000 ybp, apparently Middle Eastern haplogroups DE split ~42,000 ybp. Aregion of the origin of the alpha-haplogroup ~160,000 ybp remains unknown. The Europeoid family of haplogroups arose appar-ently in the triangle between Central Europe on the west, the Russian Plain (Eastern European Plain) on the east and Levant on the south.
Figure 3

L122 (haplogroup R1a1), L168 (haplogroup R1a1a). In other words, all of the SNP have been identified, which should be found according to the phylogeny of R1a, but SNPs of the all examined subclades of haplogroup A were completely absent.The same pattern was observed with all other bearers of non-African haplogroups. The bearers of haplogroup A were exclusively positive to M91 SNP, characteristic of that haplogroup.

Table 1
List of SNPs identified in haplogroup R1a1 and subclades of haplogroupA. Ancestral and derived alleles are shown. For blank spaces data arenot available. Cont. in Table 2.

SNP R1a1 A1 A1a A1b A2 A3b2V168 (alpha)G

AA G AV171 (alpha)C

GG C G GV221 (alpha)G

TT G G TP108 (alpha)C

There are, however, four distinct SNPs which present in both Africans and Europeans of haplogroup R1a1, taken the latter asan example. They seem to be the most ancient SNPs, which aredefined the alpha-haplogroup (see Figure 3 ). Tables 1 and 2 illustrate this statement.The ancestral alleles of the above four SNPs should corre-spond to the alpha haplogroup. All four are mutated in hap-logroup R1a1, and the WTY data show. All four are still ances-tral in the A1 subclade. All other subclades of haplogroup Ashow various combinations of the SNPs which do not matchthose in haplogroup R1a1 (see also Table 2 ).
logroup R1a1, it maintains their ancestral state. Table 2 shows SNPs of five subclades of “African” hap-logroup A. None of those SNPs have been observed in hap-These data, based on the SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism), along with the data based on the STRs (Short Tandem Repeats)

Table 2.
List of alleles of “African” SNPs identified in haplogroup R1a1 andsubclades of haplogroup A. Cont. from Table 1 .
SNP R1a1 A1 A1a A1b A2 A3b2M31 (A1a)G

C G C GV50 (A2)T

C T T CM32 (A3)T

C T T G T CP289 (A3b)C

G CM13 (A3b2)G


 described in this study, are compatible with each other and undeniably indicate that non-African people, bearersof haplogroups from C to T, did not descend from the “African”haplogroups A or B. Their origin is likely not in Africa. Ahigher variance of the DNA in Africa, which was a cornerstoneof the “Out of Africa” theory, is explained by Figure 3 , in which haplogroup A has been evolving (mutation-wise) for 132,000 years, while the non-European haplogroups are muchyounger. Hence, there is a lower variability in the latter. Thesame is related to language variability, which has also beenused as an argument of the African origin of non-Africans. We believe that those arguments upon which the “Out of Africa”theory was based were, in fact, conjectural, incomplete and notactually data-driven. Therefore, we are left holding the question of the origin of Homo sapiens.Based on palaeoarchaeological evidence, the region, where anatomically modern humans have likely originated, is com- prised of a vast territory from Central Europe in the west to the Russian Plain in the east to Levant in the south. Each of these regions is renowned for discoveries of the oldest skeletal re-mains of modern humans dating back to 42,000 - 44,000 ybp. To date, none of these sub-regions has clear and unequivocal advances in this regard.

Materials and Methods

7556 haplotypes, predominantly 67 marker ones, have been collected in databases FTNDA, YSearch and SMGF (Sorenson Database), and reduced to the slow 22 marker haplotype panels:
DYS426, DYS388, DYS392, DYS455, DYS454, DYS438,DYS531, DYS578, DYS395S1a, DYS395S1b, DYS590, DYS641,DYS472, DYS425, DYS594, DYS436, DYS490, DYS450,DYS617, DYS568, DYS640, DYS492.
The methodology of haplotype datasets analysis was de-scribed in (Klyosov, 2009a, 2009b; Rozhanskii & Klyosov,2011). The most important research component involved dissecting the dataset to branches of haplotypes, each branch descended from one common ancestor. This was examined andverified by the logarithmic method (no mutation counting) cou- pled with the linear method (based on mutation counting), asdescribed in (Klyosov, 2009a; Rozhanskii, 2011). The mutationrate constant for the 22 marker haplotypes equals to .0060 mu-tation/haplotype/conditional generation of 25 years, or .00027mutation/marker/generation (Klyosov, 2011a; Rozhanskii &Klyosov, 2011). Haplotype trees were composed using softwarePHYLIP, Phylogeny Inference Package program (see Klyosov,2009a, 2009b and references therein). Corrections for back mutations were introduced as described in (Klyosov, 2009a;Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011). Margins of error were calculatedas described in (Klyosov, 2009a). Permutation method of TMRCA (time to the most recent common ancestor) calculationwas described in (Klyosov, 2009a).Base haplotypes in the dataset were determined by minimi-zation of mutations; by definition, the base haplotype is onewhich has the minimum collective number of mutations in thedataset. The base haplotype is the ancestral haplotype or theclosest approximation to the latter.

Example: Calculation of a timespan to a common ancestor for the base haplotype for haplogroup A (132,000 ybp)
12 11 11 - 9 11 - 10 - 10 8 14 15 7 10 8 12 13 11 16 8 139 11 12 ( A
)and that for the β -haplogroup (64,000 ybp)
11 12 11 - 11 11 - 10 - 11 8 15 16 8 10 8 12 10 12 12 8 1211 11 12 ( β -haplogroup )

19 mutations between the two base haplotypes results in19/.006 = 3167 conditional generations (25 years each) withouta correction for back mutations. The number of mutations per marker is 19/22 = .8636. By employing formula for back mutations (Klyosov, 2009a), we find that a correction for back mutation is 

11exp.86362   = 1.686

Therefore, the “lateral” time difference between two base haplotypes is 3167 × 1.686 = 5340 conditional generations of 25 year, that is 133,500 years. A common ancestor of the both base haplotypes, A and β-haplotype, lived (133,500 + 64,000 +132,000)/2 = 164,750 ybp. Assignments of haplotypes to haplogroups and subclades were based on their SNP classification, as provided in the data- bases. In some instances it was additionally supported by calculating their position of the phylogenic trees from their respective STR data.


The authors are indebted to Dr. Alexander Zolotarev, a par-ticipant of the WTY project, for providing data of the Project,and to Ms. Laurie Sutherland for valuable help with the preparation of the manuscript.


Cruciani, F., Trombetta, B., Sellitto, D., Massaia, A., Destro-Bisol, G.,Watson, E., et al. (2010). Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88:A paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan con-nections and the spread of Chadic languages.
European Journal of Human Genetics, 18,800-807.

Cruciani, F., Trombetta, B., Massaia, A., Destro-Bisol, G., Sellitto, D.,& Scozzari, R. (2011). A revised root for the human Y chromosomal phylogenetic tree: The origin of patrilineal diversity in Africa.
The American Journal of Human Genetics, 88, 1-5.doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002

Klyosov, A. A. (2009a). DNA Genealogy, mutation rates, and some Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 85
historical evidences written in Y-chromosome. I. Basic principles and the method.
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 5,186-216.

Klyosov, A. A. (2009b). DNA Genealogy, mutation rates, and some historical evidences written in Y-chromosome. II. Walking the map.
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 5,217-256.

Klyosov, A. A. (2011a). The slowest 22 marker haplotype panel (out of the 67 marker panel) and their mutation rate constants employed for calculations timespans to the most ancient common ancestors.
Proceedings of the Russian Academy of DNA Genealogy, 4,1240-1257.

Klyosov, A. A. (2011b). DNA genealogy of major haplogroups of Ychromosome (Part 1).
Proceedings of the Russian Academy of DNAGenealogy, 4,1258-1283.

Klyosov, A. A. (2012). Ancient history of the Arbins, bearers of haplogroup R1b, from Central Asia to Europe, 16,000 to 1,500 years before present.
Advances in Anthropology,in press.

Rozhanskii, I. (2010). Evaluation оf the сonvergence оf sets in STR phylogeny and analysis оf the haplogroup R1a1 tree.
Proceedings of the Russian Academy of DNA Genealogy, 3, 1316-1324.

Rozhanskii, I. L., & Klyosov, A. A. (2011). Mutation rate constants inDNA genealogy (Y chromosome). Advances in Anthropology, 1,16-34.doi:10.4236/aa.2011.12005

Simms, T. M., Martinez, E., Herrera, K. J., Wright, M. R., Perez, O. A.,Hernandez, M. et al. (2011). Paternal lineages signal distinct geneticcontributions from British Loyalists and continental Africans among different Bahamian islands.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 146, 594-608.doi:10.1002/ajpa.21616


Reference data were selected according to SNP assignmentfrom YSearch database: ( and public projects of FTDNA
section=yresults Walk through the Y (International Project)

Scientific Research Publishing .

Monday, July 21, 2014

The Valley of the Neanderthal People

[Reprinted article from an intermediate source but credited to David A Claerr]

The Valley of the Neanderthal People
Does Evidence of Human-Neanderthal Hybrids Exist?

Lucien Camille Claerr, my grandfather, was born in the mid- 1800's, in Alsace Lorraine, located in the portion of the Alps that border France, Germany and Italy. Situated in the heart of the Alps, the Alsatian ranges are some of the most inaccessible in Europe. The region has many moderate to large mountain peaks that surround secluded Alpine Valleys. My grandfather lived in a small village in one such valley. The villagers were hardy mountain pastoralists, farming the lower slopes and grazing livestock in the mountain pastures.
Lucien learned mountaineering arts at an early age, and when he was as a young adult, he explored the Alps during the summer months. With a bedroll and a backpack, he traveled about, climbing summits and visiting the remote villages. Often he would offer to work for food and shelter, or sometimes, a small sum of money.
He related this story to me of an adventure he had near the border of France and Italy. One day, deep in the interior, he happened across an isolated village that was peculiar in many respects.
The first thing he noticed was that the building construction was different. Thatched houses and barns had supports made of rough-hewn trunks with some of the big branches left on the trunk, to form arches that supported the ceiling beams. The men of the village were all burly and barrel-chested, bushy-haired and coarse featured, with enormous beards. They wore leather breeches and homespun shirts. The women were staying indoors, and he didn't see any for the first few days.
The men spoke with an usual accent and he could not understand some of them at all, though he spoke both French and German fluently. But one man, speaking fragmented bits of both languages befriended him. He offered him food, and lodging in his barn, in return for helping to build an irrigation sluice, fashioned from halves of hollowed-out logs. My grandfather was good with an ax, and after a week of solid labor, the man complemented him on his skillful work and invited him to dinner at his house, suggesting that he introduce him to his daughter. On the appointed evening, he went to their house.
When dinner was served, the daughter came out of the kitchen carrying a tray of food. Lucien was shocked to see that her "bare" arms were totally covered with the same thick, woolly hair that her father and the other men had on theirs, and that there seemed to be sideburns under her long shaggy hair. When she leaned forward to set the tray down, he perceived that she had more hair on her chest than he did! He was so disturbed that he had to fight to swallow down the food.
After the meal the men retired to the porch to smoke pipes. Lucien's host invited him to sleep in their house that night. Lucien accepted, but found himself lying awake half the night, tossing and turning. He remembered hearing stories about rural customs that required a man to be engaged to a bride after staying at her house for a night. In a fit, he finally got up and, quietly as possible, left the house. He went to the barn and hurriedly packed up his belongings. Fortunately, the night was brightly lit by the full moon, so he hastily hiked out of the valley, traveling many miles before even stopping a moment to rest.
Recently, I was reading about the successful sequencing of the Neanderthal genome. Consequent to the gene mapping, DNA sequences specific to the Neanderthals were identified in the DNA of a fair percentage of modern Europeans. I remembered my grandfather's story, which I had always thought of as a quaint and amusing tale. But his description of the people of that remote village could easily fit a geographically isolated population of Human-Neanderthal hybrids who had only infrequent contact with outsiders before the 20th century. Since many genetic researchers are currently sampling gene pools from distinct geographic areas, I would suggest this region as a possible target for gathering comparative data on Human-Neanderthal inter-species contact.
The narrative account was transcribed from a verbal account by Lucien Camille Claerr by the author, David A. Claerr. The image is a digital illustration by David A. Claerr and copyrighted in his name, 
Published by David Claerr
[The originating source is probably
And David A Claerr seems to have ceased putting up articles on the subject since the recent scandals involving the hoax about "Hank" and bad publicity about Bigfoot that resulted from that.-DD]

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Clovis Map

Just as a general reference, here is a map of finds of Clovis points and Clovis-like points. They definitely seem to be most common in the East and thin out heading Westward.

New Guinea Mu 2

I had mentioned before that some of the ideas about the size and position about the "Lost Continent of Mu" was probably based on false impressions based on early maps of New Guinea. Here is one such early map sometimes claimed as a "Lost Mu Map" and an overlay for the approximate given position for New Guinea on a standard modern Mercator projection map. This does correspond very closely to the coordinates given by James Churchward for The Lost Continent of Mu.

I may need to add a reminder that in Hawaiian Mythology, "Mu" referred to a race of black Pygmies and that New Guinea was in fact rumoured to have Pygmies living in the interior.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

The Spread of the Beaker culture and the Spread of Mitochondrial DNA H

National Geographic: "Modern Europe's Genetic History Starts in Stone Age"

Family tree of much of modern European population has Stone Age roots.

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from 39 ancient skeletons from central Germany has shown that several distinct waves of people swept across ancient Europe. Anthropologists noted that today’s western European population is genetically dominated by a mid-Stone Age (Neolithic) population conventionally dated 4,000 to 4,500 years ago, though contributions from Early Neolithic, Late Neolithic, and later Bronze Age groups.

Researchers report the correlation of genomic markers with dated skeletons has allowed them to "reconstruct the recent evolutionary history" of European people.
Skeletons such as that of the "Beaker folk," late Neolithic people named for their waisted pottery, belong to the same genomic grouping as much of the native population of Spain and Portugal.

Anthropologists had thought that Europe, after the demise of Neanderthals and infiltration by the first early modern humans (conventionally dated about 30,000 to 40,000 years ago), was populated by only few or even just one migratory event. But findings suggest successive waves swept western Europe, though the reasons remain completely unknown. Each group left its genetic footprint in the modern population. Furthermore, those genetically distinct groups correspond to archaeological changes, showing that cultural changes in Europe were not a matter of changes among people themselves but rather the influx or upsurgence of different people groups.

Researchers were gratified to note that the changes in DNA haplogroups do correlate with archaeological differences such as different sorts of pottery and artifacts suggesting different lifestyles, explains Spencer Wells, the National Geographic representative involved with the study. "In this study we show that changes in the European archaeological record are accompanied by genetic changes, suggesting that cultural shifts were accompanied by the migration of people and their DNA." Archaeologists have long debated whether cultural changes—such as being hunter-gatherers versus being farmers—represent an influx of new people or a change in the characteristics of existing populations. Many anthropologists view farmers as more evolutionarily advanced.

"This is the first high-resolution genetic record of these lineages through time, and it is fascinating that we can directly observe both human DNA evolving in ‘real-time,’ and the dramatic population changes that have taken place in Europe," says joint lead author Wolfgang Haak. "We can follow over 4,000 years of prehistory, from the earliest farmers through the early Bronze Age to modern times."11

"The record of this maternally inherited [mitochondrial] genetic group, called Haplogroup H," explains another of the joint lead authors, Paul Brotherton, "shows that the first farmers in Central Europe resulted from a wholesale cultural and genetic input via migration, beginning in Turkey and the Near East where farming originated and arriving in Germany around 7,500 years ago."

[Actually the mtDNA haplogroup H is native to the area of Northern Spain and Southern France and is closely related to the people of Halogroup V, in the Basque country. The "First Farmers from Turkey and the Near East" were the OTHER group under discussion, the ancestors of the LBK pottery makes, and they were both genetically distinctive and overwritten by the mtDNA haplogroup H population, as this article subsequently goes on to show-DD]

"This population moves in around 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, but where it came from remains a mystery, as we can't see anything like it in the areas surrounding Europe," says Alan Cooper, director of the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD), which did the work. "The genetics show that something around that point caused the genetic signatures of previous populations to disappear. However, we don't know what happened or why, and [the mid-Neolithic] has not been previously identified as [a time] of major change." Researchers also do not know where this Neolithic population that leaves its genetic marker in over 40% of western Europeans came from. "About [4,500] years ago, you start seeing a diversity and composition of genetic signatures that are beginning to look like modern [Central] Europe," Cooper says. "This composition is then modified by subsequent cultures moving in, but it's the first point at which you see something like the modern European genetic makeup in place."

The Neolithic "linear B" pottery culture (LBK) is believed to be predominantly farmers, named for their characteristic pottery decorations. The previous inhabitants seemed to be a hunter-gatherer population, and their genetic signatures differ.

Yet the genetic turnover in western Europe’s population wasn’t finished yet. Mitochondrial DNA also suggests that this "linear B" pottery (LBK) population eventually diminished to be replaced by yet another wave of immigrants sweeping across the continent. "The extent or nature of this genetic turnover are not clear, and we don't know how widespread it is," Cooper says. "If this turnover were widespread, it could have been prompted by climate change or disease. All we know is that the descendants of the LBK farmers disappeared from Central Europe about 4,500 years ago, clearing the way for the rise of populations from elsewhere, with their own unique H signatures."

The study, published in Nature Communications, also suggested the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate was 45% higher than previously thought.

Which is to say that mtDNA group H was dispersed across Europe in the form of the native Spanish/Iberian females of the Beaker people or Beaker Folk trading conglomerate.

In the popularization by B. Sykes, the ancestress of mtDNA clan H is called Helena
 and is closely related to V (Velda) Westward in Spain as of 15000 BC

It would appear that in the case of possible transatlantic cultural contacts to the Beaker culture, the Iberian females were not involved in the transaction

Although many were in evidence in Europe where they were
the female contingent in a population of wealthy merchants and metallurgists,
And we have found their graves and grave goods so we can tell this.

Recent analyses have made significant inroads to understanding the Beaker phenomenon, mostly by analysing each of its components separately.[10][11] They have concluded that the Bell Beaker phenomenon was a synthesis of elements, representing “an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background.”[12]
Radiocarbon dating seems to support that the earliest "Maritime" Bell Beaker design style is encountered in Iberia, specifically in the vibrant copper-using communities of the Tagus estuary in Portugal around 2800-2700 BC and spread from there to many parts of western Europe.[3][13] An overview of all available sources from southern Germany concluded that Bell Beaker was a new and independent culture in that area, contemporary with the Corded Ware culture.[14][15]

The inspiration for the Maritime Bell Beaker is argued to have been the small and earlier Copoz beakers that have impressed decoration and which are found widely around the Tagus estuary in Portugal.[16] Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of seaborne contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BCE.[17] However, radiocarbon dating from North African sites is lacking for the most part.
AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from pre-Beaker period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern and Central Europe.[18]
Furthermore, the burial ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites was intrusive into Western Europe. Individual burials, often under tumuli burials, with the inclusion of weapons contrast markedly to the preceding Neolithic traditions of often collective, weaponless burials in Atlantic/Western Europe. Such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions,[17] although instead of ‘battle-axes’, Bell Beaker individuals used copper daggers. 

The initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime.[3] A southern move led to the Mediterranean where 'enclaves' were established in south-western Spain and southern France around the Golfe du Lion and into the Po valley in Italy probably via ancient western Alpine trade routes used to distribute Jadeite axes.[3] A northern move incorporated the southern coast of Armorica with further, less well defined, contacts extending to Ireland and possibly to central southern Britain.[3] The earliest copper production in Ireland, identified at Ross Island in the period 2400-2200 BC, was associated with early Beaker pottery.[3][19] Here the local sulpharsenide ores were smelted to produce the first copper axes used in Britain and Ireland.[3] The same technologies were used in the Tagus region and in the west and south of France.[3][20] The evidence is sufficient to support the suggestion that the initial spread of Maritime Bell Beakers along the Atlantic and into the Mediterranean, using sea routes that had long been in operation, was directly associated with the quest for copper and other rare raw materials
Important point, the jadeite must have come from Central America since there are no sources in Europe, We have discussed the sources of the different jade minerals earlier on this blog.-DD

     Distribution of H1 subgroup, thinning out from the Atlantic seaboard headed Eastward. H2 is
     more common in the East

Languages most often associated with these areas Archaeologically include Basque and Celtic.

According to (Learning about mtDNA haplogroup H). H2 is most frequent in eastern Europe and Caucus. And its subclade H2a about 6.5% in eastern Europe mimics the distribution of R1a in Asia(specifically R1a1a1b2 Z93). Probably from eastern European Yamna culture starting about 5,000 BP (3000 BC) which spread Indo European languages Tocharian and Indo Iranian throughout Asia (Which means the R1 males and H females were the main components of this expansion)

According to the same source, H4 and H5 seem to have originated in Europe and began diffusing to Turkey and the Mid-East about 500-6000 BC. This could have some connection to the Black Sea Flood, since the date is significant for that.

      Continued spread of mtDNA H into Asia and Africa is illustrated below. The concentration in Madagascar is interesting

Consulting one of the older references on this yields the following information (Currently stated to be outmoded in most modern universities):
The evidence of the racial composition of the Copper Age sailors who reached Italy and the Italian islands is simple and direct. The moderately tall, long-headed, mid narrow-nosed Megalithic people who were implanted, during the Late Neolithic, upon the smaller Mediterranean type which had preceded them, were followed, during the Aeneolithic by other, of the same kind, in the company of equally tall brachycephals. The latter resembled the people of the same Dinaric head form in Cyprus, Crete, and the Aegean, and without doubt formed a westward extension of the same movement.

In Sicily, which probably received metal earlier than most of the mainland or the islands farther west, Copper Age skulls of one series from Isnello28 are all of general Mediterranean type, with the Megalithic variety predominant, as shown by excessive skull lengths, moderate vault heights, and narrow noses. The mean stature for twenty-four males, presumably of this type, was 169 cm. Other Sicilian series, however, do include brachycephals, as at Chiusella and Villafratti, with cranial indices ranging as high as 91.29' These form, however, no more than one-third of the total Aeneolithic series from Sicily. In the true Bronze Age which followed, the incidence of these brachycephals increased.

In Sardinia a large series of sixty-three Copper Age skulls from Anghelu Ruju30 includes sixteen per cent, or ten individuals, of the new brachycephalic type, while the others resemble the long heads of Sicily. The group as a whole, irrespective of head form, was tall.31 The racial composition of Corsica during these periods is known only through the presence of one small, short-statured, long-headed female skeleton of either Neolithic or Aeneolithic age, and two brachycephalic crania from the Bronze Age.32

It would be interesting to supplement this survey of the Italian islands with a study of the crania found in the elaborate burial chambers of Malta, of late Neolithic or early Metal Age date, but the excavators of these vaults, professional and otherwise, literally threw away what was probably the longest unified series of human crania ever found, numbering over seven thousand. We are told that these early Maltese were "Mediterraneans," and know little else about them.33

On the mainland of Italy, Aeneolithic skeletons, which are found mostly on the western side of the central portion of the peninsula, belong to the same types found on the islands, but brachycephals are more abundant, being equal in number to the dolichoand mesocephals.34 Some of the Aeneolithic Italians of the Campagna and of Latium were very tall and large headed, with both mesocephalic and brachycephalic fortes.35 In Istria, at the head of the Adriatic, the Dinaric population which is dominant in that peninsula today had begun to arrive in the Copper and Bronze Ages,36 judging by a series of six female crania which bear definite indications of this type, such as flattening of the occiput, narrow face, and projecting nasal bones. The new invaders may, therefore, have travelled up the Adriatic as well as over the Tyrrhenian Sea.37

Reviewing the Italian material, on both metrical and morphological grounds we may determine that the round-headed racial type which came into the middle Mediterranean with the introduction of metal was of a general Dinaric character, and without doubt came from Asia Minor and the Aegean, where it first appeared in the last centuries of the third millennium B.C. Since the metal ages of the middle and Nvestern Mediterranean were later than those farther east, the chronological aspect of this theory presents no contradictions.

The Balearic Islands, Spain, and Portugal were, of course, the next stops in the westward spread of the metal-carrying seafarers through the Mediterranean. During the Early Copper Age in Spain, the distinctive Bell Beaker culture arose, which was soon to spread northward and eastward into central Europe, and eventually to Britain, as an important racial movement; and another culture of equal local importance, that of Los Millares in Almería, developed from eastern beginnings, with an emphasis on the importation of Egyptian and Near Eastern materials, such as hippopotamus ivory, ostrich egg shells, and actual Near Eastern pottery.38 The center of Early Bronze Age civilization again lay in AImeria, with el Argar as the principal site, and began about 2000 B.C. During this period, which lasted until the Iron Age, there was again much Egyptian and Aegean influence.

Unfortunately, in the Iberian Peninsula, as elsewhere, the human record is not sufficient to support the complexity of the cultural. The craniologist cannot keep pace with the archaeologist; we cannot, without more numerous and more accurately correlated skeletons, tell in all cases what physical types went with each archaeological entity.

In the Balearic Islands, for a beginning, a few dolichocephalic crania, and one brachycephal, have been found in the talayots, or corbelled stone towers resembling the Sardinian nuraghes and Scottish brochs, which were first built in the Copper Age but which were used until the advent of iron.39 Fifty-eight adult and five juvenile crania with long bones from a naveta, or long barrow, in Menorca, are said to have represented a homogeneous group of people with short stature, long-heads (all cranial indices being under 75), low faces, prominent, aquiline noses, and projecting chins. The form of the scapulae and humeri of the males showed that they had developed great shoulder and arm muscles from slinging, the activity from which the islands derived their name. Three other skulls from an ossuary at Biniatap are brachycephalic.40

In the Copper Age groups from mainland Spain and Portugal, the old long-headed types overwhelmingly prevail: out of one hundred and thirtyfour crania, which represent all that could be assembled for this survey, only fifteen, or nine per cent, were brachycephalic.41 If one includes Ariège, Basses Pyrenees, and Aveyron in the south of France, twenty-eight crania may be added, of which only two are brachycephalic.42 One of these, from a site near the city of Narbonne, possesses all of the cranial and facial features typical of the Bronze Age brachycephals of Cyprus, Italy, and the Italian islands. In few of the Spanish instances are extensive details given, but it is probable that the brachycephalic crania there are also of the same type.

Many of the dolichocephalic Copper Age skulls are of Megalithic or Long Barrow type, while others are of a smaller, less rugged, Mesolithic or Neolithic Mediterranean variety. Among the mesocephalic crania, some may again be small Mediterraneans, while others, with larger vault dimensions, may in many instances be mixtures between Megalithic and brachycephalic types. The statures of the large dolichoceplialic group average about 167 or 168 cm.; taller than most living Spaniards and as tall as the Neolithic Long Barrow population in Britain. Other dolichocephalic crania go with short stature, with a mean of about 160 cm. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine the approximate proportions of Megalithic and Mediterranean types, but the former seem to be at least one-half of the total.

A special development of the Copper Age in Spain was the Bell Beaker culture, about which more will be said later, since its chief influence in the racial sense fell upon areas in other parts of Europe. It is at present the general belief of archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture arose in central Spain, shortly before 2000 B.C., from local beginnings.43 A North African origin is rendered unlikely by the supposed absence of a Bronze Age south of Gibraltar, although recent work in Morocco has revealed some supposedly early metal.44 Where Bell Beaker burials are found in central Europe, the skeletons are almost always of the same tall brachycephalic type which we have already studied in the eastern Mediterranean and Italy. In Spain, however, they are frequently of the Megalithic race. The basis for the belief that the Bell Beaker people of Spain were Dinarics rests largely upon three cranial fragments from the type site of this culture at Ciempozuelos, near Madrid, and upon one complete mesocephalic skull from Cerro de Tomillo some forty miles away.45

The measurements of the three fragments are uncertain, and their allocation to a definite type impossible.46 However, all three fragments appear to be brachycephalic, and one to have a high vault. One has strong, another weak, browridges. One seems to have a slight lambdoid flattening. In the only fragment which possesses facial bones, the orbits are high and the nose narrow. The Cerro de Tomillo skull is not, however, a pure dolichocephal, and does resemble, in a partial sense, the Dinaric brachycephalic variety which was common in the Mediterranean at that time.

Although there seems to be little doubt in the minds of the archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture developed in Spain, and although eastern Mediterranean brachycephals came there at about the same time, the manner in which the physical type and the culture became identified with each other is still obscure.

During the Early Bronze Age, after the efflorescence of the Bell Beaker people, Spain became a great center of metallurgy and trading activity, rivalling the Aegean in importance. The colonists from the east, who had originally located themselves in Spain merely as miners and forwarding agents of metal, now settled down to producing the finished products of the Bronze Age in Spain itself, for local sale, since disorders in the Mycenaean and Minoan realms had apparently cut them off from their homelands.47 Furthermore, the introduction of fresh cultural elements from the east suggests that new people had joined them.

The principal site of the Early Bronze Age, el Argar in the province of Almeria, is located near the silver mines of Herrerias, which were worked in ancient times. From some thirteen hundred flexed urn burials, seventy skulls have been recovered, of which twenty-nine are those of adult males, and forty of adult females.48 The el Argar series shows quite definitely that the Early Bronze Age people of Almeria were not descendants of previous inhabitants, but to a large extent a new population, with definite Near Eastern relationships, as one might suppose from the cultural indications.

The series as a whole is one of small people, with a mean male stature of 158 to 160 cm.; the earlier Copper Age immigrants, for the most part, were ten centimeters taller. The skulls gravitate around the indices of 76 and 77; for sixty per cent of male and fifty-eight per cent of female crania are mesocephalic. Of the remaining skulls, long heads outnumber round heads two to one. The series is not very homogeneous, and the cranial index and most other criteria of form show modalities which make it certain that the el Argar people included at least two types which had not become completely amalgamated.

The principal cranial element is a normal, rather small variety of Mediterranean, which seems to resemble, both metrically and in description, predynastic or early dynastic Egyptian forms, or at the same time, elements which entered Spain in the Neolithic. Prominence of the browridges at glabella, and a considerable nasion depression, make this type of Mediterranean rather unlike the Cappadocian variety common in Asia Minor, although metrically there is nothing to prevent such a relationship.

The second type is the new brachycephalic element, which seems to have been the dominant one politically, in that two female skulls found wearing silver crowns both belonged to it. It was apparently some form of Near Eastern brachycephal with which we are already in a General way familiar - the skull is short, rather than broad; the vault is medium or low; the forehead is narrow, the lambdoid region often flattened, while the greatest breadth of the vault comes well to the rear. The nose is high and narrow, and the nasal bones join the frontal with little depression, while a smooth glabella heightens the impression of a high-bridged Near Eastern type of nose. Although the units are high and rounded, the face is rather low, but the mandible is surprisingly broad, often with everted gonial angles. There is also a perceptible amount of alveolar prognathism.

Although this is not exactly the brachycephalic type which we met in the Copper Age, and which became identified with the Bell Beaker people, it is, nevertheless, definitely a Near Eastern variety of brachycephal which is familiar in Asia Minor and Syria today. The el Argar people represent a mixture of elements which could be duplicated in the modern Near East, but not one with which, in our ignorance of most of that end of the Mediterranean, we are already familiar. Some of the Mediterranean racial contingent may well have been of earlier Spanish derivation, but if so the absence of Megalithic and Copper Age forms is surprising.

In other parts of Spain no such change of population as that of Almeria is manifest. Mediterraneans, both large and small, are carried over from the Neolithic and Copper Ages, while the larger variety of brachycephal also continues." Out in Mallorca and Menorca, the dolichocephalic element seems to remain as the exclusive or predominant one, for the most part tall and of Long Barrow vault form.50

The westward migrations of peoples from the Aegean and the eastern end of the Mediterranean, during the Late Neolithic, the Aeneolithic, and the Early Bronze Age, must have affected the populations of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearics, and the Iberian Peninsula to a considerable degree. These were real colonizations which added new racial elements to the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Mediterranean sub-stratum. By the middle of the Bronze Age, the central and western N-fediterranean lands had assumed the racial characteristics which they still, for the most part, bear. Except for northern and central Italy, later migrations were to bring little that was new.

See Also:

Atlantis City Plan

An excellent summary of the description of Atlantis as given by Plato
From the Atlantis Bolivia website.
Unfortunately since this is a very good representation of Atlantis as described by Plato,
we can say with a pretty high egree of certainty there was nothing in the Archaeology of South America that closely corresponds to it, although there are several sites that were similar in part.

Another Transplant from India to Mexico 1500 BC

Statuette of a male practicing Yoga, of a similar physical type to the very many female statuettes that suddenly show up in Mexico at about the same time (about the end of the Indus Civilization) and along with a sudden influx of a physical type much resembling natives of India (as far as the skulls indicate)

Monday, July 14, 2014

The Mound Giants

I have a Facebook Friend named Kay Hearle who does marvelous artwork reconstructing the life appearance of the giant skeletons that are found in Mound burials. Typically these burials belong to the Adena culture out of the several cultures which are all called Mound Builders less accurately.

I have hypothesized that the giant population comes from the same old European population that still resurfaces from time to time. In ancient times they were typically warriors, guards and gladiators. In more modern times, people of this size and body type can be found as professional fighters and wrestlers.

Including famously Andre the Giant

There are a couple of distinctive genetic strains that are behind this and they have distinctive types of skulls. The basic population was identified by Carleton Coon as deriving from a very old mixture of CroMagnon and Neanderthal remnants at the end of the Ice Age, and he called the modern ones "Upper Paleolithic Survivals"
This large-bodied type and the distiunctively roundheaded, distinctively very tall Dinaric types from Europe seem to have fed into what became the Beaker Folk in Europe (Associated with Stonehenge and other such sites) and the Adenas in North America (Below is a reconstruction of an Adena man, typically 7 feet tall or more according to the older reference books)


The European populations were famously associated with mining and trading copper in Europe (and later trading in tin and bronze). In North America there is a parallel in the Old Copper Culture. in both areas there was a peculiar form of hafting made by curling the base into open sockets: by the bronze age in Europe regular complete sockets became common.

The descendants of the Adenas were said to be very tall and very strong people that bore more than a passing resemblance to white Europeans. They also had a fondness for tattooing themselves, in patterns reminiscent of Old World tattoo patterns.

An Adena skull below, he has a wolf jaw and probably was buried wearing a wolfskin overe his head. In Europe the special set of warriors known to wear woldf and bear skins to invoke greater ferocity in battle were known as Berserks (Berserkers)


The giant warrior cult was Trans-Atlantic and miraculous though it may sound, the giant warriors themselves were a valuable commodity to be traded over long distances. They started showing up in all the wealthier markets including in Mexico, Peru, Egypt and Phoenicia. And any army that included them could pretty much expect to go unchallenged.

A Giant Skeleton. Typically they were buried bundled up into minor megalithic monuments called Cists but hollowed out log coffins were also very commonly used when there was sufficient available timber around. Log Coffins seem to have been introduced by the builders of large ships.

Bronze age trade brought conspicuous consumption of luxury goods to a clearly affluent aristocracy. In order to keep well supplied, raw resources from a very large area had to be regularly exploited and then shipped over a large area. (At the same time some of the poorer European hunters and farmers were still making do with plainer and cheaper wood, stone and antler tools)
For most of the later Bronze Agge in the Mediterranean, the tin for bronze came from Britain. And American copper was regularly shipped in to Europe, we know that because the chemical composition was different  (European copper was typically "Dirtier" with more impurities in it)

And some of the weapons during the Bronze age must have required giant-sized handlers.

(Giant-sized Two Headed axes from a Greek museum exhibit)

The Adena ground stone and pottery industries were much like the European ones in the early Megalthic age. The use of the ground stone axheads (celts) and cord-marked or incised pottery is especially notable. Trade in nephrite jade is also notable in Europe at this time.

   European "Beaker" Pottery

Some of the Adena Weapons were strikingly outsized and much to heavy for men of normal strength to wield them. Below a stone warhammer head. I have a similar one at home myself.

Very large outsized bronze age weapons: the Biblical Goliath was probably armed with a spearhead like this

  American conical or round Adena ound above and European counterpart below.

Roundhouses and round or conical mounds of similar design were built on both sides of the Atlantic by these peoples

The appearance of the gigantic European warriors was also similar to the American ones, and the European Giant warriors were commonly tattooed and wore war paint.
These depictions are meant to show the Picts of Scotland and Britain

The Adena are marked by the use of especially large stone spearheads at their time.
Some of the same outsized spearheads also show up in the adjacent Woodlands cultural area


The Mound Giant Warriors became the stuff of legend and the stories kept getting more and more exaggerated. But the legend never did die. People still recall the giants of old to this day.

Below, Legendary Giant in artwork to the Left and a Giant Skeleton to the Right. From a creationist site which collects and archives reports on Giant skeletons.