The Mystery of Tiahuanaco
. Just 12 miles southward of the southernmost tip of Lake Titicaca lie the remains of Tiahuanaco,
the site of a technologically advanced culture considered by many archaeologists (romantic not
orthodox) to be the oldest ruins in the world. Although some misguided scholars have attributed
the buildings of Tiahuanaco to the Incas, it has now been established that the city was already in
ruins when the first Incas came upon the scene.
In 1540 the Spanish chronicler, Pedro Cieza de Leon, visited the area and his description of the
statues and monoliths compares very closely to what we see today.
The site is at an altitude of 13,300 feet, which places it some 800 feet above the present level of
Most archaeologists agree that in the distant past Tiahuanaco was a flourishing port at the edge of
the lake, which means that the water has receded almost 12 miles and has dropped about 800 feet
since then. All concur that the lake is shrinking, due mainly to evaporation, since no rivers flow
The Tiahuanaco culture, as it is called, is unique in its sculpture and its style of stone
The figures depicted in the statuary have a rather square head with some covering like a helmet;
they have square eyes and a rectangular mouth.
The stone works at the ruins consist of such structures as the Gate of the Sun, a portal carved
from a single block of stone weighing 15 tons.
The stone steps of the Kalasasaya, each of which is a rectangular block of stone about 30 feet
The so-called idols, which are giant about 23 feet tall representatives of unusual looking beings
with typical Tiahuanaco head and trace, and the enormous monolithic stone blocks, many of
which appear to have been cast rather than carved, are some of these unusual features.
At the area called Puma Punku, which is about 1 mile distant from the principal part of the ruins,
the gigantic stones are bluish-gray in color and appear to have been machined, and they have a
metallic ring when tapped by a rock.
There is also a reddish rust or oxidation covering many of the stones. Many of these enormous
stone blocks probably have not been moved since they fell thousands of years ago.
Archaeologists however speculate that the stones were dressed, but never erected that the
construction for which they were intended was interrupted.
It is equally valid, however, to assume that the buildings were completed and then toppled by
some natural catastrophe, such as the eruption of the Andes mountain chain or a world-wide
It is interesting to observe the archaeological excavation work, which is under way at the site. At
this altitude of 13,300 feet some of the remains are found at a level 6 feet below the earth's
surface. The mountain ranges which surround the area are not high enough to permit sufficient
runoff of water or wind erosion to have covered the ruins to such a depth.
This remains a mystery to this day.
Legends have persisted over the centuries that there are stone structures beneath the waters of
Lake Titicaca, much the same kind as can be found on the lake's shore.
The Indians of that legion have frequently recounted this tradition, but until recently there has
been no proof of such structures.
In 1968 Jacques Cousteau, the French underwater explorer, took his crew and equipment there to
explore the lake and search for evidence of underwater construction.
Although severely hampered in their activities by the extreme altitude, the divers spent many
days searching the lake bottom, in the vicinity of the islands of the Sun and Moon, but found
nothing man-made. Cousteau concluded the legends were a myth.
In November 1980, however, the well known Bolivian author and scholar of pre-Columbian
cultures, Hugo Boero Rojo, announced the finding of archaeological ruins beneath Lake Titicaca
about 15 to 20 meters below the surface off the coast of Puerto Acosta, a Bolivian port village
near the Peruvian frontier on the northeast edge of the lake.
Based upon information furnished by Elias Mamani. a native of the region who is over 100 years
old, Boero Rojo and two Puerto Ricans cinematographers, Ivan and Alex Irrizarry, were able to
locate the ruins after extensive exploration of the lake bottom in the area, while filming a
documentary on the nearby Indians.
Rojo stated, "We can now say that the existence of pre-Columbian constructions under the waters
of Lake Titicaca is no longer a mere supposition or science-fiction, but a real fact. The remnants
found show the existence of old civilizations that greatly antecede the Spanish colonization. We
have found temples built of huge blocks of stone, with stone roads leading to unknown places and
flights of steps whose bases were lost in the depths of the lake amid a thick vegetation of algae.
Boero Rojo described these monumental ruins as being of probable Tiahuanaco origin."
Polish-born Bolivian archaeologist Arturo Posnansky has concluded that the Tiahuanaco culture
began in the region at about 1600 B.C. and flourished until at least 1200 A.D.
His disciple, Professor Hans Schindler-Bellamy, believed Tiahuanaco to have reached back
12,000 years before the present era, although a more conservative Peruvian archaeologist.
What happened to the advanced ancient culture, however, has not yet been determined.
Rojo's discovery nevertheless may prove to create more problems than it solves. If, over the past
3 or 4000 years Lake Titicaca has slowly receded, as appears to be the case-as all scientists agree,
then how can we explain the existence of stone temples, stairways, and roads still under water'?
The only answer is that they were built before the lake materialized.
We must go back, then, to the remnants of Tiahuanaco and re-examine the more than 400 acres of
ruins, only 10 percent of which have been excavated.
We have pointed out that dirt covers the ancient civilization to a depth of at least 6 feet.
The only explanation for this accumulation is water.
A large amount of water had to have inundated the city. When it receded it left the silt covering
all evidence of an advanced civilization, leaving only the largest statues and monoliths still
It is logical to conclude, therefore, that Tiahuanaco was built before the lake was created, and not
as a port on its shore. As the waters today continue to recede, we should be able to find more
evidence of the city's remote peoples.
Scientists theorize that the area of Lake Titicaca was at one time at sea level, because of the
profusion of fossilized marine life which can be found in the region.
The area then lifted with the Andean upheaval and a basin was created which filled in to form the
lake. No one has suggested the marine life might have been brought to the altiplano by sea waters
which were at flood stage.
Peruvian legends clearly relate a story of world-wide flood in the distant past.
Whether it was the biblical flood of Noah, or another one, we cannot say, but there is ample
physical evidence of a universal inundation, with the world-wide deluge described in more than a
Along with Noah's flood were the Babylonian Utnapishtim of the Gilgamesh epic, the Sumerian
Ziusudra, the Persian Jima, the Indian Manu, the Maya Coxcox, the Colombian Bochica, the
Algonkin's Nanabozu, the Crows' Coyote, the Greek Deukalion and Pyrrha, the Chinese Noah
Kuen, and the Polynesian Tangaloa. It is evident there was a world-wide deluge 19,000 years ago.
(Global doomsdays are conspicuous in the Hopi Indian legends, the Finnish Kalevala epic, the
Mayan Chilam Balam and Popol Vuh, and in the Aztec calendar, the last of which predicts that
our present civilization will be destroyed by "nahuatl Olin" or "earth movement," that is,
devastation by earthquake.
Due to Aztec cyclic theory this will become the fifth doomsday after the "death of the Jaguars,"
"the death of the Tempests," "the death of the Great Fire" (vulcanism), and the 'Great Deluge.'
If a flourishing advanced civilization existed on the Peruvian altiplano many thousands of years
ago and was reached by the flood waters, many problems would be solved, such as the existence
of Tiahuanaco's ruins under 6 feet of earth at an elevation of 13,300 feet.
The presence of stone structures still under the lake's waters and the existence of marine life at an
impossible altitude would also make sense.
In my 1978 and 1984 trips to Peru I was impressed by agricultural terracing on the sides and very
tops of the steep peaks.
These appear to be the oldest - and now unused-portions of the terracing. As you look down the
mountains you see more and more terraces of more recent origin.
We are told that only the Inca (specifically the Sapai Inca, i.e. the ruler) could use the lower
portions and the fertile valleys. The peons had to climb to the very peaks to cultivate the soil for
their own subsistence.
This seems highly unlikely in what we know to have been a pure communistic-theocratic society.
Pondering the logistics involved, I see no problem with the spring planting.
It would not be difficult to carry a sack of seed to the mountain tops, scratch out some of the soil,
and plant them.
But then, I wondered, it must have been very tough in the fall to carry the harvest 2 to 3000 feet
down to the valley floor.
Then it struck me.
If there really had been a world-wide deluge covering most of the earth's surface - leaving only
mountain tops protruding in the sunlight - then the few remaining survivors of the deluge would
naturally plant their seeds on mountain tops.
They had no problem getting produce down, because they lived at the top.
Also, they used boats to move from one peak to another.
As the flood waters receded the terracing began to creep down the mountain sides, as can be seen
today, with the ones near the bottom being the freshest.
As Boero Rojo stated, "The discovery of Aymara structures under the waters of Lake Titicaca
could pose entirely new theses on the disappearance of an entire civilization, which, for some
unknown reason, became submerged.
The Tiahuanacans could have been victims of world-wide flood, their civilization all but wiped
out when their homes and structures were covered with sea water.
Because of the basin-like geography of the area the flood waters that became Lake Titicaca could
not run off and have only gradually evaporated over the centuries.
Professor Schindler-Bellamy as a disciple of Posnansky and Horbiger (who created the world
famous Glacial-Cosmogony theory in the1930's - has worked dozens of years in the Tiahuanaco
area and has written books on the subject.
According to him the large monolithic Sun Gate of Tiahuanaco was evidently originally the
centerpiece of the most important part of the so-called Kalasasaya, the huge chief temple of
Tiahuanaco. Its upper part is covered with a stupendously intricate sculpture in flat bas relief.
This has been described as a "calendar" almost as long as the monolithic gateway has been known
to exist; thus the Sun Gate has also been called 'the Calendar Gate'.
This calendar sculpture, though it undoubtedly depicts a "solar year," cannot however be made to
fit into the solar year as we divide it at present.
After many futile attempts had been made, by employing a Procrustean chopping off of toes or
heels to make the calendar work, the sculpture - which indeed has a highly decorative aspect-was
eventually declared generally to be nothing but an intricate piece of art.
Professor Schindler-Bellamy and the American astronomer Allen have nevertheless continued to
insist the sculpture was a calendar, though one of a special kind, designed for special purpose,
and, of course, for a special time.
Hence it must refer exclusively to the reckoning of that time, and to certain events occurring then.
Consequently we cannot make the calendar "speak" in terms of our own time, but let it speak for
itself - and listen to what it says and learn from it. When we do so we gain an immense insight
into the world of the people of that era, into the manner of thinking of their intellectuals, and
generally into the way their craftsmen and laborers lived and worked.
To describe these things in detail would make a long story; it took l) R. Allen and Professor
Schindler-Bellamy and their helpers many years of hard work to puzzle out the Tiahuanaco
system of notation and its symbology, and to make the necessary calculations (before the age of
computers). The result was a book of over 400 pages, The Calendar of Tishuanaco,published in
Thorough analysis of the Sun (Sate sculpture revealed the astonishing fact that the calendar is not
a mere list of days for the "man in the street" of the Tiahuanaco of that time, telling him the dates
of market days or holy days; it is actually, and pre-eminently a unique depository of astronomical,
mathematical, and scientific data- the quintessence of the knowledge of the bearers of
The enormous amount of information the calendar has been made to contain-and to impart to
anyone ready and able to read it is communicated in a way that is, once the system of notation has
been grasped, singularly lucid and intelligible, "counting by units of pictorial or abstract form.
The different forms of those units attribute special, very definite and important additional
meanings to them, and make them do double or multiple duty. By means of that method "any
number" can be expressed without employing definite "numerals" whose meaning might be
difficult, if not impossible, to establish.
"It is only necessary to recognize the units and consider their forms, and find their groupings,
count them out, and render the result in our own numerical notation.
Some of the results seem to be so unbelievable that superficial critics have rejected them as mere
arrant nonsense. But they are too well dove-tailed and geared into the greater system (and in some
cases supported by peculiar repetitions and cross-references) to be discarded in disgust; one has
to accept them as correct.
Whoever rejects them, however, also accepts the onus of offering a better explanation, and
Professor Schindler-Bellamy has the "advantage of doubt," at any rate.
The "solar year" of the calendar's time had very practically the same length as our own, but, as
shown symbolically by the sculpture, the earth revolved more quickly then, making the
Tiahuanacan year only 290 days, divided into 12 "twelfths" of 94 days each, plus 2 intercalary
These groupings (290, 24, 12, 2) are clearly and unmistakably shown in the sculpture. The
explanation of 290 versus 3651/4 days cannot be discussed here.
At the time Tiahuanaco flourished the present moon was not yet the companion of our earth but
was still an independent exterior planet.
There was another satellite moving around our earth then, rather close-5.9 terrestrial radii, center
to center; our present moon being at 60 radii. Because of its closeness it moved around the earth
more quickly than our planet rotated.
Therefore it rose in the west and set in the east (like Mars' satellite Phobos), and so caused a great
number of solar eclipses, 37 in one "twelfth," or 447 in one "solar year " of course it caused an
equal number of satellite eclipses. These groupings (37, 447) are shown in the sculpture, with
many Corroborating cross-references. Different symbols show when these solar eclipses, which
were of some duration, occurred: at sunrise, at noon, at sunset.
These are only a small sample of the exact astronomical information the calendar gives. It also
gives the beginning of the year, the days of the equinoxes and solstices, the incidence of the two
intercalary days, information on the obliquity of the eliptic (then about 16.5 degrees; now 23.5)
and on Tiahuanaco's latitude (then about 10 degrees; now 16.27), and many other astronomical
and geographical references from which interesting and important data may be calculated or
inferred by us.
Tiahuanacan scientists certainly knew, for instance, that the earth was a globe which rotated on its
axis (not that the sun moved over a flat earth), because they calculated exactly the times of
eclipses not visible at Tiahuanaco but visible in the opposite hemisphere (One wonders whether
they were actually able to travel around the world, and speculate in what sort of vessel ! )
A few more facts revealed in the calendar are both interesting and surprising As indicated by an
arrangement of "geometrical" elements we can ascertain that the Tiahuanacans divided the circle
factually astronomically, but certainly mathematically} into 264 degrees (rather than 360).
Also, they determined-ages before Archimedes and the Egyptians the ratio of pi, the most
important ratio between the circumference of the circle and its diameter, as 22/7, or, in our
notation, 3.14+. They could calculate squares (and hence, square roots).
They knew trigonometry and the measuring of angles (30, 60, 90 degrees) and their functions-
They could calculate and indicate fractions, but do not seem to have known the decimal system
nor did they apparently ever employ the duodecimal system though they were aware of it.
(For a still unknown reason, however, the number 11 and its multiples occur often.) They were
able to draw absolutely straight lines and exact right angles, but no mathematical instruments
have yet been found.
We must take notice of the evident parallels with the markings of the Nasca Plain. We do not
know the excellent tools they must have used for working the glass-hard andesite stone of their
monuments, cutting, polishing, and incising.
They must have employed block and tackle for lifting and transporting great loads (up to 200
tons) over considerable distances and even over expanses of water from the quarries to the
It is difficult to see how all the calculations, planning, and design work involved in producing the
great city of Tiahuanaco could have been done without some form of writing, and without a
system of notation different from the "unit" system of the calendar sculpture.
If they had such a system they must have used it only on perishable materials.
I have so far dealt with some of the aspects of the Tiahuanacan world, namely those connected
with the calendar as a monument of what Schindler-Bellamy describes as "fossilized science."
But the calendar science-sculpture, and similar slightly older ones also found at the site, must also
be regarded and appreciated from an aesthetic point of view, a great artistic achievement in
design and execution-and an absolute masterpiece of arrangement and layout.
The most tantalizing fact of all is that the Tiahuanaco culture has no roots in that area. It did not
grow there from humbler beginnings, nor is any other place of origin known. It seems to have
appeared practically full blown suddenly.
Only a few "older" monuments, as can be inferred from the "calendrical inscriptions" they bear,
have been found, but the difference in time cannot have been very great.
The different-much lower cultures discovered at considerable distances from Tiahuanaco proper,
addressed as "Decadent Tiahuacan" or as "Coastal Tiahuanaco," are only very indirectly related
to the culture revealed by the Calendar Cate. Some of their painted symbols are somehow
somewhat related to the calendar symbols, but they make no sense whatever; they are, if
anything, purely ornamental.
Tiahuanaco apparently remained for only a very short period at its acme of perfection (evidenced
by the Calendar Gate) and perished suddenly, perhaps through the cataclysmic happenings
connected with the breakdown of the former "moon."
We have at present no means of determining when Tiahuanaco rose to supreme height. or when
its culture was obliterated, as naturally, the calendar itself can tell us nothing about that.
It will certainly not have been in the historical past but well back in the prehistoric.
The capture of the satellite and its later fall to the surface on our planet imposed great stresses on
the earth. The gravitational pull caused floods and earthquakes until the moon settled into a stable
orbit one-fifth of today's distance.
Hence the "moon" draws the oceans into a belt or bulge around the equator, drowning the
equatorial region but leaving the polar lands high and dry.
When the satellite approached within a few thousand miles gravitational forces broke it up;
according to the Roche formula each planetoid or asteroid disintegrates when approaching the
critical distance of 50 to 60,000 kms.
The fragments shattered down on earth; the oceans, released from the satellite's gravity, flowed
back toward the continents, exposing tropical lands and submerging polar territories. This is the
simple explanation of the Horbiger theory, and it seems to me the most logical one.
Thus the approach of the "moon" caused a world-wide deluge, effecting changes of climate and
provoking earthquakes accompanied by volcanic eruptions.
The "ring" left by the satellite after breaking into fragments cau sed a sudden drop in temperature
of at least 20 degrees, which geologists recognize as in a decline" in temperature. It is evident, for
example, in the discovery of frozen mammoths in the Siberian tundra.
Possibly gravity-and therefore physical weight - was also changed on earth, and with it biological
growth: this would explain the widespread construction of huge megalithic monuments as well as
the presence of giants-man and animal-in fossil strata, tombs, and myths.
According to Horbiger four moons fell on earth, producing four Ice Ages; our present moon, the
fifth one, will similarly be drawn into the critical configuration of one-fifth of its present distance
(380,000 kms.) and will cause the fifth cataclysm. (Remember the Aztec calendar's prediction of
doomsday by earthquake!)
The theory of a falling moon has recently been substantiated by Dr. John O'Keefe, a scientist at
the Goddard Laboratory for Astronomy in Maryland. Dr. O'Keefe claims that the fragments of a
moon's collision formed a ring around our planet that could have kept the sun's rays from
penetrating to earth, thus causing world-wide decline of temperatures.
After a while the fragments showered down on earth, breaking into smithereens known as tectites.
These tectites O'Keefe believes were fragments of the fallen moon, thus proving Horbiger 's
The Calendar Gate shows that a far-advanced culture made a substantial attempt to plant its
society at Tiahuanaco, wanting to revitalize this region which had already been devastated by
floods caused by a close satellite.
Their attempt eventually miscarried, because they had underestimated certain dangerous
developments that ultimately happened contrary to all expectations and calculations.
Such world-wide cataclysms appear in myth:
the Egyptian Papyrus Ipuwer ("The sun set where it rose")
the tomb of Senmut (showing Orion-Sirius painted in reverse position)
the Finnish Kalevala ("the earth turned round like a potter's wheel"),
the Popol Vuh (describing fire showering down from heaven)
This indicates that our planet more than once has suffered world-wide catastrophe.
Tiahuanaco, BoliviaTiahuanaco - also Tiwanaku - is in the Bolivian Andes lying 12,500 feet (over 2 miles) above sealevel.
It is located some 15 miles from the shores of Lake Titicaca.
As with many other sacred sites on the planet it remains an enigma allowing researchers to
speculate on its origins and purpose - then paralleling their conclusions with other ancient
civilizations - on other major grids points of the planet - left behind by unknown beings -
surviving in time - with great stone markers which bear clues to humanity's creational story.
Gods, temples, idols, metaphors - all clues in a puzzle humanity is unraveling at this time of
Tiahuanaco was the capital of the Pre-Inca Civilization. This could be the oldest city in the world,
thought by some to be built by an extraterrestrial race who created the Nazca Lines as well.
Strangely, Tiahuanacu was a seaport at one time, although the nearest body of water is Lake
Titicaca. There are many theories on how this came to be - mostly lined to changes in sea level
through the millennia.
On the rock cliffs near the piers and warfs of the port area of the ruins are yellow-white
calcareous deposits forming long, straight lines indicating pre-historic water levels. These ancient
shorelines are strangely tilted, although once they must have been level. The surrounding area is
covered with millions of fossilized sea-shells. It appears, from the tilting of the ancient shoreline
striations and the abundant presence of fossilized oceanic flora and fauna, that a tremendous
uplift of land has taken place sometime in the ancient past. Oceanic creatures live to this day in
abundance in the salty waters of the lake, indicating that it was once a part of the ocean, although
it is now over 2 miles above sea-level. What seems to be the original seashore is much higher in
one place than in another. The port of Tiahuanacu, called Puma Punku or "Door of the Puma," is
an area filled with enormous stone blocks scattered hither and yon like matchsticks, and weighing
between 100 and 150 tons! One block still in place weighs an estimated 440 tons! One wonders,
how were these blocks quarried; also how did the builders handle such huge blocks so skillfully?
And what tremendous forces tumbled and scattered these gigantic stones so easily about the site?
Many of the blocks, some of them weighing upwards of 200 tons, are held together by large
copper clamps shaped like an I, rather than enter-locking shapes as at Sacsahuaman or at Cuzco.
Others were held together by silver rivets. The system used here is reminiscent of that used in the
Egyptian ruins on Elephantine Island on the Nile. Most researchers believe that the metal was
actually poured into shaped-slots carved into the rock.
Some of the docks and piers in this area are so large that hundreds of ships could dock
comfortably - and nothing oceanic near these docks except an ancient coastline made of chalky
fossils. Lake Titicaca, languishing miles away, is nearly 100 feet lower than the ruined docks.
What tremendous geological upheaval has occurred in the last thousand years that could have
tumbled these huge stones while raising the entire altiplano region 2 miles into the sky? None that
anyone knows about - but 12,000 years ago might have been a different story.
Tiahuanaco was the center of a powerful, self-sustaining empire. The roots of the Tiahuanaco
capital can be found in the early village underlying the 1.5-square-mile civic-ceremonial core.
The city was settled by 400 B. C. on the Tiahuanaco River, which empties into Lake Titicaca 9.3
miles to the north. The small farming village evolved into a regal city of multi-terraced platform
pyramids, courts and urban areas, covering a total 2.31 square miles
Traditionally it is thought to have been built by the predecessors of the Inca Civilization over
2,000 years ago. It is a mysterious ruined city of extremely ancient origins. Around the turn of the
20th century Bolivian scholar Arthur Broznansky began a fifty year study of the ruins of
Tiahuanaco. Using astronomical information, he concluded that the city was constructed more
than 17,000 years ago long before any civilization was supposed to have existed. He called
Tiahuanaco the 'Cradle of Civilization'.
While restoring the city, huge staples were found between the stones. A groove was carve in the
edge and molten liquids were poured within, which hardened, forming this staple.
Tiahuanaco society was self-sustaining, for its agricultural, herding, and fishing resource base
was more than sufficient to support the complex state administrative apparatus and the population
under its control. The Tiahuanaco Empire collapsed between 1000 and 1100 A. D. It was a
magnificent royal city that was calculated to inspire awe in the commoners. The walls of the
temples and the stone monolithic statues and gateways are now shorn of their gold, textiles, and
painted surfaces, which for centuries had shimmered from afar in the bright sunlight.
Little is known of the 30,000 to 60,000 urban dwellers or of the city's crafts or administrative
functions. We also know little about the storage system that was required for the bounty of
surplus foods from the agricultural fields, the vast llama herds on the Poona, and the abundant
fish caught in the lake. The core of this imperial capital was surrounded by a moat that restricted
access to the temples and areas frequented by royalty.
Tiahuanaco fell from prominence after Lake Titicaca's water level lowered and the shoreline
receded from the city. Today the waters are many miles away.
The 10 ton Gateway of the Sun is monolithic, carved from a single block of Andesite granite, and
is broken right down the center. Its upper portion is deeply carved with beautiful and intricate
designs, including a human figure, condors, toxodons, elephants and some symbols. Directly in
the center of the gate is the so-called "Sun-god," Viroacocha, with rays shooting from his face in
all directions. He is holding a stylized staff in each hand which may represent thunder and
lightning. He is sometimes referred to as the "weeping god" because tears are on his cheeks. The
figures flanking the centerpiece are themselves unfinished, leading investigators to wonder what
could have interrupted the craftsmen working on the gate that it was left unfinished. This
monolith, when first discovered, was broken in half, and was lying askew deep in silt until
restored to its proper position in 1908. The Sun Gate now stands in the northwest corner of the
Legends of the Aymara Indians say that the Creator God Viracocha rose from Lake Titicaca
during the time of darkness to bring forth light. Viracocha was a storm god and a sun god who
was represented as wearing the sun for a crown, with thunderbolts in his hands, and tears
descending from his eyes as rain. He wandered the earth disguised as a beggar and wept when he
saw the plight of the creatures he had created, but knew that he must sustain them. Viracocha
made the earth, the stars, the sky and mankind, but his first creation displeased him, so he
destroyed it with a flood and made a new, better one, taking to his wanderings as a beggar,
teaching his new creations the rudiments of civilisation, as well as working numerous miracles.
Viracocha eventually disappeared across the Pacific Ocean (by walking on the water), setting off
near Manta Ecuador, and never returned. It was thought that Viracocha would re-appear in times
of trouble. References are also found of a group of men named the suncasapa or bearded ones -
they were the mythic soldiers of Viracocha, aka the 'angelic warriors of Viracocha'.
The famous carved figure on the decorated archway in the ancient (pre-Incan) city of Tiahuanaco,
known as the "Gateway of the Sun," most likely represents Viracocha, flanked by 48 winged
effigies, 32 with human faces and 16 with condor's heads. This huge monument is hewn from a
single block of stone, and some believe that the strange symbols might represent a calendar, the
oldest in the world. A huge monolithic figure, facing east in the direction of sunrise, stands as
silent witness to an unknown civilization established around 2200 years ago.
The entrance side of the Portal of the Sun atop the Kalasaya mound. The entire upper panel is
intricately carved with a repeating pattern of the images seen in the view above. The monolith has
broken and was found partially downfallen in modern times. It has been restored to its original
position. The fissure is visible above the right corner of the doorway.
The megalithic entrance to the Kalasaya mound is here seen from the Sunken Courtyard viewing
west. The Kalasaya stairway is a well-worn megalith, a single block of carved sandstone. Like the
Kalasaya mound, the Sunken Courtyard is walled by standing stones and masonry infill. In this
case the stones are smaller and sculptured heads are inset in the walls. Several stelae are placed in
the center of the 30 m square courtyard.
The largest terraced step pyramid of the city, the Akapana, was once believed to be a modified
hill, and has proven to be a massive human construction with a base 656 feet square and a height
of 55.8 feet. It is aligned perfectly with the cardinal directions. Its base is formed of beautifully
cut and joined facing stone blocks. Within the cut- stone retaining walls are six T- shaped terraces
with vertical stone pillars, an architectural technique that is also used in most of the other
Tiahuanaco monuments. It originally had a covering of smooth Andesite stone, but 90% of that
has disappeared due to weathering. The ruinous state of the pyramid is due to its being used as a
stone quarry for later buildings at La Paz. Its interior is honeycombed with shafts in a
complicated grid pattern, which incorporates a system of weirs used to direct water from a tank
on top, going through a series of levels,and finally ending up in a stone canal surrounding the
pyramid. On the summit of the Akapana there was a sunken court with an area 164 feet square
serviced by a subterranean drainage system that remains unexplained.
Associated with the Akapana are four temples: the Semi-subterranean, the Kalasasaya, the Putuni,
and the Kheri Kala. The first of these, the Semi-subterranean Temple, was studded with
sculptured stone heads set into cut-stone facing walls and in the middle of the court was located a
now-famous monolithic stela. Named for archaeologist Wendell C. Bennett who conducted the
first archaeological research at Tiahuanaco in the 1930's, the Bennett Stela represents a human
figure wearing elaborate clothes and a crown. The ancient Tiahuanaco heartland is estimated to
have been about 365,000, of whom 115,000 lived in the capital and satellite cities, with the
remaining 250,000 engaged in farming, herding, and fishing.
This megatlithic doorway is all that remains of the walls of a building on a small mound
near the Kalasaya. Much of the readily accessible masonry at the ruin was used to construct the
Catholic church in the village. A nearby railroad bridge also has Tiahuanaco stone.
Adjacent to the sunken court, residences of the elite were revealed, while under the patio the
remains of a number of seated individuals, believed to have been priests, faced a man with a
ceramic vessel that displayed a puma-an animal sacred to the Tiahuanaco. Ritual offerings of
llamas and ceramics, as well as high-status goods made of copper, silver and obsidian were also
encountered in this elite residential area. The cut-stone building foundations supported walls of
adobe brick, which have been eroded away by the yearly torrential rains over the centuries.
THE STATUES OF TIAHUANACU
In 1934 the Peruvianist Wendell C. Bennett carried out several excavations at Tiahuanacu.
Excavating in the Subterranean Temple he found two large stone images. One was a bearded
statue. Depicted are large round eyes, a straight narrow nose and oval mouth. Rays of lightning
are carved on the forehead.
Strange animals are carved up around the head. It stands over 7 feet tall with arms crossed over
an ankle- length tunic, which is decorated with pumas around the hem. Serpents ascend the figure
on each side, reminding one of the Feathered Serpent culture-hero known as Quetzalcoatl in
Beside the bearded statue was a much larger statue called in Bennett's report "the large monolithic
statue". It is the largest - over 24 feet tall - and probably the most interesting. It was sculpted out
of red sandstone, and is generally covered with carved images of various kinds. He holds objects
in each hand which are totally unidentifiable, although numerous interpretations have been
suggested. It has been removed from the site and now stands in a plaza in La Paz.
What is most interesting is the lower half of its body, which is covered with fish-scales (which
upon close inspection are actually fish-heads).
In truth all of these gods - no matter what civilization you are reading about - were the same
person / soul - creating realities based on Sacred Geometry - the same characters playing different
roles in different places.
This monolithic piece of work has a number of designs scattered over its surface, many of which
resemble the running winged-figures found on the Gate of the Sun, only with curled-up tails. Also
the "Weeping god" is depicted on the sides of the head of the statue. This is in addition to the
tears already depicted on the cheeks of the monoliths face. The Weeping god seems to be a major
theme at Tiahuanacu. One wonders what made their deities so sad. Other designs, although very
artistic, are rather hard to describe.
There are numerous other statues which have been found at Tiahuanacu, several of which have
found their way into various museums. Most have the incomprehensible stiff designs scattered
about on their surfaces in the typical Tiahuanacu style. Some are rather large, and others are
small. Depictions of toxodons and several other extinct creatures are plentiful at Tiahuanacu. The
images of these extinct animals are understandable on pottery and textiles - they could be copied
by anyone from the stone monuments dotting the area.
THE KALASASAYA TEMPLE
The most important edifice for dating purposes is the Kalasasaya ("Place of the Vertical Stones").
It is built like a stockade with 12 foot high columns jutting upward at intervals, each of these
being carved into human figures.
In the northwest corner stands the Gateway of the Sun, and in the southwest corner is "the idol".
This is one of two large anthropomorphic figures standings in the southwest corner of the
Kalasasaya Temple. This one faces the entrance and is placed on the central axis. The andesite
stone used at the ruins was transported from 100 kilometers distance. The sandstone was quarried
about 10 miles from the site. With the exception of the Sun Gate, it is the most picturesque of the
sculptures at Tiahuanacu, since its 7-foot height is almost covered with hieroglyphic-like
carvings. No one knows if these carvings represent a form of writing or are merely decorative.
Should these carvings prove to be a form of symbolic writing, what a story they might tell! The
statue popularly known as El Fraile is almost devoid of carvings.
Some researchers have concluded that the ancients constructed the site with astronomical
alignments in mind called Celestial Observatories.
As the sun rises each day it moves along the horizon and it rises in a different spot. To measure
this movement they built the temple itself as a giant clock to tell them how the progression of the
sun was proceeding. We can use those same astronomical alignments to date the site.
On the first day of spring the sun rose exactly through the center of the archway of the temple.
Based on the layout of the temple he deduced that on the first day of winter and the first day of
summer the sun should rise over each of the huge cornerstones. But this is not the case. The
position of the sun was, for some reason slightly outside the corner markers. The solstice markers
are not misaligned.
POSNANSKY'S DATING TECHNIQUE
Professor Posnansky was familiar with the fact that the ancient Egyptians built many temples
which incorporated astronomical alignments with certain celestial bodies for religious reasons.
Early on he realized that the purpose of the Kalasasaya was to determine certain important solar
alignments. Some simple investigations began to uncover near-alignments; then it was only a
matter of "turning back the astronomical clock" until the alignments lined up perfectly.
One might wonder why Posnanky would suspect such an extreme age for these ruins that could
cause him to look for such a thing as astronomical alignments? First of all, he couldn't miss the
fact that the ruins in general were covered by a thin layer of lime deposits, indicating they had
been underwater for a considerable period of time. Also, certain parts of the ruins were deeply
buried in sediments, which indicated that a stupendous wave of water had washed over the entire
area (the altiplano is almost totally devoid of rain). Posnansky suggested the Biblical Flood
(which cast a shadow over all of his other accomplishments) as the responsible agent.
In addition, the depiction of extinct Pleistocene animals, the traces of an ancient shoreline, and
finally, the paradox of a seaport existing at an altitude of 12,500 feet above sea level, lead
Posnansky to look for other indications that these ruins might be extremely old. He discovered
alignments with the sun which were slightly "out of true," but which lined up perfectly once the
skycharts were moved back in time, and this lead intensive astronomical studies.
Prof. Posnansky summed up his 50 year study in a 4 volume work entitled Tiahuanacu, The
cradle of American Man first published in 1945. He explains his theories, which are rooted in
archeoastronomy, as follows. Since Earth is tilted on its axis in respect to the plane of the solar
system, the resulting angle is known as the "obliqueness of the ecliptic".
One should not confuse this with another astronomical phenomenon known as Precession of the
Equinoxes, as critics of Posnansky have done. If viewed from the Earth, the planets of our solar
system travel across the sky in a line called the plane of the ecliptic. At present our Earth is tilted
to cause this angle to be around 23 degrees and 27 minutes, but this is not constant. The Earth's
axis oscillates slowly between 22 degrees and 1 minute to an extreme of 24 degrees and 5
minutes. This cycle (repeating itself from one extreme to the other and back) takes roughly
41,000 years to complete. The alignments at the Kalasasaya temple depicts a tilt of the Earth's
axis amounting to 23 degrees, 8 minutes, 48 seconds, indicating a date of 15,000 B.C.
Between 1927 and 1930 Prof. Posnansky's conclusions were studied intensively by a number of
authorities. Dr. Hans Ludendorff (Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Potsdam),
Friedrich Becker of the Specula Vaticana, Prof. Arnold Kohlschutter (astronomer at Bonn
University), and Rolf Muller (astronomer of the Institute of Astrophysics at Potsdam) verified the
accuracy of Posnansky's calculations and vouched for the reliability of his conclusions.
The conventional practice of dating Tiahuanacu as beginning c. 200 A.D. and collapsing c. 1000
A.D. started with Wendell Bennett's excavations, which turned up numerous examples of pottery,
small statues and other artifacts. Since it is common for later arrivals to be awed by massive ruins
sometimes attributing their origin to supernatural beings, thus replicating the "sacred" images on
their own pottery and textiles.
There is one solution that can satisfy all of the above mysteries regarding the ruins of Tiahuanacu.
This is none other than the geological cataclysm that inaugurated the Pleistocene Extinction,
which effected the entire globe geologically and climatically. Thus, if Tiahuanacu was built
before the Pleistocene Extinction, which occurred at the end of the last ice age.
Radiocarbon Database for Andes, geographical index
Site Date BP Sample Id
Buena Vista Mine 25000 Hv-87
Chiripa 3480±180 Beta-31291
Chiripa 3240±130 P-129
Chiripa 3210±170 GX-4057
Chiripa 3190±120 RL-496
Chiripa 3170±120 RL-495
Chiripa 2970±120 P-145
Chiripa 2900±140 RL-491
Chiripa 2850±110 RL-494
Chiripa 2820±110 RL-493
Chiripa 2810±180 RL-492
Chiripa 2725±100 GX-3595
Chiripa 2550±116 P-126
Chiripa 2468±133 P-115
Chiripa 2460±165 GX-4059
Chiripa 2386±114 P-125
Chiripa 2385±165 GX-3596
Chiripa 2377±110 P-116
Chiripa 2318±113 P-143B
Chiripa 2300±155 GX-4058
Chiripa 2291±115 P-124
Chiripa 2281±113 P-142
Chiripa 2275±116 P-141
Chiripa 2240±90 Beta-31920
Chiripa 2235±240 I-8314
Chiripa 2193±111 P-144
Chiripa 2177±112 P-143A
Chiripa 1937±104 P-117
Chiripa 1928±105 P-118
Cliza 1680±300 M-510
Cliza-Chullpapata 1850±90 Hv-116
Colchani 3520±600 W-3695
Cruzpata 2400±80 Tx-1818B
Cruzpata 2320±50 Tx-1818A
El Tambo 1850±65 GX-17572
El Tambo 1650±65 GX-17573
Gondunovia 510±60 Gd-4821
Huancarani 3160±110 GaK-1037
Huancarani 2750±100 Hv-121
Huancarani 2300±80 GaK-1039
Huancarani 2200±80 GaK-1038
Icla-Chullpamoko 1000±170 Hv-115
Icla-Chullpamoko 850±90 Hv-114
Kanasa 175±150 M-740
Karaparial 2280±80 Gd-6619
Karaparial 990±100 Gd-6623
Karaparial 890±80 Gd-4820
Kericala 900 M-1049
Khopi 2520±85 GX-14637
La Paz Ri. 38000 W-949
Lago Titicaca 9620±90 GrN-12677
Laguna Bolivia 1100±90 Gd-6627
Laimina 2290±70 GX-17574
Mesadilla 540±110 Tx-1819A
Mesadilla 380±200 Tx-1819B
Mizque 930±100 B-550
Mizque 840±100 B-449
Omereque 900±200 M-509
Patapatani 9200±250 W-367
Potosi 8960±180 TK-73
Salla 410±150 M-737
Santa Lucia 2040±60 Tx-1817A
Santa Lucia 1550±330 Tx-1817B
Sehuencas 2925±70 GX-17576
Sehuencas 2610±80 GX-17575
Sokotina 3098±60 P-1134
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 3530±120 GaK-194
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 2530±200 B-489
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 2410±140 GaK-53
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 2400±200 B-488
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 2190±130 GaK-52
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 2100±200 B-490
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1990±110 GaK-192
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1866±62 P-534
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1850±90 GaK-193
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1817±103 P-123
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1750±100 GaK-195
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1707±93 P-149
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1702±103 P-120
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1692±104 P-150
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1653±61 P-532
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1645±80 Hv-19
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1630±130 Hv-18
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1576±104 P-147
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1460±200 P-119
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1423±175 P-121
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1226±100 P-120A
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1120±140 INAH-972
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1090±60 ETH-5639
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 1090±85 ETH-5640
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 949±98 P-146
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 778±133 P-533
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 630±110 GaK-51
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 295±192 P-531
Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) 240±80 Hv-17
Valle Ibirza 2810±70 GX-17570
Valle Ibirza 2475±70 GX-17571
Valle Ibirza 2430±65 GX-17569
Yuraj Molino 2925±80 GX-15145
HIGH"-TECH FARMING AT TIAHUANACO
One of Tiahuanaco's (or Tiwanaku's) many puzzles has been how food for such a large city was
grown at an altitude of circa 3,850 meters (12,600 feet) in the frosty, windswept Bolivian Andes.
This problem along with the fabulous stonework and extensive ruins have precipitated theories
involving extraterrestrial visitors and an age for the site in the hundreds of thousands of years.
At least the food-supply puzzle now seems to be in hand. Stereoscopic aerial photographs show in
"...immense, curvilinear platforms of earth...these fields form elevated planting surfaces ranging
from five to 15 meters wide and up to 200 meters long...Extensive and nearly continuous tracts of
these fields -- all of which have been abandoned for centuries -- run from the edge of Lake
Titicaca to about 15 kilometers inland, and form virtually the only topographic relief in the broad,
gradually sloping plain."
Some of the raised fields are remarkably sophisticated in design. At the base is a layer of
cobblestones for stability. These are covered by a 10-centimeter layer of clay. On top of the clay
are three distinct layers of sorted gravel; all capped by rich organic topsoil. These fields were
simultaneously an aquifer for the fresh water percolating down from the surrounding hills and a
barrier to the brackish water from Lake Titicaca. Even at Tiahuanaco's altitude, these fields could
have grown potatoes, oca, or ulluco and the chenopod grains, as well as quinowa and caniwa.
Tiahuanaco and its satellite cities could have been fed with enough left over for export. Not bad
for farmers 2,000 years ago!
(Kolata, Alan L.; "Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland," Archaeology, 40:36, January/February 1987.)
Genesis as told by the Incas
The story of this genesis as told by the Incas, the last native lords of the Andes, is redolent with
miracles. As the story goes, Viracocha, the great creator god, rose from the deep, cold waters of
the mystical inland sea stranded high in the Andes. He strode with purpose from Lake Titicaca to
the sacred precincts of Tiahuanaco, where he undertook the primordial act of human creation.
Leaving the island on Lake Titicaca, Viracocha passed by
the lake to the mainland taking with him two servants . . . He
went to a place now called Tiahuanaco in the province of
Collasuyu, and in this place he sculptured and designed on a
great piece of stone all the nations that he intended to create.
This done, he ordered his two servants to charge their
memories with the names of all the tribes that he had
depicted, and of the valleys and provinces where they were
to come forth, which were those of the whole land.
He ordered that each one should go by a different road,
naming the tribes, and compelling them all to go forth and people the country. His servants,
obeying the command of Viracocha, set out on their journey and work. One went by the mountain
range which they call the heights over the plains on the South Sea. The other went by the
highlands which overlook the mountain ranges that we call the Andes, situated to the east of the
said sea. By these roads they went, saying with a loud voice, "Oh you tribes and nations, hear and
obey the order of Tici Viracocha Pachayachachic, which commands you to go forth and multiply
and settle the land." Viracocha himself did the same along the road between those taken by his
two servants, naming all the tribes and places by which he passed. At the sound of his voice every
place obeyed, and people came forth, some from lakes, others from springs, valleys, caves, trees,
rocks and hills, spreading over the land and multiplying to form the nations which are today Peru.
For the Inca, recounting their myth of genesis, Tiahuanaco was the pacarina: the holy place of
The Creator of the Andean world was an imagemaker; he skillfully sculptured the many nations
of humankind in stone at Tiahuanaco, and then called them to life from the heart of the earth.
Even today in that ancient place of origins, tourists wander through the shattered, graven images
of creation scattered across the ground. Unaware of what lies beneath their feet, they tread upon
the Creator's cosmic handiwork. Viracocha himself still stares implacably over the land and the
people he created at the dawn of time. His imperious face is enshrined on the "Gateway of the
Sun," the native Andean world's most perfect image of divinity. Viracocha gazes eternally to the
east, to the rising sun, from Tiahuanaco's Temple of the Kings, the monumental structure known
in Aymara as Kalasasaya, the Place of Standing Stones. His vision seems fixed on the distant
horizon emphatically marked by the saw-toothed, shimmering white peaks of Mount Illimani.
Arrayed in splendor, the Creator still presides over the abandoned halls of Tiahuanaco's kings. He
wears a resplendent crown, fashioned from the very rays of the sun. He poses regally on a sacred,
triple-terraced pyramid, holding a lightning bolt in his right hand, and an atlatl, the Native
American spear thrower, in his left hand. Within the pyramid, we see the characteristic U shape
of a cave, opening upward. We realize then that Viracocha's dramatic stage is not a simple, manmade
temple, but rather a supernatural pyramid. The Creator stands on the sacred mountain
pyramid from which the waters of all life flow.
In exquisite irony, the original text of Andean Genesis lies unrecognized, obscured under the
lichen-encrusted faces of the granite statues that haunt the ruins of Tiahuanaco. What we have left
to speak to us about the original beliefs of the ancient Andean peoples are written texts created by
the Spanish; texts which purport to faithfully record the beliefs of the ancients, but remain little
more than distorted simulacra. These Spanish versions of native Andean oral literature caricature
native beliefs and twist them with more than a little Christian morality and cosmological outlook.
Tici Viracocha Pachayachachic was more than an aesthete, a carver and shaper of humanity. He
was a god of action, a creator and destroyer of many worlds: the Shiva of the Andes. Before
successfully creating the world of humans, Viracocha annihilated two prehuman worlds; first by
fire and then again by flood. But the Creator, at last, established permanent cosmological order in
Tiahuanaco. He carved the images of nations. Then, with the help of two faithful subjects, he
called forth humanity from the natural world. Viracocha commanded the various tribes of man to
emerge from the sacred landscape of "springs, valleys, caves, trees, rocks and hills," finally
bestowing on each its natural name. Even at the dawn of time, Andean identity was inextricably
bound to sacred places and to sacred names. Like Chrisostomos Choque and the yatiris of the
contemporary Aymara world who call the achachilas by name, Viracocha subdues the wild,
natural world with his voice, with the generative power of naming. Viracocha, the first shaman of
the Andean world, expertly manipulates the tools of the seers' trade. He creates the universe with
his voice and with his memory.
In true Andean fashion, humanity emerged not from a utopian
Garden of Eden, but from the hard, living rock and water of the
natural world. In this great tale of Andean Genesis, Viracocha
shapes and reshapes humanity in the forge of trial and tribulation.
In the latter half of the sixteenth century, Antonio de la Calancha
preserved another version of the genesis story. This myth again
recounts the sequential destruction of two pre-human worlds, first
by fire and then again by flood, by the creator, here called only
Pachayachachic, the "Invisible Lord." Pachayachachic unleashed
his fury upon the inhabitants of these worlds when they directly began to worship the forces of
nature water and springs, mountains and rocks rather than the Creator himself. Only a few who
had not given themselves over to the ecstatic worship of natural forces escaped Pachayachachic's
wrath by retreating to protected redoubts on the highest mountain peaks. After the waters receded,
these survivors were charged with repopulating the land. In time, these too lapsed into animistic
worship and the Creator responded by turning them into stone. Finally, according to Calancha's
version of the myth, "it is said that until now Pachayachachic had not created the sun, nor the
moon, nor the stars but that he made them now in Tiahuanaco and in the Lake of Titicaca."
After abortive attempts subverted by the infidelity of his subjects, the Creator at last establishes
permanent cosmological order in Tiahuanaco. From chaos and rebellion, the natural and social
orders are reintegrated. The sun, moon, and: constellations are created at the place of origins and
the era of mankind begins. The passage of these celestial bodies through the heavens creates Time
itself. Their regular movement through the night sky becomes the astronomical guide by which
humans mark the annual cycle of the seasons. Stars and man become synchronized. By observing
the stars, the planets, the sun, and the moon, humans now possess the knowledge to interpret and
intercept the flow of natural forces for their own benefit.
Still other versions of Andean Genesis at Tiahuanaco were recorded by Juan de Betanzos (1551),
and Cristobal de Molina (1553). In the priceless, early version of Andean Genesis preserved by
Betanzos, the world creator, here named Contiti Viracocha, emerges from Lake Titicaca and
creates "the sun and the day, and the moon and the stars" at Tiahuanaco. Viracocha orders "the
sun to move in its path"and so the time of mankind begins. After calling out people from caves,
rivers, and springs scattered through the mythical landscape of creation time, Contiti Viracocha
furiously turns some into stone for sacrilegious behavior. Then, beginning the act of creation
again, the Creator fashions a new race of people to populate the earth. He created "a certain
number of people and a Lord to govern over them and many pregnant women . . . and the children
that they had in cradles, all of whom were made from stone." Contiti Viracocha dispatches these
people of stone to the distant corners of the Andean world. "In this fashion," the Creator made
"all the people of Peru and its provinces there in Tiahuanaco."
Viracocha keeps with him in Tiahuanaco only two faithful companions who become his sacred
messengers and his divine memory. He charges his messengers to remember the names of all the
people he created, as well as the precise location ("the springs and rivers and caves and mountains
in the provinces") from which they will emerge after their creation in Tiahuanaco. Then he sends
his divine messengers in opposite directions out into the newly created world to call forth the new
race of humans: "One he sent to the part and province of Condesuyu, that is, to the left hand side
standing in Tihuanacu with one's back to where the sun rises . . . the other he sent to the part and
province of Andesuyo, that is, to the right hand side standing in the manner indicated, with the
back to where the sun rises."
In Cristobal de Molina's version of the same myth, these two culture heroes are the Andean Adam
and Eve: the primeval male-female pair and the children of Viracocha. Like the other variants on
the theme of genesis, the events of the myth begin after a universal flood: ". . . all the created
things perished through him [Viracocha] except for a man and a woman, who remained in a box,
and when the waters receded, the wind carried them to sierra Guanaco [Tiahuanaco] . . ."
Viracocha orders the pair to remain in Tiahuanaco, and gives them, as surrogates of the Creator,
dominion over the people they are charged with calling forth from the sacred landscape. The
female of the original couple, called the ymay mama Viracocha, is given domain over the
mountainous lands, while the male, the tocapa viracocha, receives the mandate over the peoples
of the plains and lowlands. Viracocha first creates the natural world, and then organizes it into
complementary halves: the people of the mountains and the people of the plains.
The variations of the genesis myth recorded by Betanzos and Molina not only identify
Tiahuanaco as the pacarina, the sacred place of origin for the physical universe, but also as the
central point of partition of the social universe. The concept of duality, the world and all things in
it divided into two parts, was deeply embedded in the worldview of ancient Andean peoples.
Notions of duality still shape the mind of the native Andean peoples. In these myths, recorded
during the death throes of the Inca empire, Tiahuanaco represents a kind of boundary marker, the
point of cleavage between two archetypal social groups. To the ancients, Tiahuanaco was the
revered center where complementary, but potentially competitive, social groups merged in a
shared cultural identity. But who were these social groups? Where did they come from?
In his classic treatise on the natives of the New World, the Spanish cleric Bernabe Cobo informs
us that before the Lake Titicaca region was conquered by the Inca during the mid-fifteenth
century, the original name for Tiahuanaco was Taypi Kala. As Cobo explains it, Taypi Kala
meant "the stone in the center"; the natives ascribed this name to the site because they considered
the city to be in "the center of the world, and that from there the world was repopulated after the
flood." According to our earliest dictionary of the Aymara language, compiled by the Italian
Jesuit Ludovico Bertonio in 1612, taypi refers to something situated in the middle. But the term
taypi does not merely denote a central location in space or time. Within the more subtle textures
of meaning, taypi refers to a place, a zone, or a quality where two distinct things converge. For
instance, Aymara Indians living today on the eastern side of the Bolivian Andes use the term
taypi to refer specifically to the area on the mountain slopes where corn and potato farming
converge. This is an important zone of agricultural production defined by the altitude at which
both corn and potato farming is viable. This altitude, ranging from about 1800 to 3000 meters
above sea level, incorporates the richest and most fertile regions of the Andean world. Here the
concept of taypi emphasizes the quality of the melding of opposites (corn versus potato; grain
versus tuber) to form a productive whole.
During the sixteenth century, we know that the Aymara Indians organized their social and
physical landscape in a sacred geography redolent with symbolic associations. According to
Aymara ways of thinking, their entire world was divided into two halves: Urcosuyu and
Umasuyu. Urcosuyu referred to the mountain peaks and to the high, arid, rolling lands to the west
of Lake Titicaca. Umasuyu, on the other hand, was the fertile valleys to the east of Lake Titicaca,
from the lake edge into the Cordillera Real and beyond to the spectacular incised gorges and lush
subtropical landscapes of the Amazonian watershed. In Aymara, urco conveys the sense of
maleness and solidity. The people of the Urcosuyu were constantly in motion, nomadic
pastoralists tending vast herds of llamas and alpacas. They moved freely across the roof of the
Andean world in pursuit of fresh pasture and watering holes for their animals. In the mind of the
Aymara, the inhabitants of the Urcosuyu were associated supernaturally with the celestial
spherewith lightning, with thunder, with the spirit world of the sky. Dwellers in Urcosuyu were
thought to possess the masculine qualities of virility, aggressiveness, and stoicism. They were a
people as hard as the stones of their mountain world. The people of the Umasuyu, on the other
hand, practiced a sedentary, agricultural lifestyle, and enjoyed fishing and hunting along the
shores of Lake Titicaca. Uma itself means water in the Aymara language, and the inhabitants of
Umasuyu were truly people of the lake. They were associated supernaturally with the underworld,
with the watery domain of the spirits in the heart of the earth. Uma conveyed notions of passivity
and domesticity and evoked the organic fertility of females. Between these two ecological and
conceptual poles, between Urcosuyu and Umasuyu, between the People of the Mountains and the
People of the Lake, was the taypi, the essential zone of convergence. The taypi that connected
these two distinct social and physical halves of the Aymara world was Lake Titicaca itself.
From Lost Realm of the Aymara (1996), pages 65-72
“Near lake Titicaca, on the plains of Tiahuanaco, in Peru, are the remains of what has been
generally esteemed as the most ancient temple in South America, and which was religiously
copied by the Incas, in their sacred edifices; and according to the authorities, it was an enormous
terraced pyramid, faced with stone, and dedicated to the Creator of the Universe. The Temple of
the Sun at Pachacamac was built upon an artificial hill or mound. (American Antiquities,
Bradford. p. 165.)
Mystery of The city of Tiahuanaco
The city of Tiahuanaco is situated near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, in Bolivia. Even in
ruins, it is an impressive site. Its principal structures include a huge stepped pyramid of earth
faced with cut andesite (the Akapana Pyramid) and a rectangular enclosure known as the
Kalasasaya, constructed of alternating stone columns and rectangular blocks. The entrance to the
Kalasasaya is a monolithic gateway decorated with carved figures.
Tiahuanaco is an example of engineering so monumental that it dwarfs even the work of the
Aztecs. Stone blocks on the site weigh anything up to 65 tons. They bear no chisel marks, so the
means by which they were shaped remains a mystery. The stone itself came from two different
quarries. One supplied sandstone and was situated 10 miles away. It shows signs of having
produced blocks weighing up to 400 tons. The other supplied andesite and was located 50 miles
away, raising the question of how the enormous blocks were transported in an age before the
horse was domesticated in South America.
Close examination of the structures shows an unusual technique behind their building. The stone
blocks were notched, then fitted together so that they interlocked in three dimensions. The result
was buildings strong enough to withstand earthquakes.
Until very recently, orthodox archaeologists labeled Tiahuanaco a ritual site. The reason was that
it was built as a port. It has docks, it has quays, it has harbors. But they are docks, quays and
harbors that can't be used by any ship. Tiahuanaco is situated 13,000 feet above sea level and is
miles from the nearest water. Faced with this mystery, the historians solved it by deciding
Tiahuanaco was never lived in. It was, rather, a massive monument to ancient gods, built as a
port, presumably, so souls could sail to heaven. (6) This idea, like the Tiahuanaco harbors, no
longer holds water. By 1995, new archaeological discoveries clearly showed it was once not only
a bustling metropolis, but also the capital of an ancient empire extending across large portions of
eastern and southern Bolivia, north-western Argentina, northern Chile and southern Peru.
One of its most extraordinary accomplishments was a unique system of agriculture that involved
the creation of raised planting surfaces separated by small irrigation ditches. These ditches
absorbed sunlight and prevented crops from freezing, even on the high Altiplano. Algae collected
from the ditches was used as fertilizer. The discovery of this ancient system has proven a godsend
for modern Bolivian farmers who have found it gives greatly increased yields over modern
The excitement of the recent archaeological finds has diverted attention from the original mystery
- why would the Tiahuanacans build a working port 13,000 feet above sea level? One answer may
be that they didn't.
There is considerable controversy about the age of Tiahuanaco. Some scholars argue that building
started around 150 BC and the city continued to grow until the latter part of the first millennium
AD. Others insist it's much older and was probably in place by the second millennium BC. Firmly
in the latter camp are Arthur Posnansky, an archaeologist whose findings were endorsed by the
Bolivian government, and Rolf Muller, a German astronomer with an interest in the site.
Posnansky was the first to suggest the Kalasasaya enclosure functioned as an astronomical
observatory, a thesis that is now widely accepted by his peers.
Although both these dates have proven too much for the archaeological consensus to swallow,
they would But if Tiahuanaco existed before then, it would have been a sophisticated maritime
city, more or less contemporary with Plato's lost Atlantis.
The Atlantis Enigma
The city of Tiahuanaco is situated near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca, in Bolivia. Even in
ruins, it is an impressive site. Its principal structures include a huge stepped pyramid of earth
faced with cut andesite (the Akapana Pyramid) and a rectangular enclosure known as the
Kalasasaya, constructed of alternating stone columns and rectangular blocks. The entrance to
the Kalasasaya is a monolithic gateway decorated with carved figures.
Tiahuanaco is an example of engineering so monumental that it dwarfs even the work of the
Aztecs. Stone blocks on the site weigh anything up to 65 tons. They bear no chisel marks, so
the means by which they were shaped remains a mystery. The stone itself came from two
different quarries. One supplied sandstone and was situated 10 miles away. It shows signs of
having produced blocks weighing up to 400 tons. The other supplied andesite and was located
50 miles away, raising the question of how the enormous blocks were transported in an age
before the horse was domesticated in South America.
Close examination of the structures shows an unusual technique behind their building. The
stone blocks were notched, then fitted together so that they interlocked in three dimensions. The
result was buildings strong enough to withstand earthquakes.
Until very recently, orthodox archaeologists labeled Tiahuanaco a ritual site. The reason was
that it was built as a port. It has docks, it has quays, it has harbors. But they are docks, quays
and harbors that can't be used by any ship. Tiahuanaco is situated 13,000 feet above sea level
and is miles from the nearest water. Faced with this mystery, the historians solved it by
deciding Tiahuanaco was never lived in. It was, rather, a massive monument to ancient gods,
built as a port, presumably, so souls could sail to heaven. (6) This idea, like the Tiahuanaco
harbors, no longer holds water. By 1995, new archaeological discoveries clearly showed it was
once not only a bustling metropolis, but also the capital of an ancient empire extending across
large portions of eastern and southern Bolivia, north-western Argentina, northern Chile and
One of its most extraordinary accomplishments was a unique system of agriculture that
involved the creation of raised planting surfaces separated by small irrigation ditches. These
ditches absorbed sunlight and prevented crops from freezing, even on the high Altiplano. Algae
collected from the ditches was used as fertilizer. The discovery of this ancient system has
proven a godsend for modern Bolivian farmers who have found it gives greatly increased yields
over modern methods.
The excitement of the recent archaeological finds has diverted attention from the original
mystery - why would the Tiahuanacans build a working port 13,000 feet above sea level? One
answer may be that they didn't.
There is considerable controversy about the age of Tiahuanaco. Some scholars argue that
building started around 150 BC and the city continued to grow until the latter part of the first
millennium AD. Others insist it's much older and was probably in place by the second
(from The Mystery of Atlantis)
”Another inexplicable cyclopean ruin, that of the city of Tibuanaco, on the shores of Lake
Titicaca, in Bolivia, was found abandoned by the first Spaniards who arrived there. It was a city
built of enormous stone blocks, some of them weighing up to 200 tons, fastened together by silver
bolts (These silver bolts were taken by the Spanish conquerors, causing the buildings to
collapse during subsequent earthquakes) Stone blocks weighing 100 tons had been sunk into
the earth as foundations for the supporting walls of these buildings, and door frames 10 ft high
and 2 feet thick had been carved from single blocks of stone. According to local legends, the
city had been built by the gods. One might believe that the builders were superhuman, because
the enormous ruins were located at an altitude of 13,000 feet and located in an arid area now
incapable of supporting the large population necessary to build such massive buildings.”
“Some South American archaeologists consider that Tihuanaco (no one knows what its builders
called the city, as there are no records available) was built at a time when the Land was almost
2 miles lower than it now is. In fact, an ancient and deserted seaport is located nearby. This
theory is based on changes in the Andean Ridge, as interpreted by deposits of calcareous lime
or “water mark” lines on cliffs and mountains, and on the assumption that that section of the
Andes and Lake Titicaca were thrust upward, destroying and emptying the city, as• well as
other centers of this prehistoric culture. Remains of mastodons, toxodons, and giant sloths
found in strata nearby indicate this change of altitude. They could not have lived at the present
height. anymore than could the population necessary for building such a city have supported
itself in such a high and arid zone. Pictures of these animals have been found on ceramics
among the ruins, drawn by the vanished inhabitants of the region.”
Drawing of Toxodon
These animals are of a tropical nature and could not have lived at such an altitude as nearly
13,000 ft. They have found vases showing them, skeletons and drawings of these animals near
Pictures and Artifacts
Present Geography of The Lost Sea of The Andes
THE LOST SEA OF THE ANDESDelair, J. B., and Oppe, E. F. in The Path of the Pole,_ Charles H.
Hapgood ,Chilton Book Co., Philadelphia, 1970.
Outstanding among the unsolved problems of the recent geological history of South America
are those connected with that part of the Cordillera where Bolivia and Peru meet.
Arthur Posnonsky of La Paz observed:
Titicaca and Poopo, lake and salt-bed of Coipasa, salt beds of Uyuni———several of these
lakes and salt—beds have chemical compositions similar to those of the ocean. He pointed out
that Lake Titicaca is.. . . full of characteristic [saltwater] molluscs, such as Palude— strina and
Ancylus, which shows that it is, geologically speaking, of relatively modern origin.
Hans S. Bellamy, who gave the problem of the salinity of this region very considerable thought,
had the following to say:
The region in which the feeders of Lake Titicaca rise consist almost exclusively of old
crystalline, and younger volcanic rocks; Triassic formations, from which salt is usually derived
through extraction, are markedly absent.
Hence the presence of so much salt in the Bolivian Tableland can only be accounted for by
postulating a former connection of the great lacustrine basin with the Ocean, and by assuming the
eventual evaporation of this body of water when the connection with the Ocean was at last
The modern oceanic character of the faunas of these lakes and the chemical composition of the
salt deserts support this conclusion. Additional confirmation is to be found in the recent age of the
strand—lines left by this ancient sea on the slopes of the mountains enclosing the Alti— piano.
Bellamy called this body of water the Inter—Andean Sea. Indeed, when H. P. Moon wrote his
account of the geology of the region he put great stress on the “.. . freshness of many of the
strand—lines and the modern character of such fossils as occur.”
A few miles south of Lake Titicaca lies the celebrated ruin site of Tiahuanaco, a collection of
shattered edifices of some ancient civilization, itself outside the present inquiry but bearing very
definitely upon the radical changes which have occurred throughout the Altiplano within
geologically very recent times. Of these ruins A. Hyatt Verrill wrote:
Although the ruins are now over thirteen miles from Lake Titicaca there are reasons to think
that in the days when the city was occupied it stood on the shores of the Lake itself or on an arm,
or bay, for traces of what was apparently a dock or mole are to be seen just north of the principal
rums. If so the lake has receded.
Bellamy refers to a ‘canal” which appears to have surrounded the principal group of ruins at
Tiahuanaco, including the structure referred to hereafter as the “fortress” and adds:
Some explorers of the site of Tiahuanaco are of the opinion that the “canal” was, at most, only
a “dry—moat,” and hence will not concede that the peculiar rectangular depressions near the
ruins were once actual docks or harbour basins.
But the proofs in favour of our assertion that Tiahuanaco was once a harbour—town are
stronger than any of the objections put forward by more superficial observers.
Firstly: there is a rapid fall in level from the edge of the territory which bears culture—
remains to the floor of the territory which we say was covered by the waters of the Inter—Andean
Sea.... The difference in level is about 35 feet north of Tiahuanaco proper....
Secondly: while the soil of the territory which we say was above the water-level contains
numerous ceramic fragments and other remains, the former sea—bottom yields practically
nothing but the stone— rings with which the fishermen of that time used to weight their nets.
Thirdly: the ‘tdumpsV of roughly squared stone blocks [with which the edifices at
Tiahuanaco were built] are found only on territory which formerly was sea—bottom.
Bellamy concluded from this last fact that the builders of Tiahuanaco, who obtained their material
from quarries many miles distant———for structures which in their skilled and accurate masonry
alone remain a mystery———floated their stone blocks in a roughly squared condition on large
rafts and that the foundering of these occasionally would leave “dumps” of, in effect, raw
material where now found. He made another observation of like force:
Moreover, the “dry—moat” must have been a water bearing canal because the great sewer,
which drained the overflow of the pond on the platform of the “fortress” of Akapana discharged
into it (ibid.).
The salient proof, and one wholly relevant in present review, that Tiahuanaco possessed a
waterfront rests upon discernible traces of alkaline incrustations on the sides of the huge stone
blocks forming a part of the above—described mole, harbor—basin, or canal wall.
The line of these incrustations corresponds closely with that of the strand—line on the slopes of
the surrounding mountains, about which Bellamy wrote:
It was carefully surveyed for a length of about 375 miles.
And then it was established that it is not “straight.” It was found that the Inter—Andean Sea. .
. . was not merely a Lake Titicaca of higher level extending far to the south, but that its level
showed a slant of a most peculiar character in relation to the present ocean— level, or, which
amounts to the same, relative to the present level of Lake Titicaca.
The level of the Inter—Andean Sea revealed by the ancient.... strand—line was higher to the
north of Tiahuanaco and lower to the south.
The actuality of this peculiarity cannot be doubted, for it was established independently by
different persons at different times, using different methods of surveying.
The northernmost point at which the former strand line of the Inter Andean Sea.. . .has been
surveyed is on the mountain—slopes near Sillustani and to the west of Lake Umayo in the
Peruvian department of Puno.
There the former littoral is about 295 feet above the present level of Lake Titicaca, whose
surface is 12, 506 feet above sea level.
At Tiahuanaco, at the southern end of Lake Titicaca, the same strand line is 90 feet above
the level of that great sheet of water, and 4 feet below the coping stones of the parapets of the
long dry harbours and docks and canals of that mysterious metropolis. The ancient strand line and
the ruined prehistoric city are linked beyond any doubt.
The height of the strand line relative to the ocean level decreases the further south we go. At the
northern end of Lake Poopo on the mountain slopes south of Oruro it is 12,232 feet above sea
level, or 181 feet above the level of Lake Poopo.
Ancient life around Lake Titicaca
And indeed high on the Peruvian and Bolivian border lies the evidence. The mystery starts with
an ancient waterbed that covers an area of 3200 square miles, being 70 miles wide and 138 miles
The inland waterway is called Lake
Titicaca and is littered with millions of
fossilised seashells. The lake also
features a range of oceanic types, as
opposed to freshwater marine life.
Creatures brought to the surface in
fishermen’s nets have included
examples of seahorses. (40) During the
19th Century Professor P. M. Duncan,
studying the lake, noted the existence
of siluroid, cyprinoid and other marine
fishes in the lake. (41)
According to legend, Lake Titicaca
(right) is the birthplace of the Inca civilisation. The sun god instructed his children, Manco Capac
and his sister-wife Mama Ocllo, to travel until they found a place where a golden rod would sink
into the Earth.
Having discovered such a place on an island in Lake Titicaca, they gave birth to the Inca race, the
‘children of the sun’. This island, known as the Island of the Sun, remains one of the lake’s most
scared places and the local Indians still celebrate this ‘birthday’ with a festival every November
Close by the lake is the ancient city of Tiahuanaco. There is evidence that the city was once a
port, having extensive docks positioned right on the earlier shoreline of the now inland waterbed.
One of these wharves is big enough to accommodate hundreds of ships. (43)
There would be nothing at all remarkable about Lake Titicaca nor its city were it not for the fact
that the lake, resplendent with fossilised sealife and its nearby port city is now situated
some12,500 feet above sea level. At some
point in its past, the lake was at sea level,
and some immeasurable force has pushed
it skywards to rest high in the thin
mountain air of the Peruvian Andes where
now ‘only the graceful reed boats of the
native people who still fish its depths and
the restless winds of the past disturb the
calm surface.’ (44)
The City of Tiahuanaco is also full of
mystery. Lying at a height of some 13,000
feet, it lies on a plateau that looks like the
surface of a foreign planet. The atmospheric pressure is nearly half as low as at sea level and the
oxygen content of the air is similarly small. This isolation and altitude makes the very
construction of the city all the more remarkable.
Who had built the city? "I asked the natives whether these edifices were built in the time of the
Inca," wrote Pedro Cieza de Leon at the time of the Spanish Conquest, "They laughed at the
question, affirming that they were made long before the Inca reign and … that they had heard
from their forebears that everything to be seen there appeared suddenly in the course of a single
night." (45) Another chronicler noted the tradition that the stones had been miraculously lifted off
the ground, "they were carried through the air to the sound of a trumpet." (46) The historian
Garcilaso de la Vega made the following notes about the city soon after the sixteenth century
conquest: "We must now say something about the large and most incredible buildings of
Tiahuanaco. There is an artificial hill, of great height, built on stone foundations so that the earth
will not slide. There are gigantic figures carved in stone … these are much worn which shows
their great antiquity. There are walls, the stones of which are so enormous it is difficult to
imagine what human force could have put them in place. And there are the remains of strange
buildings, the most remarkable being stone portals, hewn out of solid rock; these stand on bases
anything up to 30 feet long, 15 feet wide and six feet thick, base and portal being all of one piece
… How, and with the use of what tools or implements, massive works of such size could be
achieved are questions which we are unable to answer … Nor can it be imagined how such
enormous stones could have been brought here." (47)
The ‘enormous stones’ weighed 100 tons and were
topped with other 60-ton blocks for walls. Smooth
surfaces with precision accuracy join the blocks of
stone which were held together with copper clamps
(right), a masonry technique not known to have
been used anywhere else in South America, but in
use in Ancient Egypt.
There isn’t much left now of this ancient city. In
the 1500s the Spanish systematically destroyed the
buildings, and later many of the stone blocks were
looted for houses in a nearby village. More recently some of the remaining stone was taken to lay
a railroad right-of-way.
Despite this, what is left is still impressive, boasting a pyramid 700 feet long, 5feet wide and 50
feet tall. There is also a temple 440 foot long, topped with columns up to 14 feet high that might
once have supported a roof.
The precision accuracy of the buildings that remain led to
a puzzle that was later to be solved by Professor Arthur
Posansky (1874-1946). Posansky (below) had spent much
of his life studying the ancient city, including the
enclosure known as Kalasasaya, one of the main ritual
areas of the city. Posansky realised that this area was an
astronomical observatory, however the points, which
should have marked the winter and summer solstices,
appeared to be slightly misaligned. Posansky concluded
that if the ancient builders had demonstrated an ability to
create this magnificent city with its precision engineering, it would be unlikely that they would
have botched such a fundamental and important feature.
Science, as ever, lent a hand to solve the puzzle. Today, the two tropics are 23.5 north and south
of the equator, however, over a cycle of 41,000 years, the position of the tropics changes along
with the Earth’s roll in space (the obliquity of the ecliptic) from 22.1 to 24.5 .
Posansky therefore set about
establishing at what point in history
the two observation points were
correctly aligned with the enclosure.
His result did not make for
comfortable reading, for he
concluded that the Kalasasaya was
constructed some 15,000 years BCE.
(48) Actually he was wrong. But not
Of course it may well be that the
ancient builders, whoever they were,
(remembering that the city was
constructed before the distant
memory of even the Incas) simply
made a clumsy attempt at building the enclosure. This appears unlikely, and together with
information that the Sphinx and the pyramids have already pushed back our accepted view of
when mankind was in a position to undertake vast construction and astronomical projects, an
early date may well be valid.
Posansky’s work was rejected at first, however his research and conclusions came to the attention
of a four man German Astronomical Commission whose purpose was to study archaeological
sites in the Andes. This team, led by Dr Hans Ludendorff of the Potsdam Astronomical
Observatory studied the Kalasasaya between 1927 and 1930. The team concluded that Posansky
was basically right, although they considered that construction probably took place 9300 years
BCE rather than Posansky’s favoured 15,000
There was also other evidence to support the
early dating of the city. One of the most famous
features of the ancient city is the ‘Gateway to
the Sun’. This feature, nearly ten feet high, 12.5
feet wide and carved out of a single block of
stone is adorned with pictures of various
animals. Two of which are intriguing.
One of the pictures is of an elephant, for
elephants were unknown on the American
continent; there have been no such animals
since about 10,000BCE when a creature with
tusks and trunk, the Cuvieronius, became
extinct. Yet someone had seen such a beast and carved it’s image onto the Gateway, supporting
Posansky’s and others redating of the founding of the city.
The second picture was recognised by Professor Denis
Saurat of France. He noted what was quite clearly the
head of a toxodon, a prehistoric animal now extinct.
According to old (Linnean) classification, the
Toxodon and the family Toxodontidae were South
American notoungulates of the Pliocene and
Pleistocene eras. (The Pliocene Epoch preceded the
Pleistocene and ended about 1.6 million years ago).
The Toxodon itself is described as rhinoceros-like,
about 2.75 meters long fully grown, and probably a
mixed browser and grazer.
It is unlikely that Saurat misidentified the animal for images of toxodons are also featured on
ancient Tiahuanaco pottery and even in nearby sculptures. (50) But how could mankind have
drawn pictures of such ancient and extinct creatures unless he had seen them?
The answer to this puzzle may lie in a prehistoric waterbed in Texas, USA. But first, a quick
resume of time.
1) Lehner, M National Geographic April 1991.
(2) Mellersh, H E ‘Chronology of World History – The Ancient World 10,000BC to AD799’ P2,
Helicon Publishing Ltd., Oxford 1994
(3) Schwaller de Lubicz, R A, ‘Le Temple dans l’Homme’ Cairo 1949 and ‘Le Temple de
l’Homme’ Paris 1957.
(4) Said, R (ed.) ‘The Geology of Egypt’ pp 487-507, Rotterdam 1990
(5) West, J A, ‘Serpent In the Sky: the High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt’ New York 1978;
Wheaton, Illinois, 1993.
(6) ‘Great Sphinx Controversy’ Fortean Times, P37 Ed 79 March 1995.
(7) Schoch, R M, ‘Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza’ KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient
Egypt, 3:2 (Summer 1992) p52-59, 66-70.
(8) For an abstract of their presentation, see R M Schoch and J A West ‘Redating the Great
Sphinx of Giza, Egypt’, Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America, Vol. 23, No 5 (1991) p.
(9) Los Angeles Times 23rd October 1991.
(10) The Boston Globe 23rd October 1991 p8
(11) Lehner, M, ‘The Egyptian Heritage Based on the Edgar Cayce Readings’ Association for
Research and Enlightenment Press, Virginia Beach, 1974 (14th Printing, 1991.)
(12) Wilson, Colin, ‘From Atlantis to the Sphinx’ p43, Virgin Books, London 1996
(13) Nat Geographic April 1991.
(14) Wilson, Colin, ‘From Atlantis to the Sphinx’ p48, Virgin Books, London 1996
(15) Ibid p47.
(16) Ibid p48
(17) Topical Debate: ‘How Old is the Sphinx?’ Abstracts of Papers 1992, AAAS Annual
Meeting (Washington, 1992), p. 202. The New York Times, 9th February 1992, p.34. ‘Sphinx
Riddle Put to Rest?’ Science, Vol. 255, No. 5046, 14th February 1992, p. 793.
(18) New York Times, 9th February 1992 p. 34.
(19) ‘Great Sphinx Controversy’ Fortean Times, P37 Ed 79 March 1995.
(20) Germer, R, ‘Problems of Science in Egyptology’ in [R A David, ed.] Science in
Egyptology’, Manchester University Press 1986 p521-525.
(21) See the remarks of Lanny Bell of the University of Chicago in The Boston Globe 23rd
October 1991 p. 8 and John Baines of Oxford University in The Independent (London), 14th
October 1991 p. 17.
(22) Wilson, Colin, ‘From Atlantis to the Sphinx’ p40, Virgin Books, London 1996
(23) ‘Great Sphinx Controversy’ Fortean Times, P39 Ed 79 March 1995.
(24) Bauval, R and Gilbert A, ‘The Orion Mystery’ pp180-181, Mandarin, London 1994.
(25) The Sunday Telegraph, 1st January 1995
(28) Egyptian Gazette, 20th April 1993
(29) The Sunday Telegraph, 1st January 1995
(31) Bauval, R and Gilbert A, ‘The Orion Mystery’ p120, Mandarin, London 1994.
(32) Mystic Places p. 82
(33) Joseph pp. 4-5, 1997
(34) Kimura 1997; see also Minato et al, 1965.
(35) Barot, Ytushar, ‘Divers Find World’s Oldest Building’ p. 4, Sunday Times, 26th April 1998.
(36) Schoch, Robert, ‘Secrets of the Deep’ p. 42 Fortean Times #114, September 1998.
(37) ‘The Work of Nature or a Lost Civilisation?’ p. 28 The Unopened Files No. 7 1998.
(38) Schoch, Robert, ‘Secrets of the Deep’ p. 42 Fortean Times #114, September 1998.
(39) Ibid p. 43
(40) Posansky, Professor A, ‘Tiahuanaca, the Cradle of American Man’ Vol. III p 192, Ministry
of Education, La Paz, Bolivia 1957.
(41) Duncan, P M, ‘On Lakes and Their Origins’ Vol. VII pp298-315, Proceedings Geological
(42) Mathews, R, ‘The Atlas of Natural Wonders’ p184, Guild Publishing, London 1989.
(43) Wilson, Colin, ‘From Atlantis to the Sphinx’ p118, Virgin Books, London 1996
(44) Flem-Ath, R & R, ‘When the Sky Fell’ p56, Orion, London 1995
(45) Pedro Cieza de Leon, ‘Chronicle of Peru’ Hakluyt Society, London 1864 and 1883, part I
Chapter 87 as reproduced in Hancock, ‘Fingerprints of the Gods’ p72
(46) ‘Feats and Legends of the Ancients’ p.55 Time Life Books, Virg inia 1990.
(47) ‘Royal Commentaries of the Incas’ Reproduced in Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods,
(48) Posansky, Professor A, ‘Tiahuanaca, the Cradle of American Man’ Vol. II pp90-91
Ministry of Education, La Paz, Bolivia 1957.
(49) Wilson, Colin, ‘From Atlantis to the Sphinx’ p121, Virgin Books, London 1996
(50) Saurat, Professor D, ‘Atlantis and the Giants’ page Faber and Faber, London