Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Amazing Ancient Africans




Homo sapiens arose in Africa over 250000 years ago by the mitochondrial Eve theory
by 100000 years ago the Africans had already split into two branches: the types of people that would go Out Of Africa, and the other set as opposed to them, the peoples that would stay in Africa. The Idalto man was an old type that was leading towards the Out of Africa population, and that line followe after the Border Cave people in South Africa, and that line was different to and independent from the other line which included the ancestors of Pygmys, Bushmen and other African types. Above is Idalto man compared to an Australian or Papuan type that was characterisic of the older Out of Africa types. (Pygmies also went Out Of Africa but they did not spread very far)


On the other hand the types that stayed behind in Africa included some very large people with some very large heads(left). Instead of being primitive, they were very advanced physically and mentally




By the time of the Out of Africa movement there was a wide range of human types. There were the tall, large headed but relatively paler-skinned Boskops, the darker skinned regular Africans which included a type more similar to Australian Aboriginals (people which subsequently vanished from the fossil record within Africa without a trace)


The Middle Stone Age Africans had all of the technology the Australian Aboriginals would show up with later before they started on their Out Of Africa journey. This includes spear and line fishing, and netting fishes, rafts and dugouts, grinding stones and building drystone structures and enclosures


Above, some drystone African ruins, such structures were also common on the Canary Islands off of NW Africa in the North Atlantic. And below a Southern European "Round Tower"


With the combination of engraved animal rock art, such as is found in the Sahara, and the building of round drystone walls, you already have the basics of creating a structure such as Gobliek Tepe

Saharan engraved Giraffe, 9000-10000 BC. Below, engraved animal rock art from South Africa


Apollo 11 Stones

THE APOLLO 11 STONES
A painted tablet was discovered in two pieces in the Huns Mountains of southwestern Namibia in an archaeological layer dated to between 26,300 and 28,400 B.P. The discovery occured during the flight of Apollo 11, and the shelter where it was found now bears that name. The stones were painted in charcoal, ocher, and white. The two separate pieces underwent different patinations, as the image shows. They are nearly twice as old as most comparable  polychrome European cave art 

Blombos Cave, South Africa -- ongoing excavations; ochre, tools, and beads; dates around 75 kya

Project site

Engravings on ochre from Blombos Cave
Henshilwood, Christopher, et al. (2002). Emergence of Modern Human Behavior: Middle Stone Age Engravings from South Africa. Science 295. 5558: 1278-1280, 15 February 2002. Full text (external). NSF press release with photographs.

Marine shell beads from Blombos Cave

Henshilwood, Christopher, F. d’Errico, M. Vanhaeren, K. van Niekerk, Z. Jacobs (2004). Middle Stone Age Shell Beads from South Africa. Science 304. 5669: 404 , 16 April 2004. Full text (external). News report (Guardian).

Project site photographs
Ostrich shell bead from LoiyangalaniLoiyangalani River Valley, Serengeti Plain, Tanzania-- excavated in 2003, ostrich egg beads dated tentatively to 70 kya, results not yet published
Serengeti Genesis, project site
Hathaway, James (2004). East African artifacts support evolution of symbolic thinking in Middle Stone Age. Press release, Arizona State University, 31 March 2003. Full text (external)
Mayell, Hillary (2004). Is Bead Find Proof Modern Thought Began in Africa? National Geographic, 31 March 2004. Full text (external)
Ostrich beads indicate early symbolic thought. New Scientist 31 March 2004. Full text (external)

Grinding stones and hand stones for milling grain from Middle Stone Age South Africa

Stone Age sorghum found in African cave

Topic:Ancient Sorghum



Sorghum.
Harvesting of wild grains may have begun more than 100,000 years ago.
Humans may have been baking bread 105,000 years ago, says a researcher who has discovered evidence of ground seeds from sorghum grass on stone tools in a Mozambique cave.
“Whether they were eating it or not, we cannot be sure, but I cannot see how sorghum gets into the cave unless humans bring it in,” says study author Julio Mercader, an archaeologist at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. Today, seeds from domesticated sorghum grass are used as flour for porridge, as a fermentation substrate for beer and as a dye for clothing.
Most researchers think that humans in the Middle Stone Age — which began around 300,000 years ago and ended around 50,000 years ago — depended on foodstuffs such as underground tubers and meat. Grains require a complex preparation process of grinding and charring before they can be digested by humans. Mercader says that sorghum flours could have been used to make culinary preparations such as bread. The first confirmed use of grains in the human diet comes from charred barley and wheat from Israel dating to about 23,000 years ago1, so the latest findings could push that date back another 80,000 years.
Mercader first discovered the Ngalue cave, in the sparsely populated Niassa province of Mozambique, with the help of locals in 2005. After a drive to the end of a road at an old mine site, he and his team then had to hike for 45 minutes to reach the cave’s mouth. In 2007, the team made this trip every day as they excavated in a dark chamber 20 metres from the cave entrance, identifying animal bones along with more than 500 quartz artefacts.
Mercader says that he has always taken precautions not to wash or touch the excavated tools to ensure that he leaves pollens, starches and other microfossils intact. After examining 70 stone tools, including scrapers and grinders, he found that 80% contained traces of starch granules, mainly from wild Sorghum species. Some of the grains appeared damaged, but none had been cooked. “These data imply that early Homo sapiens from southern Africa consumed not just underground plant staples, but above-ground resources too,” he writes in this week’s issue of Science.2

Half-baked?

Other scientists, however, are sceptical. Archaeologist Lyn Wadley, an honorary professor at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, points out that starch grains are notoriously difficult to identify, varying not only among species but also between different parts of a plant. “Even if sorghum is truly present at the site,” she says, “there could be a reason for this presence other than eating of grains.” At the Sibudu cave in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, her group has found that grasses similar to sorghum were used for bedding and as tinder for fireplaces.
Loren Cordain, an exercise physiologist at Colorado State University in Fort Collins and an expert on the Palaeolithic diet, agrees that the evidence is too thin to support the consumption of grains as food. “I don’t think they’ve really built a strong case for the notion that cereal grains were exploited on a real basis and were part of the diet of our ancestors,” he says. “It’s fascinating and suggestive, but the logic doesn’t fall in place.” He points out that there is no anvil rock with which to grind the grains as discovered in Israel, for instance, nor is there evidence that humans were cooking the grains.
But Mercader believes early human grain consumption is possible even if he has not yet fully demonstrated it. “If you think about the complexity of modern human behaviour, I’m not sure the early use of grains is unexpected: it’s in line with other discoveries from the Middle Stone Age,” he says. Early modern humans first emerged around 150,000 to 200,000 years ago, and scientists working in South Africa have found that humans 72,000 years ago were using shell beads and ochre pigments, in addition to making stone tools with the help of fire.3 “I understand healthy scepticism goes a long way,” Mercader says, “but let us not overdo it.”
Original article:
By Brendan Borrell
12/2009
nature.com

[The criticisms later proved to be false. Grain-grinding stones were found in Subsaharan MiddleStoneAge deposits, and when tested they were found to have a residue of vegetable starch from processed grains left on them]


Some of these items such as pierced shell beads and red ochre use (Shell in center has red ochre stain) appear very early on in what would become modern Israel which indicates old contacts the Africa further South: other such locations include Northwestern Africa, and southern Spain and Italy.
Skeletons of African type appear in these areas as far back as 100000 years ago, but they advanced no further into Neandethal-held European and Middle-Eastern territory than that.


The very old African advanced technology included such things as bone points, bird-bone flutes, bone harpoons. These come more than twice as early as the similar items indicated the introduction of a higher culture into Europe: some of these are as old as 100000 years old also.




 The Ishango bone is a very old bone tool from Equatorial Africa which has marks on it which indicate a sophisticated knowledge of numbers and mathematics. It is probably over 25000 years old and is the oldest indication of a knowledge of prime numbers, a pretty advanced concept

This Ishango bone is old, but the oldest "mathematical artifact" currently known is much older. The oldest is a piece of baboon fibula with 29 notches, dated 35,000 BC. This older bone was discovered in the mountains between South Africa and Swaziland.  Bushmen clans in Nambia use similar bones for calendar sticks today. see also
S. Williams' The oldest mathematical object (An enthusiastic review of the Ishango Bone)
Upper Paleolithic Tool Types. Louis Leakey (Among others) noticed there was a "False dawn" of the more advanced Upper Paleolithic stone blade tools in Eastern Africa in the period of 75000-100000 years ago where the tools resembled more the ones which would have been typical of the period of 15000 to 30000 years ago, substantially younger
Instead of there being a clear continuity between the stone tool layers, there were substantial long-term breaks in between
The CroMagnon rock Art of Europe has clear similarities to the "Bushman" rock art of South Africa and now it seems the African tradition was older. Below, the Cro-Magnon shown with bows and arrows: it also looks like the Africans had bows and arrows, lost or forgot about the technology, and then re-invented them over tens of thousands of years-at least two or three times in succession.






The Venus figurines can be broadly classified into two types, squat and linear, which definitely recall the contrasting Neanderthal and African/Cro-Magnon body types. Both types still occur today (Russian Female Nudists, excerpt in center) and this looks like very strong evidence of mixing


The oldest depictions of Humans in Europe have African references. Several of the Venus figurines show the trait of Steatopygia (literally Fat Butts) which is an African trait when developed to the degree as shown. And the Lion King/Lion Man figurine (below) is clearly the importation of an African deity and an African concept, developed far earlier outside of Europe and imported at the dawn of European art history.


The above chart indicates how substantially older the African cultures are.
 And below is a more schematic chart I made for comparison, to get the point across:

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