|The L3 Mitochondrial DNA group is the one identified as producing the Out of Africa Tribe.|
|Development of Y-Chromosome haplogroups outside of Africa. The two groups that seem to be involved in Atlantic Crossings are Q and R, with the Q group probably Solutean and R1A associated with the Neolithic asnd Megalith-Builders|
|Cavalli-Sforza Genetics distances map|
The note above these maps reads:
Anatomically modern humans first emerged in East Africa, some 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. An exodus from Africa over the Arabian Peninsula around 60,000 [nearer 70,000] years ago brought modern humans to Eurasia, with one group rapidly settling coastal areas around the Indian Ocean and one group migrating north to steppes of Central Asia. A mitochondrial DNA sequence of two Cro-Magnons from the Paglicci Cave, Italy, dated to 23,000 and 24,000 years old (Paglicci 52 and 12), identified the mtDNA as Haplogroup N, typical of the latter group. The inland group is the founder of North and East Asians (the "Mongol" people), Caucasoids and large sections of the Middle East and North African population. Migration from the Black Sea area into Europe started some 45,000 years ago, probably along the Danubian corridor. By 20,000 years ago, modern humans had reached the Western margin of the continent.Going along with this is the opinion expressed by Richard Klien in The Dawn of Human Culture which proposes a theory for the "big bang" in human consciousness, an event that occurred about 50,000 years ago for reasons that are not entirely clear. The archaeological record suggests that humans became physically modern Homo sapiens about 120,000 years ago. However, judging by culture and behaviour is a different matter. The authors present a very strong case that whatever it is that makes us fully "human" did not appear until about 50,000 years ago. At about that time, people suddenly started engaging in recognizably modern behaviors--producing stunning cave paintings, carving figurines, making complex ornaments, burying their dead with ritual, building semi-permanent structures, assembling an intricate tool kit, and expanding throughout the world. The authors readily concede that there are a few ambiguous examples of similar behavior among more ancient Neanderthals and archaic Homo sapiens, but the change after 50,000 years ago is a flood compared to the trickle that came before it. Quoting from the dust jacket's back flap:
Main article: Anatomically modern humans
Some fifty thousand years ago Homo sapiens, the newest branch of a long and varied tree of evolved apes, suddenly developed a remarkable range of new talents. These people-whose primitive stone culture had previously been little different from that of their ancestors-began painting. They invented music and the instruments to play it. They fashioned jewelry and clothing, created fishing poles and tackle as well as bows and arrows, constructed the oldest substantial houses, and buried their dead with ritual and ceremony. This creative explosion, occurring over such a remarkably short period, has been called the "big bang" of human culture.
Now this "50000 years ago" is basically just the estimated date for the invasion of Europe plus a generous allowance for people to get their act together before going into Europe. (This is figured as taking the estimates of 40000 years ago for the oldest modern H. sapiens settlements in Europe, going on the oldest radiocarbon dates, and factoring in an undocumented earlier 10000 years for estimated earlier development)
There are two main theories regarding when modern human behavior emerged. One theory holds that behavioral modernity occurred as a sudden event some 50 kya (50,000 years ago) in prehistory, possibly as a result of a major genetic mutation or as a result of a biological reorganization of the brain that led to the emergence of modern human natural languages. Proponents of this theory refer to this event as the Great Leap Forward or the Upper Paleolithic Revolution.
The second theory holds that there was never any single technological or cognitive revolution. Proponents of this view argue that modern human behavior is the result of the gradual accumulation of knowledge, skills and culture occurring over hundreds of thousands of years of human evolution. Proponents of this view include Stephen Oppenheimer in his book Out of Eden, and John Skoyles and Dorion Sagan in their book Up from Dragons: The evolution of human intelligence.
DefinitionModern human behavior is observed in cultural universals which are the key elements shared by all groups of people throughout the history of humanity. Examples of elements that may be considered cultural universals are language, religion, art, music, myth, cooking, games, and jokes. While some of these traits distinguish Homo sapiens from other species in their degree of articulation in language based culture, some have analogues in animal ethology. Since cultural universals are found in all cultures including some of the most isolated indigenous groups, scientists believe that these traits must have evolved or have been invented in Africa prior to the exodus.
Classic archaeologically-accessible evidence of behavioral modernity includes:
- finely-made tools
- evidence of long-distance exchange or barter among groups
- systematic use of pigment (such as ochre) and jewelry for decoration or self-ornamentation
- figurative art (cave paintings, petroglyphs, figurines)
- game playing and music
- foods being cooked and seasoned instead of being consumed raw
TimingWhether modern behavior emerged as a single event or gradually is the subject of vigorous debate.
Great leap forwardkya in Africa or Europe, or perhaps simultaneously throughout the occupied world; however some argue for an earlier date and a slower radiation, urging evidence for advanced tool-making (e.g., pyrolithic and bone tools) and abstract designs at Blombos Cave and other sites along the South African coast by at least 80kya. They argue that humans who lived before the leap were behaviorally primitive, indistinguishable from other extinct hominids such as the Neanderthals or Homo erectus. Proponents of this view base their evidence on the abundance of complex artifacts, such as artwork and bone tools of the Upper Paleolithic, that appear in the fossil record after 50 kya. They argue that such artifacts are absent from the fossil record from before 50 kya, indicating that earlier hominids lacked the cognitive skills required to produce such artifacts.
Jared Diamond states that humans of the Acheulean and Mousterian cultures lived in an apparent stasis, experiencing little cultural change. This was followed by a sudden flowering of fine toolmaking, sophisticated weaponry, sculpture, cave painting, body ornaments, and long-distance trade. Humans also expanded into hitherto uninhabited environments, such as Australia and Northern Eurasia.
The Great Leap Forward was concurrent with the extinction of the Neanderthals, and it has been suggested that Cro-Magnon interaction with Neanderthals caused this extinction.
According to this model, the emergence of anatomically modern humans predates the emergence of behaviorally modern humans by over 100 kya.
Continuity hypothesissociocultural and sociobiological evolution occurring over hundreds of thousands of years. They further dispute that anatomical modernity predates behavioral modernity, stating that changes in human anatomy and behavioral changes occurred stepwise.
Continuity theorists base their assertions on evidence of aspects of modern behavior that can be seen in the Middle Stone Age (approximately 250 - 50 kya) at a number of sites in Africa and the Levant. For example, a ritual burial with grave goods at Qafzeh is Middle Stone Age (MSA) having been dated to 90 kya. The usage of pigment is noted at several MSA sites in Africa dating back more than 100 kya. The findings of Curtis Marean and his colleagues of fishing and symbolic behavior dating to 164,000 years ago on the southern African coast are also argued to support this analysis. At Pinnacle Point cave, Marean's team found evidence tool makers understood the process of careful heating needed for converting silcrete into easily flaked form 73kya, and possibly more than 164kya. Prior to this, it was widely believed that earliest known use of this technology was in Europe 25kya.
Continuity theorists believe that what appears to be a technological revolution at the onset of the Upper Paleolithic is most likely a result of increased cultural exchange resulting from a growing human population. A popular analogy is a comparison with the industrial revolution, in which a radical change of accumulated ideas came together to drastically change human behavior and living in just a hundred or so years, despite no change in biology or anatomy. Some continuity theorists also argue that the rapid pace of cultural evolution during the Upper Paleolithic transition may have been triggered by adverse environmental conditions such as aridity arising from glacial maxima.
- Steven Mithen (1999), The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion and Science, Thames & Hudson, ISBN 978-0-500-28100-0.
- Archeology and the Evolution of Human Behavior
- Artifacts in Africa Suggest An Earlier Modern Human
- Tools point to African origin for human behaviour
- Key Human Traits Tied to Shellfish Remains, nytimes 2007/10/18
- "Python Cave" Reveals Oldest Human Ritual, Scientists Suggest
Additionally, there is presumed to have been another great leap forward mentally at the end of the Ice Age and in connection to the Neolithic Revolution. This was supposed to have come about with another reorganization of thinking and using language, perhaps an altered state of conciousness as compared to the way people had been thinking and acting before.
As for Sundaland=Lemuria, it was not really a case of premature development when they had achieved approximately the level of development of the CroMagnons at approximately twice as old of a date. All that it means is that the Africans arrived then and that the Anthropologists can tell what their level of culture was at beginning at that date.