Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Monday, October 22, 2012

Indonesians To Midieval Africa

Submitted by Chris Savia

Indonesians in Medieval AfricaOctober 22, 2012

Posted by Beachcombing in : Medieval , trackback

Despite all the excitement about the use of DNA in history, those elusive strands have so far proved surprisingly unhelpful in our text books. The problem is that populations with similar DNA live close to each other and that it is next to impossible to give a chronological breakdown of when a given locality changes its DNA without finding bodies from every generation and comparing them. Every so often though DNA crops up far from ‘home’. And these are the moments when DNA really makes a difference, sticking out like a neon church tower in a landscape of brick campanili. We have looked here before at an example of Amerindian DNA from Iceland and, another time, at ‘Gypsy’ DNA in Insular Europe. What about for Monday morning blues, Indonesian DNA in Madagascar?
Madagascar and Indonesia are separated by some three thousand miles: even in the late nineteenth century a boat trip between the two was far from a joke. Yet recent studies in the mitochondrial DNA of Madagascar, by one Murray Cox and team, suggest that the African island’s founding mothers were from the Asian archipelago. After a large-scale analysis of Indonesians and Madagascans he suggests, in fact, that most modern Madagascans can be tied to thirty Indonesian women who came to the island perhaps twelve hundred years ago. The number of males will have to await later study. This Indonesian DNA fugues with the suspicions of linguists who have noted vocabulary overlap with some ‘Indonesian’ languages. There are also characteristically ‘Asian’ objects in Madagascar such as xylophones. Earlier studies were not as emphatic as MC, suggesting mixing of an Indonesian with an African population in Madagascar or elsewhere. But there has long been the suspicion, now a certainty that there was a large, perhaps overwhelmingly Indonesian component in the first Madagascan populations.
A question that cannot be answered is under what circumstances these Indonesians made it across the Indian Ocean. The normal fail-sure solution for these embarrassments is a trader blown off course: but that doesn’t work here. After all, what kind of trader carries women: unless we are to suppose a slaver? drbeachcombing AT yahoo DOT com An inter-island ferry might have got blown off course, but a ship like this would have had less chances of getting through with crew and passengers still alive. A final possibility is that a population from a western Indonesian island was forced to flee from some sort of catastrophe or invasion and that a boat or a number of boats went into the waves preferring death by water to lava or spear, only to come across this unexpected paradise weeks later. However, we explain the strange colonisation of Madagascar consider this: there are only about three hundred miles from Continental Africa to the island, yet the original colonists came from perhaps ten times that distance or more, c. 800 AD, making Madagascar one of the last places to be populated on the planet.
***
22 Oct 2012: Stephen D complicates matters: The Y chromosomes of Malagasys have already been reported: see Hurles ME et al, American Journal of Human Genetics 76:894-901, 2005. About half the males studied have African haplotypes, the others appear to be from Borneo (and linguists have noted that the languages spoken around the Barito River in southern Borneo are the closest relatives of Malagasy languages).Note that this adds a further twist to the story: if you had to guess where in Malaysia or Indonesia the transoceanic element of Madagascar came from, Borneo would seem very unlikely. KMH has a coast-hugging solution: There is the remote possibility that the ship or ships of these thirty women hugged the coast line most of the way from Indonesia to Africa before perhaps being serendipitously blown off course to Madagascar. I seem to recall that a great Chinese fleet made a similar voyage that got at least to Aden. As such, the survival problem would not be overwhelming. Follow the Baldie has a supplementary question: If you work out the conundrum of the female xylophone orchestra’s deserting ship in Tamatave, maybe you could help with this one:
 http://oreneta.com/kalebeul/2005/12/30/when-javans-ruled-spain/ Thanks Stephen, Baldie and KMH!

A slightly more awkward puzzle is that some place names in Madagascar can be read off with perfect sense in Sumerian. This is possibly because all Malayo-Polynesian languages seem to have similarities to Sumerian anyway. Or some of the more free-thinking linguists have said.

Sunday, October 21, 2012

6 Ridiculous Lies You Believe About the Founding of America

6 Ridiculous Lies You Believe About the Founding of America

2,822,160 views
 
 
When it comes to the birth of America, most of us are working from a stew of elementary school history lessons, Westerns and vague Thanksgiving mythology. And while it's not surprising those sources might biff a couple details, what's shocking is how much less interesting the version we learned was. It turns out our teachers, Hollywood and whoever we got our Thanksgiving mythology from (Big Turkey?) all made America's origin story far more boring than it actually was for some very disturbing reasons. For instance ...

#6. The Indians Weren't Defeated by White Settlers

The Myth:
Our history books don't really go into a ton of detail about how the Indians became an endangered species. Some warring, some smallpox blankets and ... death by broken heart?
When American Indians show up in movies made by conscientious white people like Oliver Stone, they usually lament having their land taken from them. The implication is that Native Americans died off like a species of tree-burrowing owl that couldn't hack it once their natural habitat was paved over.
But if we had to put the whole Cowboys and Indians battle in a Hollywood log line, we'd say the Indians put up a good fight, but were no match for the white man's superior technology. As surely as scissors cuts paper and rock smashes scissors, gun beats arrow. That's just how it works.

This is all the American history you'll ever need to know.
The Truth:
There's a pretty important detail our movies and textbooks left out of the handoff from Native Americans to white European settlers: It begins in the immediate aftermath of a full-blown apocalypse. In the decades between Columbus' discovery of America and the Mayflower landing at Plymouth Rock, the most devastating plague in human history raced up the East Coast of America. Just two years before the pilgrims started the tape recorder on New England's written history, the plague wiped out about 96 percent of the Indians in Massachusetts.
In the years before the plague turned America into The Stand, a sailor named Giovanni da Verrazzano sailed up the East Coast and described it as "densely populated" and so "smoky with Indian bonfires" that you could smell them burning hundreds of miles out at sea. Using your history books to understand what America was like in the 100 years after Columbus landed there is like trying to understand what modern day Manhattan is like based on the post-apocalyptic scenes from I Am Legend.

"They call it 'The city that never sleeps' because the only guy who lives there is a notoriously sarcastic rapper."
Historians estimate that before the plague, America's population was anywhere between 20 and 100 million (Europe's at the time was 70 million). The plague would eventually sweep West, killing at least 90 percent of the native population. For comparison's sake, the Black Plague killed off between 30 and 60 percent of Europe's population.
While this all might seem like some heavy shit to lay on a bunch of second graders, your high school and college history books weren't exactly in a hurry to tell you the full story. Which is strange, because many historians believe it is the single most important event in American history. But it's just more fun to believe that your ancestors won the land by being the superior culture.
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Yay for apocalypse profiteering!
European settlers had a hard enough time defeating the Mad Max-style stragglers of the once huge Native American population, even with superior technology. You have to assume that the Native Americans at full strength would have made shit powerfully real for any pale faces trying to settle the country they had already settled. Of course, we don't really need to assume anything about how real the American Indians kept it, thanks to the many people who came before the pilgrims. For instance, if you liked playing cowboys and Indians as a kid, you should know that you could have been playing vikings and Indians, because that shit actually happened. But before we get to how they kicked Viking ass, you probably need to know that ...

#5. Native Culture Wasn't Primitive

The Myth:
American Indians lived in balance with mother earth, father moon, brother coyote and sister ... bear? Does that just sound right because of the Berenstain Bears? Whichever animal they thought was their sister, the point is, the Indians were leaving behind a small carbon footprint before elements were wearing shoes. If the government was taken over by hippies tomorrow, the directionless, ecologically friendly society they'd institute is about what we picture the Native Americans as having lived like.

"Our foreign policy can be summed up with one word: peyote."
The Truth:
The Indians were so good at killing trees that a team of Stanford environmental scientists think they caused a mini ice age in Europe. When all of the tree-clearing Indians died in the plague, so many trees grew back that it had a reverse global warming effect. More carbon dioxide was sucked from the air, the Earth's atmosphere held on to less heat, and Al Gore cried a single tear of joy.
One of the best examples of how we got Native Americans all wrong is Cahokia, a massive Native American city located in modern day East St. Louis. In 1250, it was bigger than London, and featured a sophisticated society with an urban center, satellite villages and thatched-roof houses lining the central plazas. While the city was abandoned by the time white people got to it, the evidence they left behind suggests a complex economy with trade routes from the Great Lakes all the way down to the Gulf of Mexico.
Herb Roe
Contrary to what museums told us, the loin cloth was not the most advanced Native American technology.
And that's not even mentioning America's version of the Great Pyramid: Monk's Mound. You know how people treat the very existence of the Great Pyramid in Egypt as one of history's most confounding mysteries? Well, Cahokia's pyramid dwarfs that one, both in size and in degree of difficulty. The mound contains more than 2.16 billion pounds of soil, some of which had to be carried from hundreds of miles away, to make sure the city's giant monument was vividly colored. To put that in perspective, all 13 million people who live in the state of Illinois today would have to carry three 50-pound baskets of soil from as far away as Indiana to construct another one.

"What if we built a middle finger large enough to flip off God?"
So why does Egypt get millions of dollars of tourism and Time Life documentaries dedicated to their boring old sand pyramids, while you didn't even know about the giant blue, red, white, black, gray, brown and orange testament to engineering and human willpower just outside of St. Louis? Well, because the Egyptians know how to treat one of the Eight Wonders of the World. America, on the other hand, appears to be trying to figure out how to turn it into a parking lot.
World Pyramids
But think of all the parking!
In the realm of personal hygiene, the Europeans out-hippied the Indians by a foul smelling mile. Europeans at the time thought baths attracted the black humors, or some such bullshit, because they never washed and were amazed by the Indians' interest in personal cleanliness. The natives, for their part, viewed Europeans as "just plain smelly" according to first hand records.
The Native Americans didn't hate Europeans just for the clouds of shit-smelling awfulness they dragged around behind them. Missionaries met Indians who thought Europeans were "physically weak, sexually untrustworthy, atrociously ugly" and "possessed little intelligence in comparison to themselves." The Europeans didn't do much to debunk the comparison in the physical beauty department. Verrazzano, the sailor who witnessed the densely populated East Coast, called a native who boarded his ship "as beautiful in stature and build as I can possibly describe," before presumably adding, "you know, for a dude." This man-crush wasn't an isolated incident. British fisherman William Wood described the Indians in New England as "more amiable to behold, though dressed only in Adam's finery, than ... an English dandy in the newest fashion." Or, with the bullshit removed, "Better looking than any of us, and they're not even fucking trying."
Getty
"Oh yeah, this is just my walkin' around paint."
OK, now that we got that out of the way, we can tell you about the historical slash-fiction your history teacher forgot to tell you actually freaking happened.

#4. Columbus Didn't Discover America: Vikings vs. Indians

The Myth:
America was discovered in 1492 because Europeans were starting to get curious about the outside world thanks to the Renaissance and Enlightenment and Europeans of the time just generally being the first smart people ever. Columbus named the people who already lived there Indians, presumably because he was being charmingly self-deprecating.

"I don't know what we'll call the people from actual India. That's the future's problem."
The Truth:
Here's what we know. A bunch of vikings set up a successful colony in Greenland that lasted for 518 years (982-1500). To put that into perspective, the white European settlement currently known as the United States will need to wait until the year 2125 to match that longevity. The vikings spent a good portion of that time sending expeditions down south to try to settle what they called Vineland -- which historians now believe was the East Coast of North America. Some place the vikings as far south as modern day North Carolina.

"The South will pillage again!"
After spending a couple decades sneaking ashore to raid Vineland of its ample wood pulp, the vikings made a go of settling North America in 1005. After landing there with livestock, supplies and between 100 and 300 settlers, they set up the first successful European American colony ... for two years. And then the Native Americans kicked their ass out of the country, shooting the head viking in the heart with an arrow.
So to recap, the vikings discovered America. They were camping off the coast of America, and had every reason to settle America for about 500 years. Despite being the biggest badasses in European history, one tangle with the natives was enough to convince the vikings that settling America wasn't worth the trouble. If you think the pilgrims would have fared any better than the vikings against an East Coast chock-full of Native Americans, you either don't know what a viking is or you're placing entirely too much stock in the strategic importance of having belt buckles on your shoes.
If the Indians had been at full strength in 1640, white people might still be sneaking onto the East Coast to steal wood pulp. That's as far as the vikings got in 500 years, and they were sailing from much closer than Europe and desperately needed the resources -- the two competing theories for why the viking settlements on Greenland eventually died out are lack of resources and getting killed by natives -- and, perhaps most importantly, they were goddamned vikings.
So why did your history teachers lie? This should have been history teachers' version of dinosaurs: a mostly unknown period of violent awesomeness they nevertheless told you about because they knew it would hook every male between the ages of 5 and 12 forever.

Consider this one a freebie, Hollywood.
It turns out that many of the awesomest stories had to be paved over by the bullshit you memorized in order to protect your teachers and parents from awkward conversations. Like the one about how ...

#3. Everything You Know About Columbus Is a Calculated Lie


The Myth:
Columbus discovered America thanks to a daring journey across the Atlantic. His crew was about to throw him overboard when land was spotted. Even after he landed in America, Columbus didn't realize he'd discovered an entire continent because maps of America were far less reliable back then. In one of the great tragedies of history, Columbus went to his grave poor, believing he'd merely discovered India. Nobody really "got" America's potential until the pilgrims showed up and successfully settled the country for the first time. Nearly 150 years might seem like a long time between trips, but boats were really slow back in those days, and they'd just learned that the Atlantic Ocean went that far.

"Pile into a tiny boat with dozens of filthy people for months on end" isn't the world's most attractive sales pitch.
The Truth:
First of all, Columbus wasn't the first to cross the Atlantic. Nor were the vikings. Two Native Americans landed in Holland in 60 B.C. and were promptly not given a national holiday by anyone. Columbus didn't see the enormous significance of his ability to cross the Atlantic because it wasn't especially significant. His voyage wasn't particularly difficult. They enjoyed smooth sailing, and nobody was threatening to throw him overboard. Despite what history books tell kids (and the Internet apparently believes), Columbus died wealthy, and with a pretty good idea of what he'd found -- on his third voyage to America, he wrote in his journal, "I have come to believe that this is a mighty continent which was hitherto unknown."

"Unknown" in this context means "inhabited by tens of millions."
The myths surrounding him cover up the fact that Columbus was calculating, shrewd and as hungry for gold as the voice over guy in the Cash4Gold ads. When he couldn't find enough of the yellow stuff to make his voyage profitable, he focused on enslaving Native Americans for profit. That's how efficient Columbus was -- he discovered America and invented American slavery in the same 15-year span.
There were plenty of unsuccessful, mostly horrible attempts to settle America between Columbus' discovery and the pilgrims' arrival. We only hear these two "settling of America" stories because history books and movies aren't huge fans of what white people got up to between 1492 and 1620 in America -- mostly digging for gold and eating each other.
Getty
When people talk about traditional American values, this is what they mean.
They also show us white Europeans being unable to easily defeat a native population that hadn't yet been ravaged by plague. It wasn't coincidence that the pilgrims settled America two years after New England was emptied of 96 percent of the Indians who lived there. According to James W. Loewen's Lies My Teacher Told Me, that's generally how the settling process went: The plague acted as a lead blocker for white European settlers, clearing the land of all the natives. The Europeans had superior weapons, but they also had superior guns when they tried to colonize China, India, Africa and basically every other region on the planet. When you picture Chinese or Indian or African people today, they're not white because those lands were already inhabited when the Europeans showed up. And so was America.
American history goes to almost comical lengths to ignore that fact. For instance, if your reading comprehension was strong in middle school, you might remember the lost colony of Roanoke, where the people mysteriously disappeared, leaving behind only one cryptic clue: the word "Croatan" carved into the town post. As we've covered before, this is only a mystery if you are the worst detective ever. Croatan was the name of a nearby island populated by friendly Native Americans. In the years after the people of Roanoke "disappeared," genetically impossible Native Americans with gray eyes and an "astounding" familiarity with distinctly European customs began to pop up in the tribes that moved between Croatan and Roanoke islands.

"It must be written in a cypher of some sort. Let's just go ahead and call it alien abduction."

#2. White Settlers Did Not Carve America Out of the Untamed Wilderness

The Myth:
The pilgrims were the first in a parade of brave settlers who pushed civilization westward along the frontier with elbow grease and sheer grizzled-old-man strength.
The Truth:
In written records from early colonial times, you constantly come across "settlers" being shocked at how convenient the American wilderness made things for them. The eastern forests, generally portrayed by great American writers as a "thick, unbroken snarl of trees" no longer existed by the time the white European settlers actually showed up. The pilgrims couldn't believe their luck when they found that American forests just naturally contained "an ecological kaleidosocope of garden plots, blackberry rambles, pine barrens and spacious groves of chestnut, hickory and oak."
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"We have hours of weeding ahead of us, but by the grace of God, we will persevere."
The puzzlingly obedient wilderness didn't stop in New England. Frontiersmen who settled what is today Ohio were psyched to find that the forest there naturally grew in a way that "resembled English parks." You could drive carriages through the untamed frontier without burning a single calorie clearing rocks, trees and shrubbery.
Whether they honestly believed they'd lucked into the 17th century equivalent of Candyland or were being willfully ignorant about how the land got so tamed, the truth about the presettled wilderness didn't make it into the official account. It's the same reason every extraordinarily lucky CEO of the past 100 years has written a book about leadership. It's always a better idea to credit hard work and intelligence than to acknowledge that you just got luckier than any group of people has ever gotten in the history of the world.

"Holy crap, it's already wired for Wi-Fi!"
Nobody's role in settling America has been quite as overplayed as the pilgrims'. Despite famous sermons with titles like "Into the Wilderness," the pilgrims cherry-picked Plymouth specifically because it was a recently abandoned town. After sailing up and down the coast of Cape Cod, they chose Plymouth Rock because of "its beautiful cleared fields, recently planted in corn, and its useful harbor."
We're always told that the pilgrims were helped by an Indian named Squanto who spoke English. How the hell did that happen? Had he taken AP English in high school? The answer to that question is the greatest story your history teachers didn't bother to teach you. Squanto was from the town that would become Plymouth, but between being born there and the pilgrims' arrival, he'd undergone an epic journey that puts Homer's Odyssey to shame.

And at the end, instead of bangin' his hot wife, he had to teach white people how to bury dead fish with corn kernels.
Squanto had been kidnapped from Cape Cod as a child and sold into slavery in Spain. He escaped like the boy Maximus he was, and spent his better years hoofing it west until he hit the Atlantic Ocean. Deciding that swimming back to America would take too much time, he learned enough English to convince someone to let him hitch a ride to "the New World." When he finally got back home, he found his town deserted. The plague had swept through two years before, taking everyone but him with it.
when the pilgrims showed up, instead of being pissed at the people from the Continent who had stolen his ability to grow up with his family, he decided that since nobody else was using it, he might as well show them how to make his town work.
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"And this is the sea. I'd recommend bathing in it, because you people smell like the inside of my asshole."
This is especially charitable of him when you realize that, while the pilgrims were nicer than past settlers, they weren't exactly sensitive to Squanto's plight. According to a pilgrim journal from the days immediately after they arrived, they raided Indian graves for "bowls, trays, dishes and things like that. We took several of the prettiest things to carry away with us, and covered the body up again." And yet Squanto taught them how to make it through a winter without turning to cannibalism -- a landmark accomplishment for the British to that point.
Compare that to Jamestown, the first successful settlement in American history. You don't know the name of the ship that landed there because the settlers antagonized the natives, just like the vikings who came before them. The Native Americans didn't have to actively kill them. They just sat back and laughed as the English spent the harvest seasons digging holes for gold. The first Virginians were so desperate without a Squanto that they went from taking Indian slaves to offering themselves up as slaves to the Indians in exchange for food. Enough English managed to survive there to make Jamestown the oldest successful colonial settlement in America. But it's hard to turn it into a religious allegory in which white people are the good guys, so we get the pilgrims instead.
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If this were accurate, the settlers would be shitting in bushes while the Indians told them which leaves were safe to wipe with.

#1. How Indians Influenced Modern America

The Myth:
After the natives helped the pilgrims get through that first winter, all playing nice disappeared until Dances with Wolves. Even the movies that do portray white people going native portray it as a shocking exception to the rule. Otherwise, the only influence the natives seem to have on the New World and the frontiersmen is giving them moving targets to shoot at, and eventually a plot outline for Avatar.
Getty
It's pretty much just this and Kevin Costner until Wounded Knee.
The Truth:
The fake mystery of Roanoke is a pretty good key for understanding the difference between how white settlers actually felt about American Indians and how hard your history books had to ignore that reality. Settlers defecting to join native society was so common that it became a major issue for colonial leaders -- think the modern immigration debate, except with all the white people risking their lives to get out of American society. According to Loewen, "Europeans were always trying to stop the outflow. Hernando De Soto had to post guards to keep his men and women from defecting to Native societies." Pilgrims were so scared of Indian influence that they outlawed the wearing of long hair.
Ben Franklin noted that, "No European who has tasted Savage Life can afterwards bear to live in our societies." While "always bet on black" might have been sound financial advice by the time Wesley Snipes offered it, Ben Franklin knew that for much of American history, it was equally advisable to bet on red.
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"It's this, or powdered wigs and sexual repression."
Franklin wasn't pointing this out as a critique of the settlers who defected -- he believed that Indian societies provided greater opportunities for happiness than European cultures -- and he wasn't the only Founding Father who thought settlers could learn a thing or two from them. They didn't dress up like Indians at the Boston Tea Party ironically. That was common protesting gear during the American revolutions.
For a hundred years after the American Revolution, none of this was a secret. Political cartoonists used Indians to represent the colonial side. Colonial soldiers dressed up like Indians when fighting the British. Documents from the time indicate that the design of the U.S. government was at least partially inspired by native tribal society. Historians think the Iroquois Confederacy had a direct influence on the U.S. Constitution, and the Senate even passed a resolution acknowledging that "the confederation of the original thirteen colonies into one republic was influenced ... by the Iroquois Confederacy, as were many of the democratic principles which were incorporated into the constitution itself."

If we'd incorporated their fashion sense, C-SPAN would be more interesting.
That wasn't just Congress trying to get some Indian casino money. The colonists came from European countries that had spent most of their time as monarchies and much of their resources fighting religious wars with each other. They initially tried to set up the colonies exactly like Western Europe -- a series of small, in-fighting nations stacked on top of each other. The idea of an overarching confederacy of different independent states was completely foreign to them. Or it would have been. But as Ben Franklin noted in a letter about the failure to integrate with one another:
"It would be a strange thing if six nations of ignorant savages should be capable of forming a scheme for such a union and be able to execute it in such a manner as that it has subsisted ages and appears insoluble; and yet that a like union should be impracticable for 10 or a dozen English colonies."

Join, or die (or plagiarize from the Indians).
In 1987, Cornell University held a conference on the link between the Iroquois' government and the U.S. Constitution. It was noted that the Iroquois Great Law of Peace "includes 'freedom of speech, freedom of religion ... separation of power in government and checks and balances."
Wow, checks and balances, freedom of speech and religion. Sounds awfully familiar.
One of the strangest legacies of America's founding is our national obsession with the apocalypse. There's a new JJ Abrams show coming this fall called The Revolution about a post-apocalyptic America, and of course The Hunger Games. We go to a gift shop in Arizona and see dug-up Indian arrowheads, and never think "this is the same thing as the stuff laying around in Terminator or The Road or that part in The Road Warrior where the feral kid finds a music box and doesn't know what it is."
We love the apocalypse as long as nobody acknowledges the truth: It's not a mythical event. We live on top of one.


Read more: 6 Ridiculous Lies You Believe About the Founding of America | Cracked.com http://www.cracked.com/article_19864_6-ridiculous-lies-you-believe-about-founding-america_p2.html#ixzz29yarHrxx

Read more: 6 Ridiculous Lies You Believe About the Founding of America | Cracked.com http://www.cracked.com/article_19864_6-ridiculous-lies-you-believe-about-founding-america_p2.html#ixzz29yaah400


Read more: 6 Ridiculous Lies You Believe About the Founding of America | Cracked.com http://www.cracked.com/article_19864_6-ridiculous-lies-you-believe-about-founding-america.html#ixzz29yaKVxYu

Monday, October 15, 2012

Mysterious Elk-Shaped Structure Discovered in Russia

Mysterious Elk-Shaped Structure Discovered in Russia

http://news.yahoo.com/mysterious-elk-shaped-structure-discovered-russia-133113068.html

By Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor | LiveScience.comFri, Oct 12, 201


A historical Google Earth image from 2007 showing the animal-shaped geoglyph in Russia, which may predate Peru's famous Nazca Lines

A huge geoglyph in the shape of an elk or deer discovered in Russia may predate Peru's famous Nazca Lines by thousands of years.
The animal-shaped stone structure, located near Lake Zjuratkul in the Ural Mountains, north of Kazakhstan, has an elongated muzzle, four legs and two antlers. A historical Google Earth satellite image from 2007 shows what may be a tail, but this is less clear in more recent imagery.
Excluding the possible tail, the animal stretches for about 900 feet (275 meters) at its farthest points (northwest to southeast), the researchers estimate, equivalent to two American football fields. The figure faces north and would have been visible from a nearby ridge.
"The figure would initially have looked white and slightly shiny against the green grass background," write Stanislav Grigoriev, of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of History & Archaeology, and Nikolai Menshenin, of the State Centre for Monument Protection, in an article first detailing the discovery published last spring in the journal Antiquity. They note that it is now covered by a layer of soil.
Fieldwork carried out this past summer has shed more light on the glyph's composition and date, suggesting it may be the product of a "megalithic culture," researchers say. They note that hundreds of megalithic sites have been discovered in the Urals, with the most elaborate structures located on a freshwater island about 35 miles (60 km) northeast of the geoglyph. [See Photos of Russia's Nazca Lines]
Discovery & excavation
A man named Alexander Shestakov first discovered the glyphs using satellite images. He alerted researchers, who sent out a hydroplane and paraglider to survey the giant structure.
This has since progressed to an on-the-ground excavation by a team led by Grigoriev. They've found that the stone architecture of the geoglyph is quite elaborate. When they excavated part of a hind leg the largest stones were on the edges, the smaller ones inside. This past summer they also found the remains of passageways and what appear to be small walls on the hoof and muzzle of the animal.
"The hoof is made of small crushed stones and clay. It seems to me there were very low walls and narrow passages among them. The same situation in the area of a muzzle: crushed stones and clay, four small broad walls and three passages," Grigorievwrote in an email to LiveScience. He cautioned that his team didn't excavate all the way down to the bottom of the walls, not wishing to damage the geoglyph.
Dating the geoglyph
Among the finds from the excavations are about 40 stone tools, made of quartzite, found on the structure's surface. Most of them are pickaxe-like tools called mattocks, useful for digging and chopping. "Perhaps they were used to extract clay," he writes in the email.
The style of stone-working called lithic chipping used on one artifact dates it to the Neolithic and Eneolithic (sixth to third millennia B.C.), though Grigoriev says the technology is more typical of the Eneolithic, between the fourth and third millennia B.C.
If that date is correct, it would make the geoglyph far older than Peru's Nazca Lines, the very earliest of which were created around 500 B.C. Grigorievadded that current studies of ancient pollen at the site will help to narrow down the age. [Gallery: Aerial Photos Reveal Mysterious Stone Structures]
In the Antiquity journal article, Grigoriev and Menshenin point out that palaeozoological studies show that the landscape in the southern Urals supported fewer trees in the Eneolithic, with forest growth not appearing until about 2,500 years ago. "This means that there were open landscapes in the Eneolithic and Bronze Age, which allowed the hill figure to be created," they write.
A megalithic culture
Researchers say this geoglyph may have been built by a "megalithic culture" in the region that created stone monuments in prehistoric times.
"[M]any megalithic sites with features in common with European megaliths have been located: Some 300 are known but have not yet been studied in detail," write Grigoriev and Menshenin in the Antiquity article. Among these megaliths are numerous "menhirs," large upright standing stones.
The most spectacular megalithic complexes are on the relatively small Vera Island, located on Turgoyak Lake, about 35 miles (60 km) northeast of the geoglyph.
Grigoriev and Julia Vasina of the South-Ural State University described the Vera Island megaliths in a 2010 article, noting the surviving portion of one monument, megalith two, as being covered by a mound and supporting a gallery and square chamber. Another monument, megalith one, is cut into the bedrock and covered by a mound consisting of stones, brown sand and lots of grass. It is more than 60 feet (19 meters) long and 20 feet (6 meters) wide. It contains three chambers one of which has "bas relief sculptures" in the shape of animals, probably a bull and wolf.
Stone tools and ceramics found at the megalithic sites date them to between the Eneolithic period and the early Iron Age, around 3,000 years ago. Researchers emphasize more dating work needs to be done to verify; however, if the evidence holds, the giant geoglyph, along with the megaliths, were constructed millennia before Peru's Nazca Lines, a testament to the building prowess of an ancient prehistoric culture in the Ural Mountains.
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Monday, October 8, 2012

Two or three pieces added for the so-called Columbus Day

Two or three pieces added for the so-called Columbus Day
 (Monday October 8, another excuse to hold a 3-day weekend!)


Indigenous Puerto Rico:

 DNA evidence upsets established history


 By Rick Kearns

 
Photo: Indigenous Puerto Rico: 
DNA evidence upsets established history
By Rick Kearns

Most Puerto Ricans know, or think they know, their ethnic and racial history: a blending of Taino (Indian), Spanish and African. Students of the islands’ past have read the same account for over 300 years; that the Native people, and their societies, were killed off by the Spanish invaders by the 1600s. It was always noted though, how many of the original colonists married Taino women or had Taino concubines, producing the original mestizaje (mixture) that, when blended with African, would produce Puerto Ricans.

Those first unions, according to the conventional wisdom, explain why some Puerto Ricans have "a little bit" of Native heritage. Mainly we are Spanish, we are told, with a little African blood and far-away Taino ancestry.

But the order of that sequence will have to change.

Dr. Juan Martinez Cruzado, a geneticist from the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez who designed an island-wide DNA survey, has just released the final numbers and analysis of the project, and these results tell a different story.

According to the study funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, 61 percent of all Puerto Ricans have Amerindian mitochondrial DNA, 27 percent have African and 12 percent Caucasian. (Nuclear DNA, or the genetic material present in a gene’s nucleus, is inherited in equal parts from one’s father and mother. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from one’s mother and does not change or blend with other materials over time.)

In other words a majority of Puerto Ricans have Native blood.

"Our study showed there was assimilation," Martinez Cruzado explained, "but the people were not extinguished. Their political and social structure was but the genes were not.

"The people were assimilated into a new colonial order and became mixed … but that’s what Puerto Ricans are: Indians mixed with Africans and Spaniards," he asserted.

"There has been an under-estimation of the Amerindian heritage of Puerto Rico, much larger than most historians will admit," he said.

Martinez Cruzado cited the historical descriptions of life in Puerto Rico during the 17th and 18th centuries as an example.

"These accounts describe many aspects that are totally derived from Taino modus vivendi, not just the hammocks but the way they fished, their methods of farming, etc.," he related. "It is clear that the influence of Taino culture was very strong up to about 200 years ago. If we could conduct this same study on the Puerto Ricans from those times, the figure would show that 80 percent of the people had Indian heritage."

Another historical moment that should receive more attention involves the story of a group of Tainos who, after 200 years of absence from official head-counts, appeared in a military census from the 1790s. In this episode, a colonial military census noted that all of a sudden there were 2,000 Indians living in a northwestern mountain region. "These were Indians who the Spanish had placed on the tiny island of Mona (just off the western coast of Puerto Rico) who survived in isolation and then were brought over," Martinez Cruzado said. "They became mixed but there were many Indians who survived but eventually mixed with the Africans and Spaniards. These Mona Tainos must have had a further influence as well".

Martinez Cruzado noted how many customs and history were handed down through oral tradition. To this day on the island, there are many people who use medicinal plants and farming methods that come directly from the Tainos.

This is especially true of the areas once known as Indieras, or Indian Zones.

He also pointed out that most of these Native traditions probably do come from the Tainos, the Native people who appeared on the island circa 700 AD. But there were other waves of migrations to Puerto Rico and the entire Caribbean area.

Through the extensive study of the Puerto Rican samples, Martinez Cruzado and his team have found connections between island residents and Native peoples who arrived before and after the Tainos. He pointed out how a few of the samples can be traced back 9,000 years from ancient migrations, while others correspond to the genetic makeup of Native peoples of the Yucatan, Hispaniola, Margarita Island and Brazil among others. These latter genetic trails point to the presence of other Native peoples who were probably brought to the island as slaves from other Spanish or Portuguese colonies after the 1600s.

While island scholars will have much work to do to catch up with these "new" facts, the genetic detective work for Martinez Cruzado is also far from finished. As word spread of the remarkable survey, other scholars from the Dominican Republic, Cuba and Venezuela began to invite the Puerto Rican scientist to present his findings. They also want him to assist in similar projects in their respective countries.

"We started a very similar survey in the Dominican Republic last year," he stated. "And archaeologists from Venezuela and Cuba have invited me to do the same and I intend to go … I hope to have a proposal ready to collect samples in both of those countries and do a Caribbean-wide study. They already have evidence of migrations from both sides, north and south."

In the meantime, while Martinez Cruzado and his colleagues will focus on the history of Pre-Columbian migrations, people in the current Taino restoration movement (such as Nacion Taina, The Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation of Boriken, Taino Timucua Tribal Council, the United Confederation of Taino People, and others) are hoping that many of their compatriots reflect on the following quote: "The DNA story shows that the official story was wrong," Martinez Cruzado said. "This means a much larger Amerindian inheritance for Puerto Ricans."

And if some folks in the Dominican Republic and Cuba are right, the same will hold true for their histories.

Most Puerto Ricans know, or think they know, their ethnic and racial history: a blending of Taino (Indian), Spanish and African. Students of the islands’ past ...
have read the same account for over 300 years; that the Native people, and their societies, were killed off by the Spanish invaders by the 1600s. It was always noted though, how many of the original colonists married Taino women or had Taino concubines, producing the original mestizaje (mixture) that, when blended with African, would produce Puerto Ricans.

Those first unions, according to the conventional wisdom, explain why some Puerto Ricans have "a little bit" of Native heritage. Mainly we are Spanish, we are told, with a little African blood and far-away Taino ancestry.

But the order of that sequence will have to change.

Dr. Juan Martinez Cruzado, a geneticist from the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez who designed an island-wide DNA survey, has just released the final numbers and analysis of the project, and these results tell a different story.

According to the study funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, 61 percent of all Puerto Ricans have Amerindian mitochondrial DNA, 27 percent have African and 12 percent Caucasian. (Nuclear DNA, or the genetic material present in a gene’s nucleus, is inherited in equal parts from one’s father and mother. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from one’s mother and does not change or blend with other materials over time.)

In other words a majority of Puerto Ricans have Native blood.

"Our study showed there was assimilation," Martinez Cruzado explained, "but the people were not extinguished. Their political and social structure was but the genes were not.

"The people were assimilated into a new colonial order and became mixed … but that’s what Puerto Ricans are: Indians mixed with Africans and Spaniards," he asserted.

"There has been an under-estimation of the Amerindian heritage of Puerto Rico, much larger than most historians will admit," he said.

Martinez Cruzado cited the historical descriptions of life in Puerto Rico during the 17th and 18th centuries as an example.

"These accounts describe many aspects that are totally derived from Taino modus vivendi, not just the hammocks but the way they fished, their methods of farming, etc.," he related. "It is clear that the influence of Taino culture was very strong up to about 200 years ago. If we could conduct this same study on the Puerto Ricans from those times, the figure would show that 80 percent of the people had Indian heritage."

Another historical moment that should receive more attention involves the story of a group of Tainos who, after 200 years of absence from official head-counts, appeared in a military census from the 1790s. In this episode, a colonial military census noted that all of a sudden there were 2,000 Indians living in a northwestern mountain region. "These were Indians who the Spanish had placed on the tiny island of Mona (just off the western coast of Puerto Rico) who survived in isolation and then were brought over," Martinez Cruzado said. "They became mixed but there were many Indians who survived but eventually mixed with the Africans and Spaniards. These Mona Tainos must have had a further influence as well".

Martinez Cruzado noted how many customs and history were handed down through oral tradition. To this day on the island, there are many people who use medicinal plants and farming methods that come directly from the Tainos.

This is especially true of the areas once known as Indieras, or Indian Zones.

He also pointed out that most of these Native traditions probably do come from the Tainos, the Native people who appeared on the island circa 700 AD. But there were other waves of migrations to Puerto Rico and the entire Caribbean area.

Through the extensive study of the Puerto Rican samples, Martinez Cruzado and his team have found connections between island residents and Native peoples who arrived before and after the Tainos. He pointed out how a few of the samples can be traced back 9,000 years from ancient migrations, while others correspond to the genetic makeup of Native peoples of the Yucatan, Hispaniola, Margarita Island and Brazil among others[Emphasis added, see map below]. These latter genetic trails point to the presence of other Native peoples who were probably brought to the island as slaves from other Spanish or Portuguese colonies after the 1600s.[Assumed and Inattested]

While island scholars will have much work to do to catch up with these "new" facts, the genetic detective work for Martinez Cruzado is also far from finished. As word spread of the remarkable survey, other scholars from the Dominican Republic, Cuba and Venezuela began to invite the Puerto Rican scientist to present his findings. They also want him to assist in similar projects in their respective countries.

"We started a very similar survey in the Dominican Republic last year," he stated. "And archaeologists from Venezuela and Cuba have invited me to do the same and I intend to go … I hope to have a proposal ready to collect samples in both of those countries and do a Caribbean-wide study. They already have evidence of migrations from both sides, north and south."

In the meantime, while Martinez Cruzado and his colleagues will focus on the history of Pre-Columbian migrations, people in the current Taino restoration movement (such as Nacion Taina, The Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation of Boriken, Taino Timucua Tribal Council, the United Confederation of Taino People, and others) are hoping that many of their compatriots reflect on the following quote: "The DNA story shows that the official story was wrong," Martinez Cruzado said. "This means a much larger Amerindian inheritance for Puerto Ricans."

And if some folks in the Dominican Republic and Cuba are right, the same will hold true for their histories.



Genetic evidence for Atlantic-centered dispersion of peoples ca 9000 BC, as stated in above article.


http://humansarefree.com/2012/03/america-may-derive-from-peruvian-name.html

Friday, March 2, 2012

America's name may have derived from the Peruvian Amaruca: “Land of the Plumed Serpents"

Instead of the established idea, that "America" derived from the name of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, I propose you an alternative historical version - which may, in fact, be the correct one.

The worship of the Serpent Gods - The oldest 'religion' on Earth

Quoting the book Secret Doctrine by H. P. Blavatsky, it states that worship of the dragon and the sun were universal on the earthplane.

"The tradition of the Dragon and the Sun is echoed in every part of the world.…There was a time when the four parts of the world were covered with the temples sacred to the Sun and the Dragon: but the cult is now preserved mostly in China and the Buddhist countries (p. 378-9, V. II)." The dragon, however, is not the middle age concept of a beast with wings breathing fire, but is, in reality, a snake. (Read More).

Welcome to Amaruca, Land of the Serpent Gods!


In his book, "New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies", William T. Still shows that America was called initially "The Land of the Plumed Serpents" by the Indians of Peru.

James Pyrse researched an article written in the Theosophical Society magazine entitled "Lucifer", which gave insight into the word "America." He says that the chief god of the Mayan Indians in Central America was Quettzalcoatl / Kukulkan ("Plumed Serpent", "Feathered Serpent"). In Peru this god was called Amaru and the territory known as Amaruca.
 
The Anhinga is definitely called a Feathered Serpent in some myths and even Cryptid reports
And may have been an emblem for the West Indies or Atlantis and Antillia as Spence would say
 
Pyres states: "Amaruca is literally translated 'Land of the Plumed Serpents' (p. 45) - (Variation: 'Land of the Great Plumed Serpents)." He also claims that the name of America [Vespucci] was derived from Amaruca, instead

(Amaruca.com) - "In the most prevalent versions of American history, the origin of the name America is attributed to the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (notice the reptilian figure beneath Vespucci's feet, climbing a column representing America - just another 'coincidence', nothing to worry about). This popular distortion of the true origin of the native Amaruca (...) may be finally gaining more credibility among scholars to restore the name Amaruca to it's rightful place.

Machu Picchu is located in Amaruca
Recent discoveries in Peru may lead to more conclusive evidence concerning the relationships between North and South American indigenous peoples. As discoveries continue to unearth ancient Incan cities, writings pertaining to the mysterious origins of Amaruca are sure to be found. The Incas abandoned their towns and cities and retreated from the treasure-hunting Spanish invaders after the Conquistadors captured and executed the last Incan leader, Tupac Amaru (i.e. "Shining Serpent"), in 1572. Some of the cities have since been rediscovered, but many more are believed to lie hidden in the dense jungle."

The Falsification of History

“History is the lie commonly agreed upon.” - Voltaire

“We may fairly agree that the subject of history, as commonly taught, is one of the most boring of all subjects. However, the study of how the subject of history has been manipulated is surely one of the most interesting of all subjects.” - Michael Tsarion, “Astrotheology and Sidereal Mythology”

“The falsification of history has done more to mislead humans than any single thing known to mankind.” - Jean-Jacques Rousseau


-The original "Islander" type of Atlantis and the West Indies was probably much like the Guanches or Canarios, the natives of the Canary Islands.
Modern Canary Islanders showing what are thought to be older-Aboriginal traits
 
Some of the Canary Islanders were blonde or redheads, especially the women and children. Overal the natives were of Cromagnon type. Some of the modern Canarios remind us of Irish and sometimes Polynesians. They were a tall race, the men up to seven feet tall commonly, but women more usually medium height or even rather short.



Off the coast of West Africa lie the Canary Islands - this region became home to a mysterious group in antiquity who became known as the Guanches.

While it is unknown for sure how they arrived on the islands, what is known is that they shared a number of cultural characteristics with the ancient Egyptians and that their building style appears to have been replicated in South and Central America.

Like the Celtic Tocharians of Inner Asia, the finest evidence of what the original Guanche looked like, is in the fortuitous existence of original Guanche mummies, which are on public display in that island group's national museum.

 
The corpses on display are estimated to be between 600 and 1000 years old.


Above: Guanche mummies, with red hair and other North-European features - the original inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

They are likely to be the original Cro-Magnons.

An examination of one of the mummies' bodies showed incisions that virtually matched those found in Egyptian mummies, although the string used by the Guanche embalmers to close the wounds was much coarser than would have been used by the Egyptian experts.

The Guanches also possessed the art of writing, although this has not yet been the subject of any major study.[Grafitti is probably in N. African script]


THE GUANCHE PYRAMIDS ON THE CANARY ISLANDS


However, the most stunning link between the Guanches and the Egyptians comes in the form of pyramids - the Guanches built several small step pyramids on the islands, using the same model as those found in ancient Egypt and in Mesopotamia.

The pyramids have an east-west alignment which also indicates that they probably had a religious purpose, associated with the rise and setting of the sun.

Carefully built stairways on the west side of each pyramid lead up to the summit, which in each case has a flat platform covered with gravel, possibly used for religious or ceremonial purposes.


Above left: One of the Pyramids of Guimar, Canary Islands.

Right: A Mayan pyramid in Central America (Chichen Itza).

The resemblance is unmistakable.


 

GUANCHE TYPE PYRAMIDS FOUND IN MEXICO


The famous explorer, Thor Heyerdahl, who "rediscovered" the pyramids on the Canary Islands and who set up an academic body to study the phenomena, argued that the pyramids may be remains from explorers who sailed the Atlantic in ancient times, and who may have possibly forged a link with the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas.

As the original inhabitants of the Canary Islands were fair-haired and bearded, it was possible, Heyerdahl suggested, that long before the 15th Century, people of the same stock as those who settled the Canary Islands, also sailed the same route along the Canary Current that took Christopher Columbus to the Americas.

This theory formed the basis of Heyerdahl's famous "RA" expeditions in which he showed that is was possible to cross the Atlantic in an Egyptian reed boat.

In fact Columbus' starting off point was the Canary Islands, where he obtained supplies and water on Gomera, the island next to Tenerife. The Guanches on Tenerife in 1492 did not permit Columbus to land on their island - they were not impressed by the physical appearance of the bearded Europeans, who looked like the Guanches themselves.

When Columbus and the Europeans who followed in his wake landed in the Americas, they were welcomed and initially worshiped as gods, since the beardless Indians they encountered believed that the spanish belonged to the same people as the legendary founders of their civilization, bearded men from across the Atlantic Ocean.

According to the Aztec and Olmec (Central American Amerind) legends, their god, Quetzalcoatl, had Nordic features (eyes and hair color) and a beard. This god came from over the sea and taught the Amerinds how to raise corn and build structures.

There is indeed a marked similarity between the step pyramids to be found on the Canary Islands and those to be found in Central and South America, strongly suggesting yet another great lost migration, this time to Central and South America, perhaps a thousand years or more before Columbus.

The existence of the red-haired Guanches on the Canary Islands, combined with the red-haired pre-Columbus mummies found in South America and the marked similarity in pyramid building styles, indicate that an over the Atlantic people probably used the Canaries Current to cross the Atlantic, most likely between 2000 and 500 BC.

Columbus himself used the Canaries Current, setting out from the Canary Islands on his first crossing of the Atlantic in 1492 AD.

There is also clear evidence from the Mexican side of the Atlantic Ocean that blond-haired people reached that part of the world long before the spanish explorations of the late 1490s.

Below is a pre-Columbian wall painting which can be found in the Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, on the east coast of Mexico. The first depicts prisoners after their capture by the dark-skinned natives, and the second, shows a man with long blond hair being sacrificed.

It is worthwhile to remember that these paintings date from before Christopher Columbus sailed the Atlantic in 1492.



THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE GUANCHES


Guanche artifacts, such as cave murals, tombs, stone and mortar walls, broken pottery and other everyday items are abundant on the island. Similar artifacts have been found on the African continent itself - notably in Morocco, indicating that at some stage the Guanches crossed the sea to Africa.

There they started mixing with other racial types on the African continent itself. This process is very likely to be the cause of some flashes of blond hair and light colored eyes still to be found amongst the Berber population of north west Africa to this day.

The pyramids and other structures on the islands seem to have been constructed by an advanced people - certainly by the time of the Spanish invasion, the Guanches had lost much of their civilized apparel, and Spanish accounts have it that they were attacked by naked tribesmen, who sometimes inflicted serious military defeats upon the invading Spaniards. It was only in 1496 that the Spaniards finally defeated the last of the Guanches.

The arrival of the Spaniards in the mid 14th Century saw the remaining Guanches absorbed into the new settler population. The redheaded or blond, blue-eyed, tall stock has been preserved in part, and can still be seen today in many individuals on the island.

Culturally speaking, the Guanche civilization was completely absorbed by the imported continental European culture, so that the Canary Islands remains Spanish territory to this day.

-Once Again, several researchers have been struck by the resemblance of the Canary Island red-headed mummies to the similar redheaded mummies of  Anean South America, and some (such as Thor Heyerdahl) note a further similarity to Polynesians (And make a contrast between the redheaded-mummy types and the common people of Peru). And Lewis Spence makes this out to be what he calls the "Atlantean Cultural-Complex" with the Redheaded mummy-makers the ruling class over a larger commoner class composed of many mixed types, but usually shorter with darker hair. Donnelly also notes the two contrasting physical types as inhabiting Atlantis in his final Atlantis Reconstructed chapter. Please note that while the founder-culture was supposed to have been before 10000 years ago, later transmission of the cultural traits could have happened as long as the survivor cultures continued in the same traditions.



 


Living Redheaded Warrior Giants Reported in Peru

 Archive Clipping from the St. Louis Dispatch

Lima, Peru May 22, 1976--- A one-eyed Indian tale of battling a band of red-haired hunchback giants has caused speculation that a tribe of stone-age aborigines may inhabit the jungles of northern Peru.

The men were described as olive-skinned, barefooted, hunched-back, more than 6 feet 6 inches tall with feet twice the normal size.

One scientist this week said he doubted their existence, but a well-known amateur anthropologist said it was well within scientific probability.

The giants have only been reported in San Juan Province, an area of rain forests and wooded foothills east of the Andes. Its 200,000 residents have no telephone service or paved roads.

Rumors of giant tribesmen have circulated frequently in the past. They received fresh momentum early this month when an explorer said he had stumbled across such a tribe.

Carlos Tarrealza, discoverer of the ruins of a lost Indian city in San Martin Province said he had found the giants when he was lost for two weeks in the jungle.

He said they were clad only in animal skins with reddish hair and spoke a dialect he had never heard. He said they fled at his approach.

Days later, two Lima newspapers, Ultima Hora and La Prensa quoted an Indian guide Encarnacion Napuri as saying on April 25th, a group of about 15 giant aborigines armed with thick wooden clubs, stone-headed axes and hard wood lances attached attacked a camp of professional hunters.

La Prensa said the tribesmen had abducted three women and wounded five men in the camp before being driven off by shotgun blasts. Ultima Hora said 5 men, 3 women and 2 children had been injured, but did not mention any kidnapping.

The disparity might be explained by Ultima Hora's comment that Napuri spoke extremely poor Spanish.

The director of the regional center of Indian remains, Cristobal Cresapana said, "I don't believe in the existence of these hunch-backed men...they correspond to precisely none of the racial traits of the people seen in the Andean region so far."

But Carlos A. Silva, a policeman and amateur anthropologist who traveled widely in the Peruvian Jungles, said the indigenous Peruvian could adapt himself very easily to live in the forested areas of the Andean foothills.