(Monday October 8, another excuse to hold a 3-day weekend!)
Indigenous Puerto Rico:
DNA evidence upsets established history
By Rick Kearns
Most Puerto Ricans know, or think they know, their ethnic and racial history: a blending of Taino (Indian), Spanish and African. Students of the islands’ past ...
Those first unions, according to the conventional wisdom, explain why some Puerto Ricans have "a little bit" of Native heritage. Mainly we are Spanish, we are told, with a little African blood and far-away Taino ancestry.
But the order of that sequence will have to change.
Dr. Juan Martinez Cruzado, a geneticist from the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez who designed an island-wide DNA survey, has just released the final numbers and analysis of the project, and these results tell a different story.
According to the study funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, 61 percent of all Puerto Ricans have Amerindian mitochondrial DNA, 27 percent have African and 12 percent Caucasian. (Nuclear DNA, or the genetic material present in a gene’s nucleus, is inherited in equal parts from one’s father and mother. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from one’s mother and does not change or blend with other materials over time.)
In other words a majority of Puerto Ricans have Native blood.
"Our study showed there was assimilation," Martinez Cruzado explained, "but the people were not extinguished. Their political and social structure was but the genes were not.
"The people were assimilated into a new colonial order and became mixed … but that’s what Puerto Ricans are: Indians mixed with Africans and Spaniards," he asserted.
"There has been an under-estimation of the Amerindian heritage of Puerto Rico, much larger than most historians will admit," he said.
Martinez Cruzado cited the historical descriptions of life in Puerto Rico during the 17th and 18th centuries as an example.
"These accounts describe many aspects that are totally derived from Taino modus vivendi, not just the hammocks but the way they fished, their methods of farming, etc.," he related. "It is clear that the influence of Taino culture was very strong up to about 200 years ago. If we could conduct this same study on the Puerto Ricans from those times, the figure would show that 80 percent of the people had Indian heritage."
Another historical moment that should receive more attention involves the story of a group of Tainos who, after 200 years of absence from official head-counts, appeared in a military census from the 1790s. In this episode, a colonial military census noted that all of a sudden there were 2,000 Indians living in a northwestern mountain region. "These were Indians who the Spanish had placed on the tiny island of Mona (just off the western coast of Puerto Rico) who survived in isolation and then were brought over," Martinez Cruzado said. "They became mixed but there were many Indians who survived but eventually mixed with the Africans and Spaniards. These Mona Tainos must have had a further influence as well".
Martinez Cruzado noted how many customs and history were handed down through oral tradition. To this day on the island, there are many people who use medicinal plants and farming methods that come directly from the Tainos.
This is especially true of the areas once known as Indieras, or Indian Zones.
He also pointed out that most of these Native traditions probably do come from the Tainos, the Native people who appeared on the island circa 700 AD. But there were other waves of migrations to Puerto Rico and the entire Caribbean area.
Through the extensive study of the Puerto Rican samples, Martinez Cruzado and his team have found connections between island residents and Native peoples who arrived before and after the Tainos. He pointed out how a few of the samples can be traced back 9,000 years from ancient migrations, while others correspond to the genetic makeup of Native peoples of the Yucatan, Hispaniola, Margarita Island and Brazil among others[Emphasis added, see map below]. These latter genetic trails point to the presence of other Native peoples who were probably brought to the island as slaves from other Spanish or Portuguese colonies after the 1600s.[Assumed and Inattested]
While island scholars will have much work to do to catch up with these "new" facts, the genetic detective work for Martinez Cruzado is also far from finished. As word spread of the remarkable survey, other scholars from the Dominican Republic, Cuba and Venezuela began to invite the Puerto Rican scientist to present his findings. They also want him to assist in similar projects in their respective countries.
"We started a very similar survey in the Dominican Republic last year," he stated. "And archaeologists from Venezuela and Cuba have invited me to do the same and I intend to go … I hope to have a proposal ready to collect samples in both of those countries and do a Caribbean-wide study. They already have evidence of migrations from both sides, north and south."
In the meantime, while Martinez Cruzado and his colleagues will focus on the history of Pre-Columbian migrations, people in the current Taino restoration movement (such as Nacion Taina, The Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation of Boriken, Taino Timucua Tribal Council, the United Confederation of Taino People, and others) are hoping that many of their compatriots reflect on the following quote: "The DNA story shows that the official story was wrong," Martinez Cruzado said. "This means a much larger Amerindian inheritance for Puerto Ricans."
And if some folks in the Dominican Republic and Cuba are right, the same will hold true for their histories.
Friday, March 2, 2012
America's name may have derived from the Peruvian Amaruca: “Land of the Plumed Serpents"
The worship of the Serpent Gods - The oldest 'religion' on Earth
Quoting the book Secret Doctrine by H. P. Blavatsky, it states that worship of the dragon and the sun were universal on the earthplane.
"The tradition of the Dragon and the Sun is echoed in every part of the world.…There was a time when the four parts of the world were covered with the temples sacred to the Sun and the Dragon: but the cult is now preserved mostly in China and the Buddhist countries (p. 378-9, V. II)." The dragon, however, is not the middle age concept of a beast with wings breathing fire, but is, in reality, a snake. (Read More).
Welcome to Amaruca, Land of the Serpent Gods!
|The Anhinga is definitely called a Feathered Serpent in some myths and even Cryptid reports|
And may have been an emblem for the West Indies or Atlantis and Antillia as Spence would say
(Amaruca.com) - "In the most prevalent versions of American history, the origin of the name America is attributed to the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (notice the reptilian figure beneath Vespucci's feet, climbing a column representing America - just another 'coincidence', nothing to worry about). This popular distortion of the true origin of the native Amaruca (...) may be finally gaining more credibility among scholars to restore the name Amaruca to it's rightful place.
|Machu Picchu is located in Amaruca|
The Falsification of History
“History is the lie commonly agreed upon.” - Voltaire
“We may fairly agree that the subject of history, as commonly taught, is one of the most boring of all subjects. However, the study of how the subject of history has been manipulated is surely one of the most interesting of all subjects.” - Michael Tsarion, “Astrotheology and Sidereal Mythology”
“The falsification of history has done more to mislead humans than any single thing known to mankind.” - Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-The original "Islander" type of Atlantis and the West Indies was probably much like the Guanches or Canarios, the natives of the Canary Islands.
|Modern Canary Islanders showing what are thought to be older-Aboriginal traits|
While it is unknown for sure how they arrived on the islands, what is known is that they shared a number of cultural characteristics with the ancient Egyptians and that their building style appears to have been replicated in South and Central America.
Like the Celtic Tocharians of Inner Asia, the finest evidence of what the original Guanche looked like, is in the fortuitous existence of original Guanche mummies, which are on public display in that island group's national museum.
The Guanches also possessed the art of writing, although this has not yet been the subject of any major study.[Grafitti is probably in N. African script]
THE GUANCHE PYRAMIDS ON THE CANARY ISLANDS
However, the most stunning link between the Guanches and the Egyptians comes in the form of pyramids - the Guanches built several small step pyramids on the islands, using the same model as those found in ancient Egypt and in Mesopotamia.
Carefully built stairways on the west side of each pyramid lead up to the summit, which in each case has a flat platform covered with gravel, possibly used for religious or ceremonial purposes.
The famous explorer, Thor Heyerdahl, who "rediscovered" the pyramids on the Canary Islands and who set up an academic body to study the phenomena, argued that the pyramids may be remains from explorers who sailed the Atlantic in ancient times, and who may have possibly forged a link with the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas.
As the original inhabitants of the Canary Islands were fair-haired and bearded, it was possible, Heyerdahl suggested, that long before the 15th Century, people of the same stock as those who settled the Canary Islands, also sailed the same route along the Canary Current that took Christopher Columbus to the Americas.
This theory formed the basis of Heyerdahl's famous "RA" expeditions in which he showed that is was possible to cross the Atlantic in an Egyptian reed boat.
In fact Columbus' starting off point was the Canary Islands, where he obtained supplies and water on Gomera, the island next to Tenerife. The Guanches on Tenerife in 1492 did not permit Columbus to land on their island - they were not impressed by the physical appearance of the bearded Europeans, who looked like the Guanches themselves.
When Columbus and the Europeans who followed in his wake landed in the Americas, they were welcomed and initially worshiped as gods, since the beardless Indians they encountered believed that the spanish belonged to the same people as the legendary founders of their civilization, bearded men from across the Atlantic Ocean.
According to the Aztec and Olmec (Central American Amerind) legends, their god, Quetzalcoatl, had Nordic features (eyes and hair color) and a beard. This god came from over the sea and taught the Amerinds how to raise corn and build structures.
There is indeed a marked similarity between the step pyramids to be found on the Canary Islands and those to be found in Central and South America, strongly suggesting yet another great lost migration, this time to Central and South America, perhaps a thousand years or more before Columbus.
The existence of the red-haired Guanches on the Canary Islands, combined with the red-haired pre-Columbus mummies found in South America and the marked similarity in pyramid building styles, indicate that an over the Atlantic people probably used the Canaries Current to cross the Atlantic, most likely between 2000 and 500 BC.
There is also clear evidence from the Mexican side of the Atlantic Ocean that blond-haired people reached that part of the world long before the spanish explorations of the late 1490s.
Below is a pre-Columbian wall painting which can be found in the Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, on the east coast of Mexico. The first depicts prisoners after their capture by the dark-skinned natives, and the second, shows a man with long blond hair being sacrificed.
Guanche artifacts, such as cave murals, tombs, stone and mortar walls, broken pottery and other everyday items are abundant on the island. Similar artifacts have been found on the African continent itself - notably in Morocco, indicating that at some stage the Guanches crossed the sea to Africa.
There they started mixing with other racial types on the African continent itself. This process is very likely to be the cause of some flashes of blond hair and light colored eyes still to be found amongst the Berber population of north west Africa to this day.
The pyramids and other structures on the islands seem to have been constructed by an advanced people - certainly by the time of the Spanish invasion, the Guanches had lost much of their civilized apparel, and Spanish accounts have it that they were attacked by naked tribesmen, who sometimes inflicted serious military defeats upon the invading Spaniards. It was only in 1496 that the Spaniards finally defeated the last of the Guanches.
The arrival of the Spaniards in the mid 14th Century saw the remaining Guanches absorbed into the new settler population. The redheaded or blond, blue-eyed, tall stock has been preserved in part, and can still be seen today in many individuals on the island.
-Once Again, several researchers have been struck by the resemblance of the Canary Island red-headed mummies to the similar redheaded mummies of Anean South America, and some (such as Thor Heyerdahl) note a further similarity to Polynesians (And make a contrast between the redheaded-mummy types and the common people of Peru). And Lewis Spence makes this out to be what he calls the "Atlantean Cultural-Complex" with the Redheaded mummy-makers the ruling class over a larger commoner class composed of many mixed types, but usually shorter with darker hair. Donnelly also notes the two contrasting physical types as inhabiting Atlantis in his final Atlantis Reconstructed chapter. Please note that while the founder-culture was supposed to have been before 10000 years ago, later transmission of the cultural traits could have happened as long as the survivor cultures continued in the same traditions.