Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Friday, August 24, 2012

Cro Magnon Wampum


Lewis Spence in such books as Atlantis in America and his other Atlantis books mentioned that from some CroMagnon burials it seemed that they were keen on making many beads into running strands of wampum. Wampum was used in parts of America, particularly in the eastern Woodlands area, as a sort offcial documentation of important agreements and a solemn exchange -which the white men took to mean the same thing as money and so translated the term. I think from the remains that Spence was probably right and the CroMagnon beads were ordinarily shell beads like ordinary Wampum: the idea deriving from even older use of shell beads in Africa. But CroMagnons definitely made a much bigger deal out of beadwork and added the variation of using ivory beads, as shown in this example. It also does seem there was some cognitive association between making Wampum, and the use of quipus and abacuses (Wikipedia suggests the link) and that Wampum was used for documents encoding a type of "Protowriting". I have no problem with the idea that the entire system of wampum making, symbolism, and use comes directly from Atlantis, and that the beads have been in use since the Arachaic period, just not recognised in most Archaeological contexts.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wampum

Wampum



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Wampum are traditional sacred shell beads of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of the indigenous people of North America. Wampum include the white shell beads fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk shell; and the white and purple beads made from the quahog, or Western North Atlantic hard-shelled clam. Woven belts of wampum have been created to commemorate treaties or historical events, and for exchange in personal social transactions, such as marriages. In colonial North America, European colonists often used wampum as currency for trading with Native Americans.

Quahog and whelk wampum made by Elizabeth James Perry (Aquinnah Wampanoag/Eastern Band Cherokee), c. 2009

 

Description and manufacture

The term initially referred to only the white beads, which are made of the inner spiral, or columella, of the Channeled whelk shell, Busycotypus canaliculatus or Busycotypus carica.[1] Sewant or suckauhock beads are the black or purple shell beads made from the quahog or poquahock clamshell, Mercenaria mercenaria. Common terms for the dark and white beads, often confused, are wampi (white) and saki (dark).[2]

The white beads are made from the inner spiral of the channeled whelk shell.
In the area of present New York Bay, the clams and whelks used for making wampum are found only along Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay. The Lenape name for Long Island is Sewanacky, reflecting its connection to the dark wampum.
Typically wampum beads are tubular in shape, often a quarter of an inch long and an eighth inch wide. One 17th-century Seneca wampum belt featured beads almost 2.5 inches (65 mm) long.[1] Women artisans traditionally made wampum beads by rounding small pieces of the shells of whelks, then piercing them with a hole before stringing them.
Wooden pump drills with quartz drill bits and steatite weights were used to drill the shells. The unfinished beads would be strung together and rolled on a grinding stone with water and sand, until they were smooth. The beads would be strung or woven on deer hide thongs, sinew, milkweed bast, or basswood fibers.[3]

Origin

The term "wampum" is a shortening of the earlier word "wampumpeag", which is derived from the Massachusett or Narragansett word meaning "white strings [of shell beads]".[3][4] The Proto-Algonquian reconstructed form is *wa·p-a·py-aki, "white-string-plural."[5]
In New York, wampum beads have been discovered that date from before 1510.[1] The Haudenosaunee Great Law of Peace, the founding constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy, was codified in a series of wampum belts, now held by the Onondaga Nation. The oral history of the Haudenosaunee says that Ayenwatha, a cannibal who was reformed by the Great Peacemaker, invented wampum to comfort himself. The Peacemaker uses wampum to record and relay messages.[6] The League of the Iroquois was founded, according to some estimates, in 1142.[7] Others place its origin as likely in the 15th or 16th centuries.
The introduction of European metal tools revolutionized the production of wampum; by the mid-seventeenth century production numbered in the tens of millions of beads. [8] Upon discovering the importance of wampum as a unit of exchange among tribes, Dutch colonists mass-produced wampum in workshops. John Campbell established such a factory in Passaic, New Jersey, which manufactured wampum into the early 20th century.[1]

Uses

Wampum is used to mark exchanges for engagement, marriage, and betrothal agreements, as well as for ceremony and condolence ceremonies. In earlier centuries, Lenape girls would wear wampum to show their eligibility for marriage. After marriage had been arranged, a Lenape suitor would give his fiancé and her family gifts of wampum.[1]
Perhaps because of its origin as a memory aid, loose beads were not considered to be high in value. Rather it is the belts in total that are wampum. Belts of wampum were not produced until after European contact.[citation needed] A typically large belt of six feet (2 m) in length might contain 6000 beads or more. More importantly, such a belt would be very sacred, as it contained so many memories. Wampum belts were used as a memory aid in Oral tradition, where the wampum was a token representing a memory. Belts were also sometimes used as badges of office or as ceremonial devices of indigenous culture, such as the Iroquois. They were traded widely to tribes in Canada, the Great Lakes region, and the mid-Atlantic.

Currency

When Europeans came to the Americas, they realized the importance of wampum to Native people. While the Native people did not use it as money, the New England colonies used it as a medium of exchange. Soon, they were trading with the native peoples of New England and New York using wampum. The New England colonies demonetized wampum in 1663.[9] Meanwhile it continued as currency in New York at the rate of eight white or four black wampum equalling one stuiver until 1673. The colonial government issued a proclamation setting the rate at six white or three black to one penny. This proclamation also applied in New Jersey and Delaware.[10] The black shells were considered worth more than the white shells, which led people to dye the latter, and diluted the value of the shells. The ultimate basis for their value was their redeemability for pelts from the Native Americans. As Native Americans became reluctant to exchange pelts for the shells, the shells lost value.[11]
Their use as common currency was phased out in New York by the early 18th century. Shinnecock oral history ascribed the wampum market demise to a deadly red tide that decimated the whelk and quahog populations.
With stone tools, the process to make wampum was labor intensive. Only the coastal nations had sufficient access to the basic shells to make wampum. These factors increased its scarcity and consequent value among the European traders. Dutch colonists began to manufacture wampum and eventually the primary source of wampum was that manufactured by colonists, a market the Dutch glutted.
Writing about tribes in Virginia in 1705, Robert Beverley, Jr. of Virginia Colony describes peak as referring to the white shell bead, valued at 9 pence a yard, and wampom peak as denoting specifically the more expensive dark purple shell bead, at the rate of 1 shilling and 6 pence (18 pence) per yard. He says that these polished shells with drilled holes are made from the cunk (conch), while another currency of lesser value, called roenoke was fashioned from the cockleshell.[12]

Transcription


Wampum belt given to William Penn at the "Great Treaty" in 1682
The American William James Sidis wrote in his 1935 history;
"The weaving of wampum belts is a sort of writing by means of belts of colored beads, in which the various designs of beads denoted different ideas according to a definitely accepted system, which could be read by anyone acquainted with wampum language, irrespective of what the spoken language is. Records and treaties are kept in this manner, and individuals could write letters to one another in this way."[13]
Wampum is also used for storytelling. The symbols used told a story in the oral tradition or spoken word. Since there was no written language, wampum was a very important means of keeping records and passing down stories to the next generation. Wampum was durable and so could be carried over a long distance.

Recent developments

The National Museum of the American Indian repatriated eleven wampum belts to Haudenosaunee chiefs at the Onondaga Longhouse Six Nations Reserve in New York. Sacred to the Longhouse religion, these belts dated to the late 18th century. They had been away from their tribes for over a century.[1]
Cayuga, Shinnecock, Wampanoag, and other Northeastern Woodland tribes still use wampum today. The Seneca Nation commissioned replicas of five historic wampum belts completed in 2008. Artists continue to weave belts of a historical nature as well as designing original belts based on contemporary concepts.[3]

Symbolic use


The flag of the Iroquois Confederacy is a wampum-belt design. Wampum is also part of the Coat of arms of New Brunswick.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Dubin, Lois Sherr. North American Indian Jewelry and Adornment: From Prehistory to the Present. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999: 170-171. ISBN 0-8109-3689-5.
  2. ^ Geary, Theresa Flores. The Illustrated Bead Bible. London: Kensington Publications, 2008: 305. ISBN 978-1-4027-2353-7.
  3. ^ a b c Perry, Elizabeth James. About the Art of Wampum. Original Wampum Art: Elizabeth James Perry. 2008 (retrieved 14 March 2009)
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Wampum". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Wampum. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
  5. ^ "Wampumpeag". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Wampumpeag. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
  6. ^ Gawyehnehshehgowa: Great Law of Peace. Degiya'göh Resources. (retrieved 14 March 2009)
  7. ^ Johansen, Bruce E. "Dating the Iroquois Confederacy", Akwesasne Notes, Fall 1995, Volume 1, 3 & 4, pp. 62-63. (retrieved through Ratical.com, 14 March 2009)
  8. ^ Otto, Paul [1] "Henry Hudson, the Munsees, and the Wampum Revolution" (retrieved 5 September 2011)
  9. ^ Oberg, Michael Leroy. Uncas, First of the Mohegans. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003: 158. ISBN 0-8014-3877-2.
  10. ^ Samuel Smith, The History of New Jersey p. 76
  11. ^ Galbraith JK. (1975). Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went. pp. 47-48. Houghton Mifflin Company.
  12. ^ Robert Beverley, The History and Present State of Virginia
  13. ^ William James Sidis, The Tribes And The States: 100,000-Year History of North America

External links


  • Wampum article, Iroquois Indian Museum
  • Wampum History and Background
  • "The Tribes And The States: 100,000-Year History of North America"
  • X-ray showing inner spiral and entire shell of the Busycotypus Canaliculatus - Channeled Whelk Shell, Europa
  • "Money Substitutes in New Netherland and Early New York", Coins, University of North Dakota
  • 1 comment:

    1. I am RH(r)O-.Pendragon,Angevin,Avalon descendant.Cromagnon.

      ReplyDelete

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