Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Friday, April 27, 2012

Legends of Irish Giants Are More Than Tall Tales

Ariel Marshall sent me the link to this article and we both feel it is sure to have a bearing on the matter of the Giant Early Americans....

Legends of Irish Giants Are More Than Tall Tales

David Moye Contributor Feb 20, 2011 – 9:16 AM

Although the Irish legend of leprechauns [Cobbling shoes forever] is probably just a load of blarney, there's scientific evidence suggesting that the fabled stories of giants living on the Emerald Isle aren't just tall tales.

According to a study in The New England Journal of Medicine, it seems that Northern Ireland is a hot spot for people with pituitary adenomas -- tumors that can cause the pituitary gland to pump out 50 times more growth hormones than normal, often leading to enormous growth spurts.

Familiar with Ireland's folkloric history as a home to giants, researcher Dr. Marta Korbonits, a professor of endocrinology and metabolism at Barts and the London School of Medicine, looked to the past and found a genetic link connecting four modern-day Northern Ireland families with one of the nation's most famous titans.

Korbonits and crew used DNA extracted from the teeth of Charles Byrne, a 7-foot-7 giant who made a big impression in London during the 18th century, to discover a genetic mutation for the pituitary problem.

In addition, they were able to connect that mutation with four modern-day Northern Ireland families, including Brendan Holland, a 6-foot-9 giant who, according to the "Today" show, would have grown to 8 feet had his tumor not been treated with radiation at the age of 19.

"I consider myself extraordinarily lucky," Holland told "Today" show correspondent Michelle Kosinski.

Holland and Byrne's inherited gene mutation for gigantism has even deeper roots: a common ancestor who lived an estimated 1,425-1,650 years earlier -- or 57-66 generations ago.

But the findings have Holland more interested in the future than the past.

"I know that my children or my grandchildren could be screened for this rogue gene and if they are sufferers (of familial isolated pituitary adenoma), they can be given early treatment," he told MSNBC.

Charles Byrne (1761-1783) known as the Irish Giant who was 8 feet 4 inches tall, depicted with various Edinburgh notables. (Alamy)
Charles Byrne (1761-1783), known as the Irish Giant, is depicted with various Edinburgh notables.
Korbonits hopes this new evidence can lead to a better understanding of pituitary adenomas.

"These people are not weirdos or freaks, but just ordinary ill people, as anybody else who inherits an increased chance to get a disease from their parents, as many of us do with other diseases, such as heart disease or diabetes," she said.

Meanwhile, the news that gigantism is genetic and, if discovered in time, can be minimized is big news to the folks at Ripley's Believe It Or Not -- a company famous for celebrating and promoting various anomalies of nature, including giants.

"I wonder if the NBA could be in trouble," said Ripley's spokesman Tim O'Brien. "Still, gigantism is not something we wish upon anyone. Robert Ripley himself was very attuned to freaks of nature -- as are we -- and medical science has taken care of many problems, such as if a person has an extra leg or excessive obesity, so if this discovery can relieve people of suffering, that's a good thing."  

Families that run to gigantism are independantly known from Scotland and Scandinavia, so this very likely could be a valuable clue to follow up on--Best Wishes, Dale D.

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Redhaired Mummies and Giants of the United States

Redhaired Mummies and Giants of the United States

European Dark-Age Warrior Giant, used to illustrate the "Grendel" of Beowulf

Burlington News
NEW YORKRef: Steve Quayle

Niagara's Ancient Cemetery of Giants

I respected the spelling used in the text. Fredenburg is first used and later it is spelled "Fredinburg." The site was about 40 miles west of Niagara Falls, according to recent maps; Dunnville is at the mouth of the Grand River which flows into Lake Erie. A "Six Nations First Nation Territory" is along the Grand River today, but I cannot say if the site was in it, or out of it. More information is needed to flesh out any veracity to this story, which 21st Century readers may take with a grain of salt.

Headlines: "A REMARKABLE SIGHT-- Two hundred skeletons of ANAKIN [sic] in Cayuga Township; A singular discovery by a Torontonian and others -- A vast Golgotha opened to view -- Some remains of the 'Giants that were in those days.' From our own correspondents."

Cayuga, August 21-- "On Wednesday last, Rev. Nathaniel Wardell, Messers. Orin Wardell
(of Toronto), and Daniel Fredenburg, were digging on the farm of the latter gentleman, which is on the banks of the Grand River, in the township of Cayuga. When they got to five or six feet below the surface, a strange sight met them. Piled in layers, one upon top of the other, some two hundred skeletons of human beings nearly perfect -- around the neck of each one being a string of beads.

"There were also deposited in this pit a number of axes and skimmers made of stone. In the jaws of several of the skeletons were large stone pipes -- one of which Mr. O. Wardell took with him to Toronto a day or two after this Golgotha was unearthed.

"These skeletons are those of men of gigantic stature, some of them measuring nine feet, very few of them being less than seven feet. Some of the thigh bones were found to be at least a foot longer than those at present known, and one of the skulls {Skullcaps, or incomplete skulls opened at the base, obviously} being examined completely covered the head of an ordinary person. These skeletons are supposed to belong to those of a race of people anterior to the Indians.

"Some three years ago, the bones of a mastodon were found embedded in the earth about six miles from this spot. The pit and its ghastly occupants are now open to the view of any who may wish to make a visit there."

Later: Dunnville, August 22, "There is not the slightest doubt that the remains of a lost city are on this farm. At various times within the past years, the remains of mud houses with their chimneys had been found: and there are dozens of pits of a similar kind to that just unearthed, though much smaller, in the place which has been discovered before, though the fact has not been made public hitherto. The remains of a blacksmith's [Metalworker's?]shop, containing two tons of charcoal and various implements, were turned up a few
months ago.

"The farm, which consists of 150 acres, has been cultivated for nearly a century, and was covered with a thick growth of pine, so that it must have been ages ago since the remains were deposited there. The skulls of the skeletons are of an enormous size and all manner of shapes, about half as large again as are now to be seen. The teeth in most of them are still in almost perfect state of preservation, though they soon fall out when exposed to the air.

"It is supposed that there is gold or silver in large quantities to be found in the premises, as mineral [dowsing] rods have invariably, when tested, pointed to a certain spot and a few yards from where the last batch of skeletons was found directly under the apple tree.
Some large shells, supposed to have been used for holding water, which were also found in the pit, were almost petrified [This has got to be a mistake. Shells are already "Petrified" as in "Mineralized"]. There is no doubt that were a scheme of exploration carried on thoroughly the result would be highly interesting. A good deal of excitement exists in the neighborhood, and many visitors call at the farm daily.

"The skulls and bones of the giants are fast disappearing, being taken away by curiosity
hunters. It is the intention of Mr. Fredinburg to cover the pit up very soon. The pit is ghastly in the extreme. The farm is skirted on the north by the Grand River. The pit is close to the banks, but marks are there to show where the gold or silver treasure is supposed to be under. From the appearance of the skulls, it would seem that their possessors died a violent death, as many of them were broken and dented.

"The axes are shaped like tomahawks, small, but keen, instruments. The beads are all of stone and of all sizes and shapes. The pipes are not unlike in shape the cutty pipe, and several of them are engraved with dogs' heads. They have not lost their virtue for smoking. Some people profess to believe that the locality of Fredinburg farm was formally an Indian burial place, but the enormous stature of the skeletons and the fact that pine trees of centuries growth covered the spot goes far to disprove this idea."

Ancient American Volume 6, Issue 41, p. 9
Researched and submitted by Benoit Crevier
Originally published in The Daily Telegraph (Toronto, Ontario), Wednesday, August 23, 1871, page 1
Reprinted with permission
greatserpentmound.orgOur related science's present understanding of the pre-Adena (Archaic) inhabitants of the greater Ohio River valley is yet somewhat sketchy, what to say of the Adena themselves. However, many pieces to the puzzle are now thought to be in place. The timeline for the Adena begins around 1000 B.C.E. according to the carbon dating of Dragoo and others. The Archaic populace is not believed to have constructed mounds in the Ohio Valley region, although this is not known for certain due to several factors, including widespread destruction of the earthworks, without content cataloging, over the last 250 years. Most understanding is based upon the dating and trait-grouping of materials found in the diminished number of mounds and village sites yet existing after a formal discipline in archaeology and anthropology finally took over excavation and detailed record keeping.

There are Archaic era mounded structures, often intricate and complex, in the deep southern U.S., including Watson Brake, Poverty Point, Fig Island, and Sapelo. For this reason, theories have been put forth that the moundbuilding tradition came into the Ohio Valley around the time of the Adena from the southern Mississippi, thereby tentatively associating the Adena people with older cultures from the south. In one way of looking at this idea, it supposes that moundbuilding was a phenomenon peculiar to
only one geographical source, necessarily having been passed on. Unlike the Adena mounds however, the more ancient southern earthworks did not poignantly suggest a very specialized "cult of the dead."

By their skeletal remains in the earlier studies, the pre-Adena people were known to have had slender or thin bodies, and been "long-headed," with "narrow" skulls (dolichocranic), i.e., having a breadth of skull small in proportion to length from front to back. The Adena people weren't physically akin to these Archaic people. Generally the Adena had more massive bone structure, according to these same studies. The pre-eminent theory of Adena origin at the time was that their ancestry had come from
Mexico or even further south. However, the Adena body bone structure type was unusually difficult to trace with surety south of the Rio Grande where another distinguishing Adena-resonant trait was found practiced from earlier times. That practice was "cradleboard" head deformation.


The internet site of radio talk show host Jeff Rense (http://www.rense.coin/general15/hiss.htm
 ) has unearthed a mysterious, unexplained, but very provocative clipping from the August 5, 1947 edition of the San Diego Union. According to the clipping, explorers had unearthed, near the Arizona-Nevada-California line, the mummified remains of strangely costumed giants which the discoverers dated to around 80,000 years ago.[8000 is probably meant]

The Union reported that a Howard E. Hill of Los Angeles was recounting the work of Dr. F. Bruce Russell, a retired Cincinnati physician who had originally located the first of several tunnels near Death Valley in 1931, but had not been able to return to the area until 1947. With the help of Dr. Daniel S. Bovee, who with Hill's father had once helped open up New Mexico's cliff dwellings, Russell had recovered the remains of several men of 8 to 9 feet in height.

"These giants," said Hill, "are clothed in garments consisting of a medium length jacket and trouser extending slightly below the knees. The texture of the material is said to resemble gray dyed sheepskin, but obviously it was taken from an animal unknown today."

Hill also said, according to the Union, that in another cavern was found the ritual hall of the ancient people, together with devices and markings similar to those now used by the Masonic order. In a long tunnel were well-preserved remains of animals, including elephants and tigers. So far, Hill added, no women have been found.

He said the explorers believe that what they found was the burial place of the tribe's hierarchy. Hieroglyphics, he added, bear a resemblance to what is known of those from the lost continent of Atlantis. They are chiseled, he added, on carefully polished granite. [this sounds like a hoax]
TRACE OF GIANTS FOUND IN DESERT [the same story told over again]LOS ANGELES, Aug 4. (AP)-- A retired Ohio doctor has discovered relics of an ancient civilization, whose men were 8 or 9 feet tall in the Colorado desert near the Arizona-Nevada-California line, an associate said today.

Howard E. Hill. of Los Angeles speaking before the Transportation Club, disclosed that several well-preserved mummies were taken yesterday from caverns in an area roughly 180 miles square, extending through much of southern Nevada from Death Valley, Calif. across the Colorado River into Arizona.

Hill said the discoverer is Dr. F. Bruce Russell, retired Cincinnati physician, who stumbled on the first of several tunnels in 1931, soon after coming West and deciding to try mining for his health.


Not until this year, however, did Dr. Russell go into the situation thoroughly, Hill told the luncheon. With Dr. Daniel S. Bovee, of Los Angeles -- who with his father helped open up New Mexico's cliff dwellings -- Dr. Russell has found mummified remains together with implements of the civilization, which Dr. Bovee had tentatively placed at about 80,000 years old.

"These giants are clothed in garments consisting of a medium length jacket and trouser extending slightly below the knees." said Hill. "The texture of the material is said to resemble gray dyed sheepskin, but obviously it was taken from an animal unknown today."


Hill said that in another cavern was found the ritual hall of the ancient people, together with devices and markings similar to those now used by the Masonic order. In a long tunnel were well-preserved remains of animals including elephants and tigers. So far, Hill added, no women have been found.

He said the explorers believe that what they found was the burial place of the tribe's hierarchy. Hieroglyphics, he added, bear a resemblance to what is known of those from the lost continent of Atlantis. They are chiseled, he added, on carefully-polished granite.

He said Dr. Viola V. Pettit, of London, who made excavations around Petra, on the Arabian desert, soon will begin an inspection of the remains.

Atlantis Rising
January / February 2002, Number 31, p. 11
Reprinted with permission
Ancient Chambers Span Across Beneath Northern ArizonaSaturday, April 27, 1991
ARIZONA DAILY SUN, Flagstaff, Arizona

New Orleans (AP) -- Three young archaelogists came to Northern Arizona and crept through sacred rooms, over rocky precipes and by dangerous rattlesnakes to discover a huge complex of catagombs that could rewrite theories about the Indians of the southwestern United States.

"It's absolutely mind-numbing. We would have never believed it could have existed," John W. Hohman, one of the three archaeologists, said Friday during the meeting of the 2,000 member Society of American Archaeology. "It will change a lot of what we believed about Indians in the Southwest. They may have been far more advanced than we believed."

Hohman admitted to feeling a bit like Indiana Jones, the archaeologists-adventurer from the movies. Armed with a flashlight and a pistol, it was Hohman who rapelled down the steep fissures, frequently dotted with rattlesnakes sunning themselves on rocky outcrops, into the catacombs.

The catacombs his expedition found are the first reported in the United States, officials at the conference said. "It's very exciting to have it announced at this conference. It's one of the few times we can say this is a first. Anytime you have a first in our business, it's exciting," said Dr.James Schoenwetter, professor of anthropology at Arizona State University in Tempe, Ariz. "The idea of a very elaborate form of ceremonial chamber being built underground hundreds of years ago is surprising."

Indians of the southwest United States were not believed to have built underground, Hohman said. For many of the cultures the underground held special connotations, both good and bad, he said. Burials were also done much as they are done now, he said, in graves dug into the earth. The catacombs, which Hohman and colleagues say are about 700 to 800 years old, were discovered at a known prehistoric Indian settlement about two miles west of Springerville.The Mongollon Indians occupied the site sometime between A.D. 1250 and 1400, Hohman said. "There had been some suspicion that there was something underground there," Adams said, "When we actually entered the catacombs though, it just blew us away."

Getting there wasn't easy. "Everytime I'd get halfway down one of the others would find the entry way, Hohman said. The carefully hidden entrances to the catacombs varied from the size of doorways to small crawl spaces. Once inside, Hohman and his colleagues found three to four acres of catacombs, ranging from small chambers to huge rooms 50 feet high and 100 feet long. "It's obvious that they were to protect the cattacombs," said White. ""The average person living at the site would not have had access to the area. It was probably entered only by certain people."

Hohman, Diane E. White and Christopher D. Adams were investigating the area for the town with an eye toward developing it as a recreation area. Hohman expects the site to produce at least one more major find. "We think there is something else underground there. We're working in an area that we think will produce another major surprise," he said.

The area, but not the catacombs, is open to the public, and will be developed into a recreational area, Hohman said. The park is expected to be opened within two years, he said. Called Casa Malpais, the site represents one of the largest and most complex ancient Mongollon communities in the nation, Hohman said.

Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501
Sponsored by Vangard Sciences
PO BOX 1031
Mesquite, TX 75150
There are ABSOLUTELY NO RESTRICTIONS on duplicating, publishing or distributing the files on KeelyNet except where noted!
September 2, 1993
This file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of Rick Lawler.
- [File submitted and upload by Linda Murphy. Springerville is located on I-60, close to the New Mexico border] If you have
comments or other information relating to such topics as this paper covers, please upload to KeelyNet or send to the Vangard
Sciences address as listed on the first page. Thank you for your consideration, interest and support.
Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet
If we can be of service, you may contact Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 242-9346


CALIFORNIALovelock, Nevada, is about eighty miles northeast of Reno. in 1911, in a cave near Lovelock, Nevada guano miners found mummies, bones, and artifacts belonging to a very tall people - with red hair.

ThelPaiutes had legends about the "Si-Te-Cah." According to them the redheads were a warlike people, and a number of the Indian tribes joined together in a long war against them. Eventually, the Paiutes and their allies forced the Si-Te-Cah back to their home acres, near Mount Shasta in California.

Archeologists seemed to take a negative approach to this 'history changing' discovery. . According to reports, two archeologists  were sent to the scene to investigate this remarkable discovery. . One was from the University of California, and the other from New York. Rather than unearthing facts, they seemed more interested in burying them - literally; we are told the New Yorker ordered a mummy reburied on at least once occasion. Nor was anything published about the anomalies until 1929, seventeen years after their visit.

Paiutes says that the Si-Te-Cah literally lived on a lake in the basin overlooked by the cave. The lived on the lake to avoice harrassments from the Indians, living on the rafts made of a fibrous water plant called tule. The name Si-Te-Cah means "tule eaters."

The Paiutes and the long-legged redheads did not get along well. The Indians accused the Si-Te-Cah of being cannibals, and waged war against them. The Si-Te-Cah fought back. After a long struggle, a coalition of tribes trapped the remaining Si-Te-Cah in what is now called Lovelock Cave. When they refused to come out, the Indians piled brush before the cave mouth and set it aflame. The Si-Te-Cah were annihilated.

The local Indians tell stories of how the tribe exterminated those that had reddish hair.
All of this could be dismissed as another tall tale, but the case for the Si-Te-Cah does not rest on one man's research, or on remains found in one guano-filled cave. In 1931, mummies wee discovered in the Humboldt Lake bed. Eight years later, a mystery skeleton was unearthed on a ranch in the region. In each case, the skeletons or mummies were exceptionally tall and appeared to be connected with the strange lost race of redheads.

According to the Indians, the Si-Te-Cah built a pyramidal stone structure in New York Canyon, some miles away in Churchill County. Unfortunately, the area is riven with earthquakes and the rocky ruins have largely tumbled over the years.

Not much has survived from the Si-Te-Cah. When the archeological establishment refused to take their existence seriously, a number of small, private museums arose to fill the gap. A fire in one of these destroyed an irreplaceable collection of bones, mummified remains, feathered artifacts, and shells carved with mysterious symbols. Today there is a museum in Lovelock with a display describing the cave finds, but it ignores allegations that the Si-Te-Cah were anything other than Indians. The Nevada
State Historical Society has some artifacts from the cave, but again, there is not even a hint of ontroversy.

A Nevadan who died more than 10,000 years ago is at the center of a battle over who will control the ancient history of North America.
In about a month, the Bureau of Land Management is expected to decide if a partially mummified skeleton will be given to Indians for secret burial or if scientists can retain the 10,630-year-old remains called Spirit Cave Man for further scientific testing.
The conflict already has fallout. Some of the scientists closest to the issue refused to discuss the strained relations with Indian tribes. State officials last year pressured one Worldwide Web page creator to erase links pertaining to ancient human remains found in Nevada. The state museum this year agreed not to display busts created by a Reno artist that may show what two ancient Nevadans looked like.

In a two-day series, reporter Frank Mullen explores this controversial issue whose outcome may very well change the history of this continent.

 Part 1

Source: The Reno Gazette-Journal, a Gannett Co. Inc. newspaper.

West VirginiaAncient European Skeleton Recovered In West Virginia Cave

Cave Skeleton is European, 1,300 Years Old, Man Says

Sept. 29, 2002

MORGANTOWN - The man who first advanced the theory that markings
carved on in a Wyoming County cave are actually characters from an ancient Irish alphabet has found human remains at the site, which tests indicate are European in origin and date back to A.D. 710, he maintains.

Robert Pyle of Morgantown says that a DNA analysis of material from the skeleton's teeth roots was conducted by Brigham Young University. That analysis, he says, shows that the skeleton's DNA, when compared to samples from Native American groups and an array of European sources, most closely matches samples from the British Isles.

Pyle says the DNA test, plus a radiocarbon test that dates the skeleton to 710, suggest the presence of a European visitor to the North American continent nearly 800 years before the arrival of Columbus, and nearly 300 years before Viking Leif Erickson.

[This is not too entirely unusual in that there are several sites with purported "European" affiliations in various parts of Eastern North America dating to supposedly about 800 AD, at the very beginning of the Viking age, and the date is in a sort of a cultural vaccuum after the Hopewell period otherwise-DD]

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Giants in Ancient Warfare, Adrienne Mayor

Giants in Ancient Warfare, Adrienne Mayor

Here is a reprint of an article which deals with the topic of Giants as they were used as tactical and terror weapons in the ancient world. This article was produced by Adrienne Mayor and I am not claiming any ownership of the article or its copyright, and no responsibility for the comments. I am reprinting it because I thought it contained good information and it went along well with other such information we had seen on this blog before.
As indicated, it is from
MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History (1999)vol 2, no. 2: 98-105
Best Wishes, Dale D.

Thursday, April 12, 2012

Definition of the Human Taxonomic Tribe

There was some discussion recently about the classification of fossil humans recently and I mentioned that at one point there was such a thing as "Homo drennani" (which was briefly the name of the Saldhana skullcap, unuversally afterwards seen as the same as the Kabwe skull or "Rhodesian Man" -In the Smithsonian article below I believe this is referred to as "Homo helmi"

April 11, 2012

Four Species of Homo You’ve Never Heard Of

An artist's reconstruction of Homo georgicus. Image courtesy of Wikicommons
While I was doing some research this week, I came across a hominid species I hadn’t heard of before: Homo helmei. The name was first given to a 259,000-year-old partial skull found in Florisbad, South Africa in 1932. The skull resembled early Homo sapiens but possessed many archaic features. Today some researchers think many of the African hominid fossils from around this time should be lumped in the H. helmi species; others call them Homo heidelbergensis, considered by some anthropologists to be the last common ancestor of modern humans and Neanderthals. And then there are those who don’t really know what to call them.
It turns out I should have known H. helmei. It’s mentioned once in my college human evolution textbook. I even underlined the passage. Still, it’s not a species name that’s frequently used. And it’s just one of several obscure species of Homo that anthropologists don’t universally accept. These unfamiliar members of our genus are often based on a few fossils—sometimes just one—that don’t fit neatly into existing hominid species. Here are a few examples:
Homo gautengensis (lived about 2 million to 820,000 years ago): Earlier this year, Darren Curnoe of the University of New South Wales in Australia announced the possible discovery of a new species of Homo found in China. It wasn’t the first time he had identified a new type of hominid. In 2010, he reanalyzed fossils from the South African caves of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Drimolen and decided that some of the specimens had strangely shaped molar teeth relative to the known South African hominids, such as Australopithecus africanus. He grouped the weird forms into their own species, Homo gautengensis, claiming it was probably the earliest member of the genus Homo.
Homo georgicus (1.8 million years ago): In 1991, anthropologists found the jaw of a hominid in the Caucasus Mountains of Dmanisi, Georgia. The researchers dug up additional hominid fossils as well as stone tools throughout the 1990s. The fossils looked similar to those of Homo erectus. But in 2000, they found an unusual jaw; its size and shape didn’t quite match H. erectus or any other known hominid that lived about 1.8 million years ago. So the team gave the jaw a new name, Homo georgicus. Since then, more bones that might belong to H. georgicus have been unearthed. The researchers speculate that two types of hominids might have lived in Georgia at this time (PDF): H. georgicus and H. erectus (or something closely related to it).
Homo cepranensis (450,000 years ago): Just one fossil, an incomplete skull, represents the species Homo cepranensis. It’s named for Ceprano, Italy, where the fossil was discovered during the construction of a road in 1994. The short, broad, thick skull didn’t quite fit with other hominids of the time, such as H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis, so anthropologists gave it its own name. But the Italian fossil did share some cranial features, like the shape of the brow ridges, with hominids living in Africa a few hundred thousand years ago (about the same time as H. helmei), leading researchers to speculate H. cepranensis was perhaps ancestral to these African forms.
Posted By: Erin Wayman
And we should check this against the standard laundry list:



By rights, this should be a short section. Even in the hands of the more avid splitters currently working on it, the Hominini has never been an overly large clade, and only a single species is still extant. And yet, because of the minor detail that this species happens to be our own, the Hominini continues to receive a great deal of attention.
One side-effect of this high level of interest is that the Hominini have suffered to an extraordinary degree from bad and/or sloppy taxonomy. Almost every species known from more than one fossil individual has accrued a sizeable synonymy, with many available specimens being assigned their own names (both species and genus) at some point, and some single specimens even being assigned multiple names. The tree below attempts some order from the chaos. It presents more of a splitter's perspective on hominin evolution - many species would not be recognised by more conservative workers, some of whom would reduce the genus Homo, for instance, to only three species - Homo habilis, H. erectus and H. sapiens. (Why is Homo neanderthalensis left out?) There is also a considerable degree of debate of how best to treat the paraphyletic series of taxa generally included in the genus Australopithecus (the species between 'Australopithecus' anamensis and Paranthropus robustus in the tree below), with none of the suggested alternatives being really satisfactory.
(see below for synonymy in all cases)

<==Hominini [Australopithecina, Australopithecinae, Praeanthropinae]
   |--Sahelanthropus Brunet, Guy et al. 2002
   |    `--*S. tchadensis Brunet, Guy et al. 2002
   `--+--Ardipithecus White, Suwa & Asfaw 1995
      |    |--*A. ramidus (White, Suwa & Asfaw 1994) [=Australopithecus ramidus]
      |    `--A. kadabba Haile-Selassie 2001 [=A. ramidus kadabba]
      `--+--Orrorin Senut, Pickford et al. 2001
         |    `--*O. tugenensis Senut, Pickford et al. 2001 [=Praeanthropus tugenensis]
         `--+--‘Australopithecus’ anamensis Leakey, Feibel et al. 1995 
                    [=Praeanthropus anamensis]
            `--+--Praeanthropus Senyürek 1955
               |    |--P. afarensis (Johanson in Hinrichson 1978) (nom. cons.) 
               |    `--P. bahrelghazali Brunet et al. 1996[=Australopithecus bahrelghazali]
               `--+--‘Australopithecus’ garhi Asfaw, White et al. 1999
                        [=Praeanthropus garhi]
                  `--+--Australopithecus Dart 1925 [incl. Plesianthropus Broom 1938]
                     |    `--*A. africanus Dart 1925 
                     `--+--+--Kenyanthropus Leakey et al. 2001
                        |  |    `--*K. platyops Leakey et al. 2001 [=Homo platyops]
                        |  `--Paranthropus Broom 1938          
                        |       |--+--P. aethiopicus(Arambourg & Coppens)                   
                        |       |  `--P. boisei (Leakey 1959) 
                        |       `--+--P. crassidens Broom 1949[=Australopithecus crassidens]
                        |          `--P. robustus Broom 1938 [=Australopithecus robustus]
                        `--Homo Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy)
                             |  i. s.: H. dubius Koenigswald 1950 [=Pithecanthropus dubius]
                             |         H. kanamensis Leakey 1935
                             |         H. modjokertensis von Koenigswald 1936
                                           [=Pithecanthropus modjokertensis]
                             |         H. palaeojavanicus Weidenreich 1944
                                          [=Meganthropus palaeojavanicus]
                             |--H. habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier 1964 
                             |--H. floresiensis Brown, et al. 2004
                             `--+--H. rudolfensis (Alexeev 1986) 
                                `--+--H. ergaster Groves & Mazák 1975 [=H. erectus ergaster]
                                   |--H. georgicus Gabounia, de Lumley et al. 2002
                                   `--+-----H. erectus (Dubois 1892)
                                        |       |--H. e. erectus
                                      |       `--H. e. wushanensis
                                      `--+--H. antecessor Bermúdez de Castro,Arsuaga etal. 
                                         |--H. cepranensis Mallegni, Carnieri et al. 2003
                                         |--H. mauritanicus (Arambourg 1954) 
                                         `--+--H. heidelbergensis Schoetensack 1908 
                                            `--+--H. neanderthalensis King 1864 
                                               `--+--H. rhodesiensis Woodward 1921 
                                                  `--H. sapiens Linnaeus 1758 
                                                       |--H. s. sapiens
                                                       ?--H. s. idaltu White, Asfaw etal. 
                                                       ?--H. s. narmadensis Sonakia 1982 
*Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925 [=Homo africanus; incl. A. prometheus Dart 1948, A. transvaalensis Broom 1936, *Plesianthropus transvaalensis]
Homo Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Africanthropus Dreyer 1935, Atlanthropus Arambourg 1954, Cyphanthropus Pycraft 1928, Meganthropus, Paleoanthropus Kohl-Larsen & Reck 1936, Pithecanthropus Dubois 1894, Protanthropus Haeckel 1895, Sinanthropus Black 1927, Tchadanthropus Coppens 1965, Telanthropus Broom & Robinson 1949]
Homo erectus (Dubois 1892) [=Anthropopithecus erectus, Pithecanthropus erectus; incl. Sinanthropus lantianensis Woo 1964, Homo leakeyi Clarke 1990 non Paterson 1940, H. erectus leakeyi, H. (Proanthropus) louisleakeyi Kretzoi 1984, Sinanthropus officinalis von Koenigswald 1953, H. erectus olduvaiensis Tobias 1968 (n. n.), S. pekinensis Black 1927, H. erectus pekinensis, H. (Javanthropus) soloensis Oppenoorth 1932, H. erectus soloensis]
Homo habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier 1964 [=Australopithecus habilis]
Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack 1908 [incl. *Paleoanthropus njarensis Kohl-Larsen & Reck 1936, Homo saldanensis Drennan 1953]
Homo mauritanicus (Arambourg 1954) [=Atlanthropus mauritanicus, H. erectus mauritanicus]
Homo neanderthalensis King 1864 [=H. sapiens neanderthalensis; incl. H. breladensis Marett 1911, H. calpicus Keith 1911, H. primigenius Schaaffhausen 1880, H. transprimigenius Forrer 1908]
Homo rhodesiensis Woodward 1921 [=*Cyphanthropus rhodesiensis, H. sapiens rhodesiensis; incl. Africanthropus njarascensis Weinert 1939]
Homo rudolfensis (Alexeev 1986) [=Pithecanthropus rudolfensis, Australopithecus rudolfensis, Kenyanthropus rudolfensis]
Homo sapiens Linnaeus 1758 [incl. H. aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent 1825, H. sapiens afer Linnaeus 1758, Telanthropus capensis Broom & Robinson 1949, H. erectus capensis, H. sapiens capensis, H. (Africanthropus) helmei Dreyer 1935, H. leakeyi Paterson 1940, H. spelaeus Lapouge 1899, Tchadanthropus uxoris Coppens 1965]
Homo sapiens narmadensis Sonakia 1982 [=H. erectus narmadensis]
Paranthropus Broom 1938 [incl. Paraustralopithecus Arambourg & Coppens 1967, Zinjanthropus Leakey 1959]
Paranthropus aethiopicus (Arambourg & Coppens 1968) [=*Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus aethiopicus; incl. A. walkeri Ferguson 1989]
Paranthropus boisei (Leakey 1959) [=*Zinjanthropus boisei, Australopithecus boisei]
Praeanthropus afarensis (Johanson in Hinrichson 1978) (nom. cons.) [=Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus afarensis; incl. A. africanus aethiopicus Tobias 1980 non Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg & Coppens 1968, Homo aethiopicus (Tobias) non Bory de St. Vincent 1825, Meganthropus africanus Weinert 1950 (nom. rej.), *Praeanthropus africanus, H. antiquus Ferguson 1984, Australopithecus antiquus, H. antiquus praegens Ferguson 1989]
* Type species of generic name indicated


Asfaw, B., W. H. Gilbert, Y. Beyene, W. K. Hart, P. R. Renne, G. WoldeGabriel, E. S. Vrba & T. D. White. 2002. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 416: 317-320.
Brown, P., T. Sutikna, M. J. Morwood, R. P. Soejono, Jatmiko, E. W. Saptomo & R. A. Due. 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431: 1055-1061.
Brunet, M., F. Guy, D. Pilbeam, H. T. Mackaye, A. Likius, D. Ahounta, A. Beauvilain, C. Blondel, H. Bocherens, J.-R. Boisserie, L. de Bonis, Y. Coppens, J. Dejax, C. Denys, P. Duringer, V. Eisenmann, G. Fanone, P. Fronty, D. Geraads, T. Lehmann, F. Lihoreau, A. Louchart, A. Mahamat, G. Merceron, G. Mouchelin, O. Otero, P. Pelaez Campomanes, M. Ponce de Leon, J.-C. Rage, M. Sapanet, M. Schuster, J. Sudre, P. Tassy, X. Valentin, P. Vignaud, L. Viriot, A. Zazzo & C. Zollikofer. 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, central Africa. Nature 418: 145-151.
Cela-Conde, C. J., & F. J. Ayala. 2003. Genera of the human lineage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 100 (13): 7684-7689.
Gabounia, L., M.-A. de Lumley, A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze & H. de Lumley. 2002. Découverte d’un nouvel hominidé à Dmanissi (Transcaucasie, Géorgie). Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 243-253.
Groves, C. P. 1999. Nomenclature of African Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Journal of Human Evolution 37: 869-872.
Howell, F. C. 1978. Hominidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 154-248. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Huang W., R. Ciochon, Gu Y., R. Larick, Fang Q., H. Schwarcz, C. Yonge, J. de Vos & W. Rink. 1995. Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature 378: 275-278.
ICZN. 1999. Opinion 1941: Australopithecus afarensis Johanson, 1978 (Mammalia, Primates): specific name conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56 (3): 223-224.
Kennedy, K. A. R. 1999. Paleoanthropology of South Asia. Evolutionary Anthropology 8 (5): 165-185.
Kennedy, K. A. R., A. Sonakia, J. Chiment & K. K. Verma. 1991. Is the Narmada hominid an Indian Homo erectus? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 86: 475-496.
Lahr, M. M., & R. Foley. 2004. Human evolution writ small. Nature 431: 1043-1044.
Leakey, L. S. B., P. V. Tobias & J. R. Napier. 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202: 7-9.
Lieberman, D. E. 2001. Another face in our family tree. Nature 410: 419-420.
Mallegni, F., E. Carnieri, M. Bisconti, G. Tartarelli, S. Ricci, I. Biddittu & A. Segre. 2003. Homo cepranensis sp. nov. and the evolution of African-European Middle Pleistocene hominids. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 153-159.
Pickford, M., B. Senut, D. Gommery & J. Treil. 2003. Bipedalism in Orrorin tugenensis revealed by its femora. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 191-203.
Senut, B., M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi & Y. Coppens. 2001. First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). Comptes Rendus de L’Academie des Sciences – Series IIA – Earth and Planetary Sciences 332: 137-144.
Strait, D. S., & F. E. Grine. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodental characters: the role of fossil taxa. Journal of Human Evolution 47 (6): 349-452.
Stringer, C. 2003. Out of Ethiopia. Nature 423: 692-695.
White, T. D., B. Asfaw, D. DeGusta, H. Gilbert, G. D. Richards, G. Suwa & F. C. Howell. 2003. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 423: 742-747.
White, T. D., Giday WoldeGabriel, Berhane Asfaw, Stan Ambrose, Yonas Beyene, Raymond L. Bernor, Jean-Renaud Boisserie, Brian Currie, Henry Gilbert, Yohannes Haile-Selassie, William K. Hart, Leslea J. Hlusko, F. Clark Howell, Reiko T. Kono, Thomas Lehmann, Antoine Louchart, C. Owen Lovejoy, Paul R. Renne, Haruo Saegusa, Elisabeth S. Vrba, Hank Wesselman and Gen Suwa, 2006. Asa Issie, Aramis and the origin of Australopithecus. Nature 440: 883-889.
White, T. D., G. Suwa & B. Asfaw. 1994. Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371: 306-312.
Wolpoff, M.H., J. Hawks, B. Senut, M. Pickford, & J. Ahern. An Ape or The Ape: Is The Toumaï Cranium TM 266 a Hominid? PaleoAnthropology 2006:36-50.
Wood, B. 2002. Hominid revelations from Chad. Nature 418: 133-135.
Wood, B., & B. G. Richmond. 2000. Human evolution: Taxonomy and paleobiology. Journal of Anatomy 196: 19-60

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Across The Younger Dryas Threshold

Across The Younger Dryas Threshold

The maps above illustrate the changes from the milder interglacial conditions before the Younger Dryas and then during the Younger Dryas. The most obvious change is that the entire firested region of Northern Europe has been levelled flat and forests only cling to more mountainous regions in Southern Europe. Strata of that time do also explicitely contain the indications for the felled forests. The felled forests in both Europe and Noth America bear witness to enormous tsunamis crashing across the continents and subsequent flooding of all the low-lying districts. Below are the maps for the comparable periods in North America. For the Younger Dryas, I have altered the second map to reflect other information I have that there was also a deforestation event in the Deep South, accompanied by more saline soils, and that the newer forests were at first of a drier climate scrub and then rapidly replaced by swampy growth. The nascent icefree corridor also closed up again.
Both of thes maps are unadjusted C14 dates reflecting the problems involved in dating these periods. You will commonly find corrected dates as being two thousand years older, or more.
Calcolithic Coppers of Peru J.A. Pero-Sanz*, J. Asensio†, J.I. Verdeja†, J.P. Sancho† * Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Minas, 28003 Madrid, Spain † Universidad de Oviedo, E.T.S.I. de Minas, 33004 Oviedo, Spain
[The chart has been amended to allow for the new finds of copper use in the oldest Holocene in coastal Peru, mentioned in an earlier posting to this blog. This makes the oldest copper use in the New World traceable to the oldest Holocene in both Eastern North America and in coastal Perue survivals from the older Archaic establishment of what Donnelly called the Atlantean American Empire ancate about the same geographical area]

Mesolithic inhabitants of Europe shown on rock art as wearing feathered headgear and wearing loincloths and leggings a arrows. They have cattle and goats and they could also be herding deer: and they are aided by shepard dogs that bear a resemblance to our German shepards (see blowup below)
The Mesolithic European settlers, men above and women below. The men are marching off to war and the women are dancing in a religious ritual. The women are often called "Witches" in this scene
This is the physical type basic to both the European Mesolithics (Azilians and Capsians) and to the American Archaics, the Iswanids of Neumann, close to the Arawak type.
Mesolithic Europeans surviving the Younger Dryas, a lot like the Native Americans at the same time across the Atlantic Ocean. Bows and Arrows were introduced early on in Archaic times in North America, but fell out of favour and had to be re-introduced again mych more recently.

Neolithic groups of Europe. The Atlantic bunch is distinguished as using varieties of Cardial and Impresso ware: these are very similar to the older types of North Africa and entered into the area through Sicily and Malta (not indicated on this map)-the hows up in Palestine but it obviosly derives from the West when it does (it is intrusive there and more highly developed, and older, in the West).

A continental origin

Simplified recolonisation of Europe by hunter-gatherers according to Dr. Oppenheimer.
The Ice Age ended with the beginning of the Younger Dryas Age (12000 - 8000 BC) [1].
But the Ice Age actually ended in two steps: the first warming happened around 12000 BC, the second one, one can call this one 'the real warming', around 8000 BC and is called the Holocene. We still do live in the Holocene period. The Younger Dryas was still cold and dry. Bordeaux had then the same climate as Stockholm today. As a consequence the ice melted in two stages.
Previously, the north of Europe was simply too cold to be inhabited by the Cro-Magnon man, a human species of tropical origin. Actually, this Cro-Magnon man (we!) could cope with the cold, but it was the absence of wild game on the ice plains that was impossible to overcome. We can assume that there was some human presence in Britain 15000 years ago, but the numbers must have been negligible and seasonal. With the start of the Younger-Dryas came the first stage of ice melting and much of Europe became far more accessible for humans, although the climate was still cold. The second, final stage would happen when the Younger Dryas (9000 - 8200 BC) ended and the Holocene period began (since 8000 BC).
According to Dr. Oppenheimer, it was at the beginning of the Younger Dryas period that Europe was colonized from Ice Age refuges. He called people in the northern Spain refuge Ruisko. Ruisko colonized mainly the regions next to the Atlantic coast. The refuges in Croatia (called Ivan) and in southern Russia (called Rostov) colonized most of the Continent itself. All genes became eventually unevenly mixed. E.g. Britain is more Ruisko, Germany is more Ivan and Rostov.
The first wave of humans who came from Ice Age refuges Ivan and Rostov spoke a language which was the earliest form of PIE [2]. To give it a name: we call it Maglemosian. The location of the origin of the PIE language on the map is deceiving: the language was spoken by a tribe that lived on the coasts of the Black Sea. Dr. Oppenheimer found typical Ivan-genes in Serbia and typical Rostov-genes in southern Russia, but that does not mean that these genes were originally from there. What we know is that the genes remained more concentrated there.

Language evolution

Maglemosian was carried by people who genetically resembled people from the Ivan or Rostov refuges respectively in Serbia and in south Russia. In the west and northwest a different language was spoken: Azelian, which might be a parent of Basque. Both Azelian and Maglemosian were the most important languages in western Europe. Not in numbers of native speakers, but in surface. The languages evolved and unified regionally because of the annual migrations and the winter gatherings for maybe 4000 years.
At the beginning of the Holocene, the last big warming up of about 8000 BC, the opposite happened: migrations stopped and the languages diversified, more strong dialects appeared. Three major groups had emerged in western Europe: (1) Azilian in west Britain, France and Spain (Atlantic coast), (2) Maglemosian in Germany and Scandinavia, (3) Various non-PIE languages settled probably in northern Italy and southeast France at first. Only Maglemosian had connections with PIE.
Azilian is a name given by archaeologists to an industry of the Epipaleolithic in northern Spain and southern France. It probably dates to the period of the Allerød Oscillation around 10,000 years ago (10,000 BC uncalibrated) and followed the Magdalenian culture. Archaeologists think the Azilian represents the tail end of the Magdalenian as the warming climate brought about changes in human behaviour in the area. The effects of melting ice sheets would have diminished the food supply and probably impoverished the previously well-fed Magdalenian manufacturers. As a result, Azilian tools and art were cruder and less expansive than their Ice Age predecessors - or simply different. (Wikipedia)
Maglemosian (ca. 9500 BC–6000 BC) is the name given to a culture of the early Epipaleolithic period in Northern Europe. In Scandinavia, the culture is succeeded by the Kongemose culture.

Seasonal migrations

Our story takes place circa 11 000 years ago (Younger Dryas - see picture above). It is winter and very cold. Look at the map hereunder. There is an ice cap over most of Scandinavia. Europe is covered with a forest-steppe (in pink), which is a mixture of patches of trees (a few birch and pine) and a lot of grassland. The more to the north, the less trees there are (tundra-steppe). The yellow area represents a dry steppe, mostly void of trees. Purple represents woodland. The sea level is much lower than today. Britain is a part of the continent. The first deciduous trees appear only in the far south of France and in Spain.
Younger dryas
Seasonal migrations of the Azelian and Maglemosian tribes. Maglemosian could be related to a precursor of the Proto-Indo-European language. Azelian, Basque (possible original spread) and Etruscan are non-Proto-Indo-European languages.
[Please note that the ProtoIndoEuropean territory did actually include parts of Greece. I do identiify them astthe "Athenians" of Plato-DD]
Big animals need a lot of grass. A steppe is covered with grass. The conditions are ideal for big migrating herds of European wisent (=bison), deer, etc. This meant enough food for the humans, and a subsequent growth of their population.
The Maglemosianshad their winter quarter in (modern) Bavaria, the south of Germany, where the wild herds sheltered. These herds were blocked there on their way south because of the ice cap over the Alps and the Rhine in the west. Estimated human population: 50 000-60 000. They spoke an ancestor of PIE called Maglemosian. From time to time, new proto-PIE speaking people migrated from the shores of the Black Sea to south Germany.
The Azilians stayed in (modern) southwest France for similar reasons. Their origins must be searched in the north of Spain and south of France. Estimated population: 80 000-90 000 souls. In the north, close to the ice-cap, were some 5000-6000 proto-Scandinavians. Their lifestyle resembled that of the modern Inuit (Eskimos).
Azelian is the supposed language of the people practising the Azilian culture (actually : pottery style). I use Azelian for the language in analogy to the changed vowels in France and French. The Azilian period does not correspond perfectly with the period we discuss here. The supposed Azelian language period stretches from 8000 to 4000 BC, much longer than the cultural period. But I found it a nice name. This remark is also valid for Maglemosian.
[Note: populations fell generally at the onset of the Younger Dryas, in some places by at least half the population lost. The Western European seaboard, by contrast, seems to have swollen half again or double the population due to the influx of refugee populations spreading inland through Spain-DD]
Spring came late to the barren land. In May the herds began to travel north. Herds travel much faster than humans can follow (on foot). The humans prepared themselves to go to their summer quarters, also in the north. They were organized in small clans, on average some 25-35 people; 4 up to 7 adult men, some elderly people and the rest were women, children and babies. Each clan had a well-known summer territory, inherited for many generations.

A fixed summer territoryhad many advantages.
(1) Mankind is very territorial. The reason is simple: it's all about food. The size of such a territory had to be just big enough (= enough game). It was determined by experience. Too big meant too much competition with other clans.
(2) It avoided yearly disputes and the occasional casualties.
(3) Each clan knew exactly where to go, was able to prepare for the voyage, knew what dangers lay ahead, how to overcome obstacles, etc.
(4) It allowed more investment in the local huts or shelters. In some places mammoth tusks were collected to build those huts. Mammoth tusks are very heavy. Sometimes they had to be carried by at least 2 men over kilometres. Not something you would do for just one summer. Wood was scarce in the steppe and needed for fuel. Such huts have been found.
(5) Efficient hunting depends upon a good knowledge of the territory. This knowledge was acquired over the years.
Some clans would have to travel for one month. As the good season lasts only 5 months, including one month to go and one month to come back, thus remain 3 months to stay. Not much. Going further north would narrow the season too much. The summer is normally a time of plenty, and fattening up for the next winter is what you would do. So, some time is needed. In spring the Azelians spread all over France from the south. Some clans reached their northern limit : Belgium, at the maximum reasonable distance from South-France, some 750 km. That meant an average of 25 km a day on foot during a month. Arduous, especially for elder or very young people. The proto-Germans did the same and some ended up near the border of Denmark, a very similar distance. Of course, there were no roads. However, there was another way to reach the North. By boat.Technology around 10 000 BC was comparable with that of Canadian Indians just before the white man came. People could make boats, large canoes probably made of hide, would be available. Those boat types are still made by the Eskimos, and are surprisingly strong in icy conditions. The Welsh word for such boats is currach. The English version of the word is coracle. Today, coracles are (very) small and often completely round while currachs are elongated and much bigger, but they are both really the same word. With those currachs the Azelian peoples could travel north by sea. This way of voyaging is much more comfortable and quicker than walking. They followed the coast to the north, and colonized the complete west of the British Isles.
The Maglemosian people had a similar technology, and used the Rhine, but also the Weser and Elbe. They followed the rivers to the north and colonized the riverbanks. That's how Alsace became German.
Where the Rhine merged with other rivers in what would become the North Sea, Maglemosian people found the place already occupied by Azelian speaking tribes.

Monday, April 9, 2012

Robert Lindsay on the Antiquity of the White Race

Traditional Human Races. From Wikipedia.
Robert Lindsay just posted on his blog:

The traditional European phenotype only dates back 10,000 years. Before that, Europeans looked very different.

In fact, the African genesis theory is pretty uncontroversial in anthropology today. It is only rejected by nonscientists, mostly White nationalists and White racists with an axe to grind against White people.

The “Aryans” only date back to 5000 YBP. That’s it. If you are talking White people, well, White skin [blonde hair] and blue eyes go back 9-11,000 YBP. Before that, European skulls and genes look more Arab than anything else. Going back ~20,000 YBP, European skulls look most like the skulls of the Indian tribes of NW America such as the Makah of Washington state. Going back 35,000 YBP, the oldest Europeans do not look like any known race. They may look more like a Bushman than anything else.

--Not only is Robert dead-on correct about this, but it is correspondingly true that the actual "Mongoloid" Asiatics only go back to about the same 10000 years ago, as do what people think of as Congoid blacks of Africa. Traditionally-defined "Whites", "Blacks", "Yellows" and "Reds" all came onto the scene at about the same time. NONE of the traditional races in their traditional expressions existed in the Pleistocene, they are all innovations of the Postglacial (Holocene)
In this case, the "Arab" skulls are Mesolithic Capsians and the "American" looking skulls are CroMagnons just in time for the Solutrean Crossing. Both things are useful to know.

Sunday, April 8, 2012

Archaic Atlantic RingMound Builders

Suggested by Teresa Drusin. These structures are important because they relate directly to the Shellmounds of Brazil and have a similar subsistence pattern. The builders are also thought to be related (Timucuas are supposed to be related to Arawaks) and the ring-shaped structures not only recall Atlantis, they are also clearly ancestral to the later Mound Builders cultures. The evidence for a Bronze Age global catastrophe (one of Prof. Schiffer's dates) is also striking.

Ancient walled city, older than Egypt’s pyramids, unearthed off Georgia coast