(2) Mesolithic cultures.
(3) Swiderian cultures.
(4) Pontic Tardenosian cultures.
(5) Iberian Capsian cultures.
(6) Oranian cultures.
(7) Lower Capsian cultures.
(8) The Fertile Crescent
The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period.
Agriculture spread throughout the Fertile Crescent and use of pottery became more widespread. Larger settlements like Jericho arose along salt and flint trade routes. Northern Eurasia was resettled as the glaciers of the last glacial maximum retreated. World population was at a few million people, likely below 5 million. [As many as half the people in the world inhabit the more advanced centres of Sundaland and Island Atlantis, possibly as many as two-thirds with a world population of 15 million or more. The population of Atlantis' capital city is perhaps a million, comparable to the city of Rome at the height of the Roman Empire. As much as over 80% of the world's human population perishes in the cataclysmic end of the Pleistocene Ice Age and the ensuing age has a noticeably dropped population density in survivor cultures-DD]
- c. 9000 BC—Mediterranean—Settling on Mediterranean isles started
- c. 9000 BC—Laacher See, northwest of Frankfurt, formed when a volcano blows out to form a caldera
- c. 9000 BC --[ Simultaneous Volcanic activity in Azores and N. Atlantic]
- c. 9000 BC—Neolithic culture begins in Ancient Near East
- c. 9000 BC--[Bottlegourd and squashes grown in Mexico and Peru]
- c. 9000 BC: Gὃbekli Tepe Carved stone hilltop sanctuary in southeastern Turkey.
- c. 8700–8400 BC—Britain—Star Carr site in Yorkshire, Britain inhabited by Maglemosian peoples
- c. 8500 BC—Great Britain—Mesolithic hunters camp at Cramond, Prehistoric Scotland
- c. 8500 BC–7370 BC; Jericho established with 2,000 inhabitants living in mud-brick houses covering 6 acres (24,000 m2) and protected by the Wall of Jericho
- c. 8000 BC—Norway—Øvre Eiker of Norway inhabited
- c. 8000 BC—Estonia—Pulli settlement inhabited
Inventions and discoveries
- c. 9000 BC—The first evidence of the keeping of sheep, in northern Iraq.
- c. 9000 BC---[First use of ceramic "Tokens" in Egypt and Near East]
- c. 9000 BC--[Evidence of Obsidian trade throughout the Mediterranean. First groundstone jade (Nephrite) celts appear as trade object, sources unknown in most cases. Some trade in Amber]
- c. 9000 BC—Discovery of working Copper in Middle East [and in Southern Spain]
- c. 8500 BC—Natufian culture of Western Mesopotamia is harvesting wild wheat with flint-edged sickles. (1967 McEvedy) [the same types of sickles are also in use in Spain, Egypt and Northern Africa] About this time, boats are invented, and dogs domesticated [introduced into] in Europe. (1967 McEvedy)
- c. 8500 BC—Andean peoples domesticate chili peppers,[ ground nuts, root crops] and two kinds of bean.
- c. 8000 BC—Mesopotamia—Agriculture in Mesopotamia; [Irrigation slightly later]
- c. 8000 BC—Asia—Domestication of the pig in China and Turkey
- c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Domestication of goats
- c. 8000 BC---[Greece-Domesticated Cattle (Aurochs)]
- c. 8000 BC—[Africa--Pottery in Sahara, similar to later Mediterranean designs]
- c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Ancient flint tools from north and central Arabia belong to hunter-gatherer societies
- c. 8000 BC—Middle East—Clay vessels and modeled human and animal terracotta figurines are produced at Ganj Dareh in western Iran.[Similarly in Iraq and Turkey]
- c. 8000 BC—People of Jericho were making bricks out of clay, then hardened them in the sun. The settlement had grown to 8–10 acres of houses and had substantial walls.
Environmental changesc. 9000 BC: Temporary global chilling, as the Gulf Stream pulls southward, and Europe ices over (1990 Rand McNally Atlas) [Muck's date of 8500 BC could easily be an alternate date for the same event: Temporary advance in Continental glaciation, steep increase in precipitation, Carbon-14 concentration flip event and geomagnetic inversion are all features associated at the time]
- ^ Curry, Andrew (November 2008). "Gobekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/30706129.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- ^ a b Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
- Cambridge Encyclopedia of Archaeology
- Atlantis in Andalucia by E. M. Whishaw for early copper in Southern Spain.
- Otto Muck, The Secret of Atlantis
|Western Mediterranean Cave Art Style,|
From Secrets of the Ice Age.
During this period, the environment of the Maghreb was open savanna, much like modern East Africa, with Mediterranean forests at higher altitudes. The Capsian diet included a wide variety of animals, ranging from aurochs and hartebeest to hares and snails; there is little evidence concerning plants eaten.. During the succeeding Neolithic of Capsian Tradition, there is evidence from one site, for domesticated, probably imported, ovicaprids. 
Anatomically, Capsian populations were modern Homo sapiens, traditionally classed into two "racial" types: Proto-Mediterranean and Mechta-Afalou on the basis of cranial morphology. Some have argued that they were immigrants from the east,  whereas others argue for population continuity based on physical skeletal characteristics and other criteria, et cetera.
Given its widespread occurrence in the Sahara, the Capsian culture is identified by some historical linguists as a possible ancestor of the speakers of modern Afroasiatic languages of North Africa which includes the Berber languages in North Africa.
Nothing is known about Capsian religion, but their burial methods suggest a belief in an afterlife. Decorative art is widely found at their sites, including figurative and abstract rock art, and ocher is found coloring both tools and corpses. Ostrich eggshells were used to make beads and containers; seashells were used for necklaces. The Ibero-Maurusian practice of evulsion of the central incisors continued sporadically, but became rarer.
[The Eburran industry which dates between 13,000 and 9,000 BCE in East Africa, was formerly known as the "Kenya Capsian" due to similarities in the stone blade shapes.]
Bibliography and references
- ^ 2005 D. Lubell. Continuité et changement dans l'Epipaléolithique du Maghreb. In, M. Sahnouni (ed.) Le Paléolithique en Afrique: l’histoire la plus longue, pp. 205-226. Paris: Guides de la Préhistoire Mondiale, Éditions Artcom’/Errance.
- ^ 2004 N. Rahmani. Technological and cultural change among the last Hunter-Gatherers of the Maghreb: the Capsian (10,000 B.P. to 6000 B.P.). Journal of World Prehistory 18(1): 57-105.
- ^ 1984 D. Lubell. Paleoenvironments and Epi Paleolithic economies in the Maghreb (ca. 20,000 to 5000 B.P.). In, J.D. Clark & S.A. Brandt (eds.), From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 41-56.
- ^ a b 1984 D. Lubell, P. Sheppard & M. Jackes. Continuity in the Epipalaeolithic of northern Africa with an emphasis on the Maghreb. In, F. Wendorf & A. Close (eds.), Advances in World Archaeology, Vol. 3: 143-191. New York: Academic Press.
- ^ 2004 D. Lubell.Prehistoric edible land snails in the circum-Mediterranean: the archaeological evidence. In, J-J. Brugal & J. Desse (eds.), Petits Animaux et Sociétés Humaines. Du Complément Alimentaire Aux Ressources Utilitaires. XXIVe rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes, pp. 77-98. Antibes: Éditions APDCA.
- ^ 1979 C. Roubet. Économie Pastorale Préagricole en Algérie Orientale: le Néolithique de Tradition Capsienne. Paris: CNRS.
- ^ 1985 D. Ferembach. On the origin of the Iberomaurusians (Upper Paleolithic, North Africa): a new hypothesis. Journal of Human Evolution 14: 393-397.
- ^ a b 1991 P. Sheppard & D. Lubell. & Lubell.pdf Early Holocene Maghreb prehistory: an evolutionary approach. Sahara 3: 63-9
- ^ 2001 D. Lubell. Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Maghreb. In, P.N. Peregrine & M. Ember (eds.) Encyclopedia of Prehistory, Volume 1: Africa. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 129-149.
- ^ Rahmani, N (2004), "Technological and Cultural Change Among the Last Hunter-Gatherers of the Maghreb: The Capsian (10,000–6000 BP)" (Journal of World Prehistory, - Springer... 1, March 2004)
THE ATLANTEAN INVASIONS
Near the date of 35,000 B.C., a few thousand years after the first appearance in Europe of Modern Man, a taller, more powerfully built, more rugged man suddenly "invades" the western shores of Europe and North Africa (Bordes, 1968; Clark, 1970; Coon, 1954). This rugged, innovative, large-brained man is dubbed Cro-Magnon, named after the first specimen discovered at Cro-Magnon Cave a few miles from Aurignac; consequently, his tool assemblage was labeled "Aurignacian". According to Prof. Francois Bordes, world renown archeologist and former director of the Laboratory of Prehistory at the University of Bordeaux, the Aurignacian tool tradition without doubt originates outside of Europe, ready-made, although from where is still a mystery (Bordes, 1968).
Dr. John E. Pfeiffer, professor of anthropology at Rutgers University observes: "The Aurignacian is quite distinct from the Perigordian"; they arrive "from some area outside of Western Europe"; with an already "established way of life." Archeologist Frank Hibben states that the Aurignacian industry is "indubitably non-European in origin"; adding that subsequent excavations and studies have shown that it is "far more complex than previously supposed." (Hibben, 1968) The Aurignacian is also the longest lasting of all Cro-Magnon cultures. Pfeiffer further observes:
"The very coexistence of the Perigordians and Aurignacians in France raises some questions that cannot be answered at present. They apparently hunted in the same regions under the same conditions during the same general period, living as contemporaries for thousands of years. Yet they seem not to have influenced one another appreciably, a surprising state of affairs considering man's capacity for minding his neighbor's business."
Then along about 18,000 B.C. the Aurignacian culture is "interrupted" by the next invasion known as the Solutrean. Although definitely Cro-Magnon in type, Solutrean skulls are somewhat broader. (Hibben, 1968).
Solutrean art is not as prolific as the earlier Aurignacian. The few examples of Solutrean cave art are to be found at Le Fourneau-du-Diable, Le Roc in the Charente, the cave loci at Aragon and Levante (Spain), and a few open-air sites in Andalucia and Extramadura (Hibben, 1968; Bicho, et al., 2007). However, the Solutreans excelled in the production of extremely delicate blades (an artform in itself): they may have introduced the use of the bow-and-arrow (Pfeiffer, 1969).
But after a mere four thousand years—circa.14,000 B.C.—the so-called Magdalenian invasion occurs, in which the harpoon first appears. These "invasions" are all associated with waves of Cro-Magnon occupation. No formative, or "gestation," stages have ever been found on any continent for any of the Cro-Magnon tool industries. Were they all developed—in Atlantis?
"The evidence tells of a powerful people who could live where they wanted to live . . . And there is more than that in the record. Life was changing in response to . . . events which involved geological forces and caused a major population explosion. Surviving signs of the change are everywhere. The most recent Magdalenians . . . occupied three to four times more sites than their predecessors, and occupied a large number of sites that had never been used before."
(Pfeiffer, 1969; italics mine.)
Human populations were at an all time high at this point; but then something earthshaking must have happened! The Azilian "invasion" occurs very close to the magic date of 10,000 B.C., (compatible with the demise of Atlantis according to Plato) ending forever the Upper Paleolithic Age and the Cro-Magnon invasions. In fact, all Upper Paleolithic cultures —both eastern and western—end at the same time, (Click for table) and the extinction of millions of animals occurs. A new "age" begins.
The Mesolithic Age which follows has been characterized by archeologists and anthropologists as "gloomy," "uninspired," and is inaugurated by a significant drop in population (Pfeiffer, 1969). But even though the dreary Mesolithic Age has begun all over Europe, Africa and Asia, the Cro-Magnon based Azilian is unmistakably Upper Paleolithic in character as long as it exists: yet all is not right with this last of the brilliant Cro-Magnon cultures.
"The Azilians hunted in the same regions where the Magdalenians had hunted and occupied many of the same sites. Like most dwindling people, they probably lived to a large extent in the past and told nostalgic legends about their ancestors, the mighty hunters of another age."
What a perfect description of a people traumatized by a tremendously violent catastrophe! Conditions in Europe after the passing of the Ice Age were actually better; yet the spirit of these people had been broken. They were left in a daze, numbed by unimaginable events. The anthropologists who have detected this despondency are not thinking in terms of world catastrophe, or the loss of a homeland; yet this change in attitude is readily discernible in the Mesolithic remains. (For additional evidence of this catastrophe go to Last Ice Age.)
Four Cro-Magnon invasions also took place in North Africa within this same time-frame, although more work involving dating needs to be done there (Hadingham, 1979). These are known as the Aterian, Oranian, Mouillian and the Capsian (Bordes, 1968; Clark, 1977, et al.). In North Africa the Mousterian of Neanderthal was replaced by a tool industry called the Aterian, which stretched from Morocco eastward to Tripoli, and southward into the northern portions of the Sahara. (Clark, 1970) According to archaeological evidence, the atlatl (spear thrower) made its appearance somewhere between 25,000 and 40,000 years ago in the area of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
Dr. Bruce Howe (1967) of Harvard University states: "The bulk of the datable Aterian appears to be earlier than any European Solutrean." The earliest Aterian exceeds 30,000 years and is concentrated in the west; the latest can be found as far east as the western deserts of Egypt and even to the Nile in Nubia. According to J. Desmond Clark, Prof. of African Prehistory at the University of California, the Aterian appears in Africa "fully developed" (Clark, 1970). The humans involved are type de Mechta.
The Aterian industry featured tanged points of basically triangular shape, which archeological speculation has associated with the possible use of the bow-and-arrow (Hibben, 1968). Although these points definitely resemble arrow points, unfortunately no definitive evidence has been found to confirm the practise.
As regards the physical type, the work most familiar to me is that of Dr. L. Cabot Briggs of the American School of Prehistoric Research at the Peabody Museum at Harvard University. To give just the barest of his conclusions, it should be stated that the race de Cro-Magnon of Europe and the North African type de Mechta resemble one another greatly (Briggs, 1955). The latter seems best represented by a class of particularly large-brained specimens which are labeled "Type D". Briggs (1955) states, "Type D skulls stand alone notably in their often great size . . ."
|Abri Cro-Magnon||Old Man of Cro-Magnon||Type de Mechta|
|Date: 30,000 B.C.||Date: 32,000 B.C.||Date: 10,000 B.C.|
|Les Eyzies, France||Aurignac Cave, France||Mechta El Arbi, Algeria|
Like the Cro-Magnons in Europe, the remains of the type de Mechta in northwest Africa can be found mostly along the Atlantic coast (Hiernaux, 1975). What was at one time called the Ibero-Maurusian has now been dubbed "Oranian" (Clark, 1970; Howe, 1977), since its origins cannot be determined as either Iberian or Mauritanian. According to Clark (1970), the Oranian appears suddenly, and is described as an "intrusive" tool industry, but cautions against speculation concerning its origins.
The type de Mechta associated with the Aterian, Oranian, and Mouillian has been described as tall, robust, strong-jawed, large-brained, and generally resembles the Cro-Magnons in Europe (Briggs, 1955; Clark, 1970; Coon, 1962; Hiernaux, 1975). They have been found at a number of sites in northwest Africa, and number more than a hundred individuals. The most important are Taforalt in Morocco and Afalou-Bou-Rhummel in Algeria, and are sometimes called the Mechta or Mechta-Afalou group (Hiernaux, 1975).
On the other hand, the Capsians are a mixture of two types: some like Cro-Magnon, and others more like "eastern" European (Coon, 1962). A favorite theme in Capsian rock art is that of humans involved in hunting scenes: among which are the earliest clear portrayals of the use of the bow-and-arrow in North Africa. (Hibben, 1968)
Like the Azilian culture in Europe, the Capsian retained Upper Paleolithic traditions, even though they lived in Mesolithic times. Why this peculiarity, unless they both had the same origin—in Atlantis. Intensive study has indicated that neither the Capsian nor the Azilian crossed Gibraltar in either direction. (Hibben, 1968) The Upper, or terminal, Capsian lingered the longest in the North African region of Tunisia.
Dr. Briggs has labeled the more gracile specimens appearing in North Africa (resembling Upper Paleolithic "eastern" Europeans) as "Type A". According to Coon (1939), Briggs (1955) and others, Type A is essentially the same as the European Combe Capelle. And as would be expected, Type A's origin is in the east, whereas the more robust type de Mechta (Type D) exhibits a definite "western" orientation, his sites "thinning out" toward the east. (Briggs, 1955).
It should be obvious by now that the archeological record demonstrates strong evidence of four Cro-Magnon invasions on both sides of Gibraltar from the direction of Atlantis. I think these four Cro-Magnon invasions could well be labeled Atlantean I, Atlantean II, Atlantean III, and Atlantean IV. Perhaps a table would help here:
Professional anthropologists haven't the foggiest idea of the origin of these invasions. (Bordes, 1968) They invariably appeared on the western shores of Europe and Africa, even including some of the Atlantic isles next to those continents. Always the sites are clustered in the west, the number of sites diminishing towards the east (for the one exception click Outpost). Combe Capelle sites are more or less evenly distributed all over Europe and the Near East. This has been a mystery that has plagued anthropologists for over a hundred years. To the west, there is nought but empty ocean: how could the invasions have come from there?
The mystery of these invasions has been so embarrassing that today anthropologists don't want to talk about it any more. Some have gotten around the problem by blurring the distinction between true "Atlantic" Cro-Magnons and the "eastern" European types. Calling all modern men "Cro-Magnon," is merely skirting the issue; but this is not a scientific way to deal with the problem.
-In all of this Leonard is following Spence. I believe there is a simpler way to have the theory and not to need all of the restrictions and specifics which Cedric Leonard insists on: one is that we are not dealing with any kind of a "Pure" race and allow that CroMagnons had mixed types, Combe-Capelle being one of the subtypes. And along with this, we need only worry about the post-Solutrean "Invasions", and in fact only the last Capsian/Azilian movement seems to have the characteristics of an "Invasion" .
It probably dates to the period of the Allerød Oscillation around 10,000 years ago (uncalibrated) and followed the Magdalenian culture. Archaeologists think the Azilian represents the tail end of the Magdalenian as the warming climate brought about changes in human behaviour in the area. The effects of melting ice sheets would have diminished the food supply and probably impoverished the previously well-fed Magdalenian manufacturers. As a result, Azilian tools and art were cruder and less expansive than their Ice Age predecessors - or simply different.
[Evidence has been interpreted to mean the Azilians were experimenting with plant foods at the time, including evidence of barley and collecting acorns to grind into flour. The suggestion of barley is simply rejected out of hand by most experts. It is also possible that they had some early domesticated animals including both the horse and ass (donkey), likewise rejected. The donkey part is harder to explain because they would seem to be otherwise foreign to the area.-DD]
Diagnostic artifacts from the culture include Azilian points (microliths with rounded retouched backs), crude flat bone harpoons and pebbles with abstract decoration. The latter were first found in the River Arize at the type-site for the culture, Le Mas-d'Azil in the French Pyrenees. 145 are known from the Swiss site of Birsmatten-Eremitage. [Late examnples of the decorated pebbles come from the Azilian of Scotland, 4000 BC uncalibrated] Compared with the late Magdelanian, the number of microliths increases.
The Azilian co-existed with similar early Mesolithic European cultures such as the Tjongerian of Northern and the Swiderian of North-Eastern Europe, the Sauveterrian and, its successor, the Tardenoisian in parts of France, Belgium and Switzerland, the Maglemosian in Denmark and Eastern Britain.
In its late phase, it experienced strong influences from neighbouring Tardenoisian, reflected in the presence of many geometrical microliths persisted until the arrival of the Neolithic, that in some western areas was only adopted very late, almost in the Chalcolithic era.
[Actually in both North Africa and Spain, the Capsian/Azilian industries WERE the characteristic stone tools otf the local Neolithics, and in places there was evidence for an overlap with Chalcolithic cultures from the onset. In particular, E. M. Whishaw places the beginning of the Iberian Chalcolithic of Andalucia more than 10,000 years ago with evidence of mining already at that point.-DD]
Below, designs from Iberian rock art from Wikipedia: Top left, a Capsian Archer, Top Left an Ax-man presumably with a stone celt on a haft, below that, a man with a horse and probably a dog. This would have been well before tye "accepted" date for domestication of horses.
Above, Masked Priestess (Witch), Possibly Transforming into a Horned Owl and with Her Hair Flying Wild. At Right is a Capsian Mediterranean type with a big nose, unflatteringly depicted in Saharan rock art and presumably by his enemies. He is a "Red Man" with a thin build and dressed in a loincloth. B example of the brief Western Mediterranean rock art style introduced at this period and of a superior character, probably derived from Saharan "Bubalus" period art. This seems to show people around a square open area in the cente, watching a wrestling match. There is some rudimentary attempt to show perspecive.