Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Sunday, November 6, 2011

"Peking Man" Upper Cave and the Ethnic Variety of Lemurians, Part II

At the famous "Peking Man" site of ZhouKouDian, China, there were fossil humans at two levels: the lower cave finds were the more famous Homo erectus pekinsis (originally "Sinanthropus")
The importance of this site cannot be underestimated because of the unusually diverse ethnic types of the skulls found there: the Upper Cave people were apparantly both polygamous and cosmopolitan.

The above painting represents Chinese Upper Cave people and as such theyy are very much like the earliest European modern Homo sapiens and presumably like their Central-Asia common ancestors (we have no fossils of these but we can infer their presence from genetic evidence) Below on the other hand are the more typical Southern Asiatic Early Modern Homo sapiens as typical of the ancestors of the Australian Aboriginals. These are descendants of another branch out of the same ancestors that diverged early on.

The surprising thing is that representatives out of both groups are represented out of the Upper Cave at ZhouKouDian. It was necessary to make this detour to emphasise the importance of that point and why it should make any sort of an important difference. Below is a reproduction of Haeckel's map showing the spread of humans upon the Earth, which corresponds generally with genetic evidence and was the original place a "Lost Lemuria" was hypothesized to account for the distribution (light purple on the map)
And here is a comparison of that version of Lemuria with the conception of Lewis Spece (Famous for his work on Atlantis) As you can see, the area of overlap is Sundaland: the significant other piece of Spence's Lemuria I which is sunken real estate is Sahulaland between New Guinea and Australia. Both areas were occupied by related peoples in the Pleistocene and so I think we can grant to Spece the basic idea of Lemuria I corresponding to reality-with a discontinuity involved. There probably were larger island chunks in Spence's Lemuria II at the time, an enlarged New Zealand being one but porobably an enlarged Fiji being another. But most of that area is unattested and unnecessari0-and uninhabited at the time if it existed at all. So best to concentrate on Lemuria I, which everybody agrees was actually there and actually inhabited.
The following map shows the colonisation of Australia by way of Sundaland and Sahulaland, specifying the emplacement of some specifically identified human haplogrou[p categories.

The following map is an oriental expression of the same idea, continuing on to Global Superflood 3

Two maps on the Vegetology and Drainage of Pleistocene Sundaland

The legend of Lemuria and sunken Sundaland

The legend of the sunken continent of Atlantis has been popularized through Western literature and film. A less known, but similar legend from Asia is that of the sunken continent sometimes called Lemuria.
The Lemuria legend is interesting because geologists have confirmed that large sections of land mass formerly connected to Asia were indeed submerged thousands of years ago. The largest chunk of such submarine real estate is known as Sundaland,
Sundaland formerly connected mainland Southeast Asia with Indonesia. Nearly all the islands of Indonesia formed one great land mass extending to Palawan in the Philippines. By the time the Holocene period was over 8,000 years ago, Southeast Asia had lost well over half of its surface area. Island groups in the Philippines and Eastern Indonesia were also formed during this period.
What makes this pertinent to the Lemuria myths is that the whole region of Sundaland and the neighboring islands were believed to have been populated before the ocean levels began rising. Not only populated, but rather relatively densely populated. Scientists have determined this by studying the current population levels along the "Asian waterfront" and also by evidence of extensive land clearance in early times.
During the 1930s, James Churchward made the legends of Lemuria known to the public after he studied the extensive myths of peoples living from India in the West to Hawai'i in the East.
For example, the old Tamil Sangam tradition contradicts modern theories that the Tamils were driven into South India by invading Aryans. Tamil legend states that they came from a sunken continent somewhere south of India.
Similar beliefs are dispersed throughout the equatorial Asia Pacific region.
If Sundaland and nearby regions were as heavily populated in pre-Holocene times as some specialists believe, the rising sea levels must have cause massive migrations.
Buckminster Fuller, a noted engineer and futurist, formulated a theory that the great voyages of the Malayo-Polynesian peoples were stimulated by whole populations losing their land to the sea.
Fuller was followed by Thai ethnographer Sumet Jumsai who correlated a mass of beliefs along the Asian waterfront and the Pacific and theorized that they belonged to the migrating peoples of sunken Sundaland.
The overall argument is rather reasonable. Although the drowning of Sundaland occurred over many thousands of years, during some periods sea levels rose rather drastically. The Holocene era saw such a dramatic rise.
The experience of relatively large numbers of peoples driven from their homelands by rising seas would definitely leave a mark on the collective psyche and cultures of these peoples.
Although the legends of Lemuria have been used by New Age types to devise various far-out theories including those involving extraterrestrials, the case of Sundaland argues that there may well be more behind these legends than pure myth.

Sacred Symbols of Mu on Sacred Texts:
Churchward's Mu theory hasn't achieved even the marginal credibility of Atlantis. For one thing, his science is absurd. The Pacific appears to have been free of large land masses for billions of years. In fact, the Pacific basin may mark the place where the Moon was expelled from the proto-earth. Coral atolls that dot the Pacific have taken millions of undisturbed years of activity to form. And the Pacific was one of the last regions on the planet to be settled by humans; this is proven by linguistic evidence, and the well-documented oral traditions which describe the history of the Polynesian migrations.
It doesn't help matters that Churchward's books are largely absent of apparatus such as footnotes or bibliography, and his basic source material cannot be independently confirmed. In his Mu-monomania, he employs circular and tautological reasoning. Often, he will make a startling assertion, and before supporting it, will move on to some other train of thought. At other times, he writes factually about, say, Egyptian mythology, without any clue for the reader as to why this proves anything about Mu. The reader is simultaneously entertained and irritated by this intellectual shell game.
However, Churchward may have the last laugh yet. There was a large land mass in the Pacific that was submerged during prehistoric times: Sundaland, the continental shelf around Indonesia, which was exposed during the ice ages. It was most certainly the route that humans used to get to Australia, as only a few kilometers of water separated Sundaland from Australia at that time. Although it was submerged slowly as the result of rising sea levels at the end of the ice age, the region has some of the most violent volcanoes on Earth (such as the famous Krakatoa). A documented eruption in that region about 60,000 [70000]years ago may have decimated the human race, producing a 'population bottleneck' during which our species was reduced to a few hundred individuals; this has emerged from mitochondrial DNA studies. Some have hypothesized that Sundaland may have been home to an early lost civilization, perhaps the home of the mysterious voyagers who charted the anomalous ice-age maps which the early modern map-makers incorporated in their atlases. While not Mu or Lemuria, of all of the nooks and crannies where a lost civilization might have existed, Sundaland is one of the most plausible; only time will tell.  [-JB Hare]

Two routes Out of Africa-in this case, two routes used as early as a hundred thousand years ago (as far back as Omo>Djebel Qafzeh and Skhul in Ethiopia>Near East)
Two maps showing Pleistocene Age full-Pacific crossings as seriously considered by some scientists.
The coloured ovoid in the latter map indicates the influence of Sundaland on cultures, trade and Ethnic types at the period of the end of the Ice Age, approximately 15000 to 10000 BC. Note that the map above includes both transAtlantic and transPacific crossings at that remote age, at least.

Now for a series of genetic dispesal maps. The above map is a pretty sound indicator for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers as shown by haplogroup evidence (the letters as indicated)

Two other ways of displaying the mtDNA data.What is most surprising is that not only are large chunks of the population of the Pacific islands and the Americas dominated by a form of haplogroup B (olive on the pie charts), that group is not represented on Mainland Asia (it is in Japan) and furthermore is plainly to be considered as one of the EUROPEAN groups by the tree chart at the left of the lower map.

Two different versions of the Y-DNA family trees representing the secondary, later Out of Africa migration.This clearly makes a separation from the older South Asian branch (orange) and the younger Central-Asiatic radiations (first green on the map, and then later followed by blues, purple and the magenta for the youngest lines.)It is notable that one of the Central  Asiatic lines goes back into Southeast Asia and then begins spreading out at about the end of the Ice Age, the same time as the later American migrations.

This chart illustrates different skulls from early Mexico (a,b, c) and two generalised expansions out of Africa from the genetic evidence. A is typical of the later Central-Asian expansion and skulls b and c are more like Australian aboriginals out of the older South-Asian expansion. Some experts say that this indicates the population of b and c must have come directly across the Pacific rather than by way of the Bering straits because the Central-Asian population had the Bering route blocked off from them.
Many of the archaic strains of Homo sapiens are called "Australoids" because they are said to resemble Australian Aboriginies. Actually, "Australoid" skulls world-wide display an astonishing diversity and represent a very old divergence. The Predmosti skull above represents the older strain in Europe and it is probably typical of the "Premongol" populations all the way across Asia: the very robust Australian skull in the drawing below has many points of similarity with the Predmosti skull. The Predmosti skull is about 30000 years old and represents a population that began appearing in the record at about 45000 years ago.
Somewhere in the vicinity of that 45000 years ago, the modern populations of Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia each began to break away from a common stem and began development along separate lines according to genetic evidence. The split is an OLD one.

Some time about 70-75 thousand years ago the volcano of Toba on Sumatra exploded with the greatest recorded force known of any volcanic eruption during the Pleistocene, and it seems to have brought the world from a full-interglacial to a full-glacial condition in one move. At the time it wiped out virtually the whole human population from East Africa to Southern Asia and possibly Australia, althopugh there must have been pockets of survivors in more protected areas because we see their same types of stone tools reappaeraing later some time after the eruption. One consequence of this is that the two DNA family trees derived from male and female data do not match up. In some areas, the older DNA from female lines persists but it looks very much as if all of the male DNA is more recent and represents a more recent, secondary movement Out of Africa, where the newer males swept out and  intermarried into the older survivors, with the end result that none of the older male DNA survived, only the newer male's DNA.

Genetic Bottleneck caused by eruption of Toba volcano

One of the more "Rugged", older-strain Australian skulls from Kow Swamp. The very first Australians were from the very old Out-of-Africa movement starting by 100000 years ago and including the Skhul and Djebel Qafzeh types of the mid-East, and it is likely they had made it as far as Australia BEFORE the Toba explosion of 75000 years ago, and survived there while most of their intervening fellows were wiped out in Southern Asia (It seems Southern Asia subsequently filled back in again from retreats near the mountains of Iran, Afghanistan and the Himalahas, possibly even Southern China) These guys were much larger and taller than the subsequent Australian aboriginals, including some six-footers, and their skulls were of a distinctive older type.
At the very end of the Ice Age, artificial cranial deformation appeared in two different centers of the globe: it appeared in the Atlantic area and moved to the Agricultural centers of Mesoamerica and the Mideast in the earliers Postglacial period: And it appeared in Indonesia (Sundaland) and spread as far as the Upper Cave ZhouKouDian in China and into Australia.It is something of a mystery how this could come about unless emmisaries of one great power in one hemisphere had traveled to the other great center of culture on the opposite side of the Earth. Possibly as an alternative, the trait derived from the drying-out Sahara as suggested in the article on the Patriarchy earlier, and we have two Patriarchal Sungod-King Warrior-Aristocracies radiating out of Africa East and West at about 12000-15000 BC and taking over the two protoneolithic centers separately, and again a parallel movement at the beginning of recorded history.

Wadjak I, Front, Java
It has been noted that the Keilor skull from Australia and the Wadjak skulls from Java (Found by Eugene Dubois very early on) were both very similar to one another and both of them in turn very similar to some very old skulls known from China. Obviously at some time in the late Pleistocene the same population (centered in Sundaland) had spread out from Southern China down as far as Southern China, and it  persisted until 10000 BC at least
Wadjak I, Left side, Java

One of the very interesting websites that throws light on the situatioin in some original and unexpected ways is the music000001 blogspot. The author has some definite things to say about populations both before and after the Toba event. He unfortunately uses the terms "A" for before the bottlenech and "B" for after, which could cause confusion with the meanings for the same terms in their genetic sense, but he plainly means the different Out of Africa migrations:

Wednesday, May 23, 2007

12. A Phylogenetic Tree

I'm going way out on a limb (no pun intended) in this post, offering a phylogenetic tree, representing my own best thinking so far, based to some extent on the Cantometric data, but also on other aspects of musical style that I'm aware of -- and some personal, though IMO well informed, inferences. It represents, I suppose, a rough summary of the hypothesis presented in my "Echoes" essay. There are many years of research behind this, so I do think it's meaningful -- but it is also somewhat subjective, i.e., not automatically produced by the raw data. I've been working on this for several months, tweaking it from time to time as new wrinkles occur to me. I've been reluctant to submit it anywhere for publication, 1. because I'm not completely sure how accurate it is and 2. because I may be one of the very few capable of fully understanding (and appreciating) it. Few ethnomusicologists alive today have paid much attention to such issues.

(Click on the tree to enlarge it -- or better yet, right-click and select "Open in New Window")

Note the column on the right, a listing of various musical characteristics, mostly drawn from Cantometrics but not all. In the map I treat these as analogous to what geneticists call "haplotypes," grouped together by analogy with "haplogroups." [Correction (as of July 29, 2007): I now believe my terminology to be in error. The musical characteristics in this column are analogous to genetic markers, i.e., mutations, not haplotypes.] All "haplogroups" beginning with the letter A represent styles or style variants originating in Africa and surviving more or less intact in other parts of the world to this day. All those beginning with "B" represent styles that appear to have originated as the result of a major bottleneck, both genetic and cultural, that occurred during an early phase of the Out of Africa migration. (Bottlenecks are severe reductions in population, due to the splintering off of certain groups or some form of mass destruction due to a catastrophe of some sort, a famine, flood, war, etc.) For more on this, see my essay.

A second display, a set of maps, is an attempt to apply the "haplogroups" presented in my tree to a hypothetical picture of the evolution of musical style according to the "Out of Africa" migration picture featured in my monograph, essentially the one presented by Steven Oppenheimer in his book "The Real Eve."

In the first little map, titled "Out of Africa," all the arrows are red, representing the five variants of the original "Pygmy/Bushmen" style (A1 - 5 on the Phylogenetic Tree) that, as I see it, must have spread along with the original "out of Africa" migrants, following Oppenheimer's coastal route, all the way to Sundaland and beyond, turning the corner around the Moluccas, I guess and then continuing north along the SE Asiatic coast.

Mini-map 2, "Bottleneck Event," is an attempt to picture a catastrophic event that could account for the musical gap we find between Yemen and Myanmar, where little or no evidence of Pygmy/Bushmen style can be found today. According to Oppenheimer, there is a very similar gap in the genetic evidence, though, as I understand, not everyone agrees about this. As I see it, only some sort of catastrophe at some point from, say, 75,000 to 50,000 years ago, can explain all the very different musical styles we find in the world today, especially the styles represented in the phylogenetic tree as B2 and B3 and their derivatives. So this map, unlike any other I've ever seen, is not based solely on continuity, but contains an abrupt break, representing the effects of the bottleneck on the various surviving groups.

Oppenheimer seems convinced that the Toba explosion can account for the bottleneck, but since that theory is controversial, I decided to present an alternative possibility that could have had a very similar effect, a Tsunami centered somewhere south of the "point" of India, occurring sometime between, say, 80,000 and 50,000 years ago. If in fact "Out of Africa" was a coast-oriented culture, then such an event could have wiped out all or almost all the various colonies strewn along the coast of the Indian Ocean -- but spared those who had already made it around the corner, to the coast of E. Asia and some of the Islands to the East of Sundaland. As I see it, this would explain a great deal about a lot of things, not just music.

The other two little maps should be more or less self explanatory, but of course there would be a great deal to say about each and every arrow represented.

All of the above makes a great deal of sense, at least to me. But I'm afraid that to most others it will look extremely speculative, if not meaningless. I would appreciate comments and questions, nevertheless, to help me get a sense of whether or not others are able to find anything interesting or useful in this. I'd also very much appreciate suggestions for improving it, especially from anyone with experience in concocting phylogenetic trees.

Skull and reconstruction of "Luzia" from Lagoa Santa in Brazil, a very old skull with Oceanic and Australoid features rather than the expected Asiatic type.

It has been suggested that Luzia resembles the Oriental Pygmies known as Negritos and if so, she joins a number of similar remains known from both North and South America which appear to be Negrito in character. Other early South American skulls tend to look more like actual Australian Aboriginals or else Melanesians.

It is also perhaps useful to know that the name "Mu" in Hawaiian mythology applied to a race of black Pygmies rather than to a vanished landmass.

The Pygmy Negritos are related to the Pygmies of Africa with a 100000 year old split and they also represent an independant very old movement Out of Africa, presumably also surviving Toba in pockets.

Recent photo of some Negrito girls smiling for the camera.

Map showing distribution of Negritos, generally to the East of the superimposed line but traces of them are also known in Sumatra, Java and Borneo (Where they are thought to be extinct) There are fairly sizeable populations left in the Andaman Islands, in the Philippines and in New Guinea: Tasmania had been a population center but the British settlers deliberately killed them all off.

Hongshan Pygmy (Negrito)
Representations include ones very similar to the Egyptian god Bes

New Guineans,Probably Representative of the Ancient Lemurian Voyagers of the Pleistocene Pacific

Very Robust Melanesian Male from Coon.

Melanesian-Polynesian mix,
common in some parts of the Pacific

A modern Australian Aboriginal Woman

Mana-True Face of the Lapita

The University of the South Pacific today revealed the face of one of the very first people to have lived in the Fiji Islands . The face of Mana - the 3000 year old woman from Fiji , was unveiled by USP Vice-Chancellor Professor Anthony Tarr during a special ceremony organised to mark this historical event.
While something like this is becoming common internationally, this is the first time a face from the Lapita era in the Pacific, has been revealed. The face of Mana was reconstructed using a model of her skull which was discovered by a member of a research team from USP and the Fiji Museum which excavated an early human settlement at Naitabale in the south of Moturiki Island , central Fiji (Map 1) in June-July 2002. The team was led by Patrick Nunn, Professor of Geography at USP, aided by Mr Sepeti Matararaba of the Fiji Museum and Ms Roselyn Kumar (USP’s Institute of Applied Science ).
The Naitabale settlement was probably established about 1000 BC by a group of Lapita people whose ancestors had come from the Solomon Islands . The distinctive Lapita pottery that identifies the culture of these early settlers was found in abundance at the Naitabale settlement.
In the course of excavations at Naitabale in 2002, a complete human skeleton was discovered in beach sand more than 1.5 metres below the ground surface. The skeleton was covered by undisturbed layers of sediment (sand and silt) in which Lapita pottery was found. The discovery of the skeleton was exciting because it appeared certain to be of Lapita age.
Lapita-age skeletons are few. Some have been found in Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu , but this skeleton was perhaps only the 16th found. What was also remarkable about this skeleton was the excellent state of preservation of the skull.
The discoverer of the skeleton at Naitabale, a Solomon Island student from USP named Chris Suri, named it “Mana” which means “truth” in the Lau dialect of Malaita Island in the Solomon Islands . The bones of Mana were removed from Naitabale with the permission and cooperation of the landowners. Initial analysis was undertaken at USP, and thence at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University in Japan .
In December 2003, the bones of Mana were returned to Fiji from Japan , placed in a coffin and re-buried at Naitabale.
While the skeleton of Mana was in Japan , a model was made of her head. This is the first time that the skull of a Lapita-era skeleton had been so well preserved that it was possible to faithfully reconstruct the head. This therefore represents the first time that the face of a person from the Lapita era (1350 BC to 650 BC) has ever been seen. It is the face of one of the very first people to have lived in the Fiji Islands .
During detailed analysis at Kyoto University , the skeleton was determined to be that of a female who had died between the ages of 40 and 60 years. She appeared to have been 161-164 cm tall and to have given birth to at least one child. She was probably right-handed.
Mana’s body would have been tall, muscular and tough. Like other Lapita-age skeletons, Mana’s body was adapted to heavy mastication, and strenuous physical activity involving the neck, arms and feet. The roots of Mana’s teeth were stained brown, perhaps from chewing roots of kava ( Piper Methysticum ).
To determine the age of Mana, shells associated with the skeleton were subjected to radiocarbon dating. These include a big shell ( Trochus Niloticus ) placed beneath the neck, and another between the knees. The bones of Mana were also dated directly. Dating was overseen by Professor Nunn, and undertaken at Nagoya University in Japan and the University of Waikato in New Zealand .
The results suggested that Mana lived in the year 800 BC, perhaps earlier.
The face of Lapita
Using computer modelling, it was possible to re-create the head of Mana from the well-preserved remains of her cranium. The results represented the first time it was possible to see what one of the earliest occupants of the Fiji Islands looked like.
It is clear that certain aspects of the face of Mana resemble what are commonly regarded as ancestral Polynesian, Fijian, and Asian people, but that her features do not allow her to be readily classified into any such category.
No DNA was recovered from the skeleton of Mana.
Lapita People
The Lapita people were the first humans to colonise the western tropical Pacific Islands . They remain visible as a distinctive cultural group for only a few hundred years, starting about 1350 BC in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea and ending about 650 BC in Fiji , Samoa and Tonga . Around the beginning of this period, from bases in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands , they set out eastwards on intentional voyages of colonisation. They encountered groups of islands ( New Caledonia , Vanuatu , Fiji , Tonga and Samoa ) that were not occupied by humans. The first place they landed in Fiji is believed to have been at Bourewa, near Natadola in southwest Viti Levu Island . The Naitabale settlement was probably established a few generations later (Map 2).
Research Results
Today the remains of the Lapita-age settlement at Naitabale are about 300 metres inland from the coast. But at the time the settlement existed, it was much closer to the shore, occupying the back of a beach ridge and part of the estuary at the mouth of the Mataloaloa Stream (see Map 3).
When the Lapita people were living at Naitabale, the sea level was about 1.5 metres higher than it is today. This is why the shoreline was farther inland. Since that time (until quite recently), the sea level has been falling causing the shoreline to extend seawards at this location.
The first indication that a Lapita settlement existed at Naitabale was when the research team was walking along the sides of the Mataloaloa River , and Mr Matararaba discovered one of the most elaborate pieces of Lapita pottery ever found in Fiji . After the settlement was excavated, Professor Nunn mapped the geology and was able to reconstruct its geography about 1000 BC (more than 3000 years ago) (see Map 3B).
During the excavation process at Naitabale, more than 17,000 pieces of pottery were collected from the Lapita-age settlement there and analysed at USP. Of these, only 92 pieces displayed decoration characteristic of the Lapita culture. Pottery analysis was carried out by Roselyn Kumar (USP), William Dickinson ( University of Arizona , USA ), and Tomo Ishimura ( Kyoto University ).
Analysis of the decorative style of the 92 Lapita potsherds showed that they had more affinities with Lapita pottery made in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands rather than that made at other sites in Fiji . This surprising result implied that Naitabale was one of the very first places to be settled by the Lapita colonisers of Fiji . Analysis of the sand tempers of selected potsherds showed that only around 70 per cent were made at Naitabale from locally-available materials. Around 30 per cent were imported from elsewhere in Fiji (perhaps beyond Fiji), including about 10 per cent from the Rewa Delta (Viti Levu Island), 10 per cent from Kadavu Island in southern Fiji, and 10 percent from the Lau Group of eastern Fiji. This result demonstrated that the Lapita people who occupied Naitabale from about 1000 BC to about 650 BC had links with people living at the same time in these other places.
On evidence of life at the time, much of the material that the research team excavated from Naitabale was the remains of food that the Lapita-age people living them had consumed. This material included animal bones and shellfish. These materials were analysed by Tomo Ishimura (Kyoto University, Japan), Frank Thomas (formerly USP), and Janet Davidson (New Zealand).
What was clear was that marine foods dominated the diet of the Lapita people who occupied Naitabale. Most of the fish bones are from species that live within the reef and can be caught from the shore (such as Scaridae and Serranidae) rather than from boats at sea. Large numbers of turtle bones were found.
Other animal bones found at Naitabale included pigs, dogs, chickens, rats and fruit bats. It is unclear which of these were eaten and which were not. [Presumably ALL were eaten-DD]
Most shellfish remains found at Naitabale are from the inner reef zone. They include large specimens of Trochus Niloticus and huge numbers of the tiny surf clam Atactodea striata.
The field research was funded by USP.
This news item was published on 11 Aug 2005


  1. I was wondering if readers of this site could help spread the word with regard to a great misconception with regard to Polynesian prehistory. It is often assumed without question that the Lapita people were the pro to Polynesians despite mounting evidence to the contrary - Lapita skeletons found Teouma, Vanuatu have long skulls similar to some Egyptians - this cannot be further from the classic pentagonal skull with a rocker jaw common to Polynesians. Their DNA has now been found to be completely unlike Polynesian DNA. Their toolkits are different - chipped obsidian as opposed to ground stone tools. Lapita used cowrie shells as their monetary system - Polynesians never used shells - instead mats were a major part of their barter system. There is even a 700 year gap between the end of Lapita culture and the beginning of Polynesian cultural evidence. The list goes on.... So when are people going to speak out on this lie that is being perpetrated?

  2. By all means send me a personal email at if you wish to do a guest blog or submit a longer statement of any type. I am willing to give you space here to speak on that topic.

    Best Wishes, Dale D.


This blog does NOT allow anonymous comments. All comments are moderated to filter out abusive and vulgar language and any posts indulging in abusive and insulting language shall be deleted without any further discussion.