Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Atlantis and Lemuria=Sundaland As Pleistocene Protoagricultural Centers

This is a map of the original core areas of several of our domesticated plant crops by Vavilov as defined in the early 1900s: I have modified it only by making Atlantis the link for TransAtlantic influences, for reasons that shall become apparent below.

Vavilov defined several centers of Agricultural products corresponding to early Neolithic core areas. These centers are:
I. The Tropical Centre includes the territories of tropical India, Indochina, southern China, and the islands of southeastern Asia. One third of the plants cultivated at present originated initially from this centre. This is the native land of rice, sugarcane and the majority of tropical fruit and vegetable crops (breadfruit, bananas, coconuts, aroids[taro], and several local types of melons or squashes). Not less than one-fourth of the world’s population (more than half a billion people) lives at present in tropical Asia. In the past the comparative population of this territory was even more significant.
II. The East Asiatic Centre includes the central and western parts of China, Korea, Japan and  the island of Taiwan. This is the native land of such plants as soyabeans, different species of millet, many vegetable crops and an enormous number of fruits. According to our estimate, about 20% of all the world’s cultivated flora comes originally from eastern Asia. Within this territory lives approximately one-fourth of the inhabitants of the world, making over one-half the world's population in East Asia and South Asia combined..
III. The Southwest Asiatic Centre embraces the territory of the interior mountains of Asia Minor (Anatolia), Iran, Afghanistan, Inner Asia and northwestern India. Garlic and onions, peas, chickpeas and lentils have their origins here. This is joined by the Caucasus, the cultivated flora of which is genetically related to that of the Near and Middle East, as shown by its investigators. This centre can be subdivided into the following zones:
(a) the Caucasian Centre with a large number of the original species of wheat, oats, rye and fruit trees. As shown by comparative studies, this is the most important centre of specific origin in the world as.far as wheat, oats  and rye are concerned.
(b) the Near East Centre, comprising Asia Minor, interior Syria and Palestine, Trans¬Jordania, Iran, northern Afghanistan, and Inner Asia, together with Chinese Turkestan.
(c) the Northwestern Indian Centre, including, besides Peshawar and the adjacent provinces of northern India and Kashmir, also Beluchistan and southern Afghanistan. About 14-15% of all the cultivated plants in the world came initially from this territory. Here the wild relatives of wheat, rye and many European fruit trees (apples, pears, etc) are concentrated in an exceptional variety of species and here it is still possible to trace an unbroken line from the cultivated species back to the wild forms, i.e. to establish the links preserved between the wild and the cultivated strains. Some kinds of cotton come from here.
IV. The Mediterranean Centre covers the countries distributed along the coast of the Mediterranean. This remarkable geographical centre, characterized in the past by great ancient civilizations, furnished originally 10-11 % of all species of cultivated plants. Among these are such kinds as olives, the carob tree and a multitude of vegetable and forage crops (including beans, spinach and probably barley).
V. The small area of Abyssinia seems to be an independent geographical centre, characterized by a number of endemic species and even genera of cultivated plants. Among these are the grain called teff and sorghum, the peculiar oil plant named ramtil or niger seed, a special kind of banana [ensete, grown for its pith rather than its fruit], and the coffee tree. The total number of species of cultivated plants, linked to Abyssinia with respect to their origin, does not exceed 3-4% of the world’s cultivated flora. A secondary region for African cultigens goes across the Sahel south of the Sahara and on to the Atlantic.At some point, aroids, coconuts and bananas were imported into Africa and widely diversified locally.
Within the area of the New World two strikingly localized centres of species formation of cultivated plants have been established:
VI. The Central American Centre, covering a rather large portion of southern North America, including southern Mexico. Within this centre it is possible to distinguish three sub-centres:
(a) the mountains of southern Mexico, from whence come varios peppers and squashes;
(b) the Central American Centre; and
(c) the West Indian islands, specializing in some aroids and maniocs from South America.
About 8% of cultivated plants came originally from the Central American centre, e.g. maize, long-staple cotton and other American cottons, a number of bean species, pumpkins, the cocoa or chocolate tree and many fruit crops, such as guava, cherimoya, and avocados, and also tomatoes and red peppers.
VII. The Andean Centre is in South America and associated with the Andean mountain range. This is the native land of many tuber-bearing crops — first and foremost potatoes but also sweet potatoes. The quinine tree ground nuts (peanuts) and the coca bush, too, came originally from there.The several root crops were all  loaded with plant toxins to start with and required extensive breeding to make them edible: some experts make that out to be before 8000 BC for the beginning of their domestication.


It occurs to me that the various South-Asian agricultural areas correspond to areas which Oppenheimer says were influenced from sinking Sundaland, and that these areas were Protoagricultural in the Pleistocene (see Hoabinhians later on) They therefore define a "Lemurian" cultural area as indicated here with the gold margins, and peoples from this areas furthermore settled the more Northern parts of Asia and into the Americas from this originating South-Asian corridor, with some scientists envisioning a colonisation of the New World around the Pacific rim while the bolder ones presume contact could have been made via boats full across the Pacific, notwithstanding the very early (Pleistocene) date involved.
The American and Mediterranean regions both together very conveniently correspond to the Atlantean cultural area as envisioned by supporters of the Azores-platform (Dolphin's Ridge) Atlantis, from Donnelly on. And the crops involved in this area include many that Donnelly and the others discuss, although probably the diversity would go down once the more Easterly-originating crops are factored out. A couple of problems involve the banana and coconut, which the majority of scientists say must originate in the Orient while a minority (quoted by Thor Heyerdahl) mention that the banana and coconut families are present in the New World, including as fossils, and that the scientists that say they were NOT present in the New World prior to Columbus are ignoring some very good evidence which says that they were present and they were being utilised by the American Aboriginals, particularly in the West Indies.On this map the red lines in the Americas indicate the spreading of the Clovis points in North America (seemingly from East to West) and the corresponding types of points in South America (including the Magellanic "fishtail" points) while in the Old World the corresponding red outlying-area diffusion indicates the spread of microlithic tools (in use genearlly in the earliest Holocene or Postglacial)
The earliest known domesticated plant known definitely to have been grown in the New World is the bottlegourd or calabash. It was introduced, it is not native to the New World, and it was being grown in Mexico at least by 11000 BC, which has caused some archaeologists to surmise it must have been grown as far back as 15000 BC and then brought across the Atlantic by unknown ancient mariners. Bottle gouds are cucurbits and belong to the genus Lagenaria. When they are young and soft, they are filled up with a white flesh that can be eaten and when they are dried out, they are commonly used as bottles (hence the name). The Cucurbita are a large group of vegetables that include cucumbers, melons, gourds and squashes, and pumpkins are in the genus Cucurbita. So when ancient Mexicans latched onto the idea of growing domesticated melons, gourds and squashes, it was a big thing. Various forms of cucurbits were grown in North America north of Mexico by 7000 years ago and it is difficult to tell when the pumpkins per se were introduced: the pumpkin species comes in a large variety of seed-carrying end shapes and for most peoples that grew them, the seeds were what mattered and not the shape.

A variety of cucurbits are displayed below.



Thor Heyerdahl also remarked that the same species of bean is present in both the Old and New Worlds, the common or garden bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. In the New World it has been bred into a wide variety of different beans, but all derived from the common ancestor. These are Old World Broad beans and Lima beans from Peru are perhaps the New World breed closest to them.

Squash seed 12000 years old from Oaxaca, Mexico, an early domesticate. Plant materials are rarely preserved after such a length of time and so such evidence is sparse.
Because squashes and gourds come in such a variety of shapes, it is very hard to know what the original pod looked like when you have only the seed like this.Gourds were also commonly used in place of pottery vessels at first.
9000 years ago or so, we start getting evidence of Maize or true corn in the Archaeological rrecord in Mexico: not nearly so old as the raising of squash and peppers and so on. in this picture we have an ear of a native wild grass, teosinte, and on the right a small ear of popcorn. Eventually, the Ancient Americans engineered a type of maize that had good-sized ears and was hence much more productive. I get the impression that the early corn looked more like a kind of wheat, with the seed pod growing on top of the plant. Many authors including Zhirov see reason why maize was developed on Atlantis and brought full-blown into the New world as a novelty. I think what they had at first was not recognisable as corn, but what they brought with them was more the IDEA of corn.

Some very early corn cobs.
The Three Sisters-beans, corn and squash
From which it seems that the Atlanteans came into the New World already with something like the Three Sisters concept, only they started it in Mexico and it spread Northward into Americs and also into South America where the products were joined by other crops developed locally there. I am also fairly certrain myself that the Atlanteans came to America already with coconuts, bananas and arrowroots (possibly even taro) but these items are more controversial and supported only by fewer of the experts. As for domesticated animals, it seems that if Atlanteans brought over horses, asses, sheep or goats, they must have all died out-except that the Andean peoples then bred the llama tribe into their working analogues.And there is also some slight evidence that some native horses did survive the Pleistocene mass extinction, also hotly disputed.
Getting into a harvesttime theme here. I'll have to do Hoabinhian products next.
Water Chestnuts
Water Chestnuts-the plant
rice
breadfruit

Yams Out Of Africa
Taro (an Aroid or Arrowroot.
In some areas other arrowroots substitute)
Jungle Fowl (Chicken)

Sus scrofa cristatus of South East Asia is the dominant
matriarchal ancestor Pacific Island pigs

Mainland Wild Boars were base of Sundaland Domestic Swine, but Sundalanders added some of their local swine to the mix as well.


Celebes Warty Pig was domesticated by Austronesian
Progenitors of the Melanesians


..And Man's Best Friend is Sometimes His Best Snack.

Citation: Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania
Abstract
"Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region."

I did have a long list oif credits with this posting but Blogger balked at the size of the posting. I shall therefore make more concise references as the necessity to do so shall arise in the future.

1 comment:

  1. The Southeast Asians of course also raised cucurbits and in fact the Chinese have quite a variety of them also, including their own "Pumpkins" which are not the same as New World pumpkins but look just like them. In Classical times in the Mediterranea, they had melons of sorts and cucumbers-the cucurbita is of course named after cucumbers. The Southeast Asians and Africans also had bottlegourds, and they must have started raising them ages ago.

    Best Wishes, Dale D.

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