Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Saturday, September 3, 2011

Some Considerations on Deluge Traditions

Donnelly's Atlantean Empire as shown on the map (modified) includes the area of The Ten Kingdoms of Atlantis (most of which I would suppose to really be at the level of "Organized Chiefdoms") around the Atlantic and then a PostPleistocene area settled by refugees after Atlantis had actually disappeared. So that the condition of the map more represents the areas the survivors occupied in the period of 5000 to 10000 years ago and then following thereafter. These peoples would be at a variety of different technical levels from stone-age Mesolithic gatherers to food-producing Neolithic peoples to more civilised peoples that lived in cities and worked metals. In Atlantis the metalworkers would seem to have had abundant quantities of naturally-occuring metals that could be cold-hammered into shape and not necessarily requiring the melting of the metals. Because of this, I do not believe that the common soldiers were in possession of such things as the Megalith-Builders' bronze swords in their native land: those swords would have to be developed later by survivor cultures as noted. Earlier on I mentioned that some of the Pacific Islanders used swords edged with shark-teeth and I supposed that would be more like what the Atlanteans had: Aztecs had similar swords edged with obsidian blades.

Atlanteans were at different levels of culture within their own land, but it seems that conscripted soldiers were supposed to provide their own arms and armour, or else their neighbors and relatives would have to make an allowance for them. The Gilbert Islander pictured is wearing a sort of coconut-fiber chainmail on his arms and legs and heavier protection over the torso, with a conical helmet.This would probably cover for most Atlantean soldiers in most periods, with full metal armour only becoming more common in the bronze age. Of course the wealthier Atlantean officers could be radiantly decked out with metal adornment that covered more seviceable leather underlayers. The small round shield seems to have been universal in Atlantean survivor cultures and Plato mentions it as being in their inventory.
My older representations of Atlantean Soldiers was added in at the first part of the Survey of Atlantis series. Basically they seem to have been on a par with Aztec or Pre-Incan warriors, which makes them a very efficient and ruthless fighting force indeed.

Here is a map of the Deluge as it hit Africa from one of the other Internet Atlantis sites. Parts of the damage are verifiable:There is evidence of a sea wave sweeping into the West Mediterranean when the sea was at low stand, and rearranging pebbles and sediments of that area, and at about that same time or shortly thereafter, a large mass of rolled pebbles and other land sediments came out of the Arabian area and Red Sea to carpet the floor of the Western Indian Ocean. I have articles on both of those discoveries as clippings from SCIENCE in my files at home.The extent of flooding in the Sahara is uncertain but it did seem to leave an underlying clay layer to the region.

The Universal Deluge was not exactly Universal-it occurred in some areas as complete submergences and other areas were spared. Donnelly introduces his section on Flood Myths:                   

An event, which in a few hours destroyed, amid horrible convulsions, an entire country, with all its vast population--that population the ancestors of the great races of both continents, and they themselves the custodians of the civilization of their age--could not fail to impress with terrible force the minds of men, and to project its gloomy shadow over all human history. And hence, whether we turn to the Hebrews, the Aryans, the Phœnicians, the Greeks, the Cushites, or the inhabitants of America, we find everywhere traditions of the Deluge;
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and we shall see that all these traditions point unmistakably to the destruction of Atlantis.
François Lenormant says (Contemp. Rev., Nov., 1879):
"The result authorizes us to affirm the story of the Deluge to be a universal tradition among all branches of the human race, with the one exception, however, of the black. Now, a recollection thus precise and concordant cannot be a myth voluntarily invented. No religious or cosmogonic myth presents this character of universality. It must arise from the reminiscence of a real and terrible event, so powerfully impressing the imagination of the first ancestors of our race as never to have been forgotten by their descendants. This cataclysm. must have occurred near the first cradle of mankind, and before the dispersion of the families from which the principal races were to spring; for it would be at once improbable and uncritical to admit that, at as many different points of the globe as we should have to assume in order to explain the wide spread of these traditions, local phenomena so exactly alike should have occurred, their memory having assumed an identical form, and presenting circumstances that need not necessarily have occurred to the mind in such cases.
"Let us observe, however, that probably the diluvian tradition is not primitive, but imported in America; that it undoubtedly wears the aspect of an importation among the rare populations of the yellow race where it is found; and lastly, that it is doubtful among the Polynesians of Oceania. There will still remain three great races to which it is undoubtedly peculiar, who have not borrowed it from each other, but among whom the tradition is primitive, and goes back to the most ancient times, and these three races are precisely the only ones of which the Bible speaks as being descended from Noah--those of which it gives the ethnic filiation in the tenth chapter of Genesis. This observation. which I hold to be undeniable, attaches a singularly historic and exact value to the tradition as recorded by the Sacred Book, even if, on the other hand, it may lead to giving it a more limited geographical and ethnological significance. . . .
"But, as the case now stands, we do not hesitate to declare that, far from being a myth, the Biblical Deluge is a real and historical fact, having, to say the least, left its impress on the
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ancestors of three races--Aryan, or Indo-European, Semitic, or Syro-Arabian, Chamitic, or Cushite--that is to say, on the three great civilized races of the ancient world, those which constitute the higher humanity--before the ancestors of those races had as yet separated, and in the part of Asia they together inhabited."
Such profound scholars and sincere Christians as M. Schwœbel (Paris, 1858), and M. Omalius d'Halloy (Bruxelles, 1866), deny the universality of the Deluge, and claim that "it extended only to the principal centre of humanity, to those who remained near its primitive cradle, without reaching the scattered tribes who had already spread themselves far away in almost desert regions. It is certain that the Bible narrative commences by relating facts common to the whole human species, confining itself subsequently to the annals of the race peculiarly chosen by the designs of Providence." (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Anc. Hist. of the East," p. 44.) This theory is supported by that eminent authority on anthropology, M. de Quatrefages, as well as by Cuvier; the Rev. R. p. Bellynck, S.J., admits that it has nothing expressly opposed to orthodoxy.
Plato identifies "the great deluge of all" with the destruction of Atlantis. The priest of Sais told Solon that before "the great deluge of all" Athens possessed a noble race, who performed many noble deeds, the last and greatest of which was resisting the attempts of Atlantis to subjugate them; and after this came the destruction of Atlantis, and the same great convulsion which overwhelmed that island destroyed a number of the Greeks. So that the Egyptians, who possessed the memory of many partial deluges, regarded this as "the great deluge of all."
We give first the Bible history of the Deluge, as found in Genesis (chap. vi. to chap. viii.):
"And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
"And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.
"There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
"And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord.
["These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God. And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.]
"The earth also was corrupt before God; and the earth was filled with violence. And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence
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through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it. And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and everything that is in the earth shall die. But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind; two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.
"Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.
"And the Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.
"And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him. And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.
"And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of everything that creepeth upon the earth, there
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went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
"And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark; they, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in.
"And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lifted up above the earth. And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went Upon the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high bills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: all in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.
"And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged. The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained. And the
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waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. And the ark rested in the seventh mouth, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the mouth, were the tops of the mountains seen.
"And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made: and be sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground. But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark; for the waters were on the face of the whole earth. Then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. And the dove came in to him in the evening, and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. And he stayed yet other seven days, and sent forth the dove, which returned not again unto him any more.
"And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
"And God spake unto Noah, saying, Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly it) the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.
"And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and big sons' wives with him: every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.
"And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savour;
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and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth: neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."
Let us briefly consider this record.
It shows, taken in connection with the opening chapters of Genesis:
1. That the land destroyed by water was the country in which the civilization of the human race originated. Adam was at first naked (Gen., chap. iii., 7); then he clothed himself in leaves; then in the skins of animals (chap. iii., 21): be was the first that tilled the earth, having emerged from a more primitive condition in which be lived upon the fruits of the forest (chap. ii., 16); his son Abel was the first of those that kept flocks of sheep (chap. iv., 2); his son Cain was the builder of the first city (chap. iv., 17); his descendant, Tubal-cain, was the first metallurgist (chap. iv., 22); Jabal was the first that erected tents and kept cattle (chap. iv., 20); Jubal was the first that made musical instruments. We have here the successive steps by which a savage race advances to civilization. We will see hereafter that the Atlanteans passed through precisely similar stages of development.
2. The Bible agrees with Plato in the statement that these Antediluvians had reached great populousness and wickedness, and that it was on account of their wickedness God resolved to destroy them.
3. In both cases the inhabitants of the doomed land were destroyed in a great catastrophe by the agency of water; they were drowned.
4. The Bible tells us that in an earlier age, before their destruction, mankind had dwelt in a happy, peaceful, sinless condition in a Garden of Eden. Plato tells us the same thing of the earlier ages of the Atlanteans.
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5. In both the Bible history and Plato's story the destruction of the people was largely caused by the intermarriage of the superior or divine race, "the sons of God," with an inferior stock, "the children of men," whereby they were degraded and rendered wicked.
We will see hereafter that the Hebrews and their Flood legend are closely connected with the Phœnicians, whose connection with Atlantis is established in many ways.
It is now conceded by scholars that the genealogical table given in tho Bible (Gen., chap. x.) is not intended to include the true negro races, or the Chinese, the Japanese, the Finns or Lapps, the Australians, or the American red men. It refers altogether to the Mediterranean races, the Aryans, the Cushites, the Phœnicians, the Hebrews, and the Egyptians. "The sons of Ham" were not true negroes, but the dark-brown races. (See Winchell's "Preadamites," chap. vii.)
If these races (the Chinese, Australians, Americans, etc.) are not descended from Noah they could not have been included in the Deluge. If neither China, Japan, America, Northern Europe, nor Australia were depopulated by the Deluge, the Deluge could not have been universal. But as it is alleged that it did destroy a country, and drowned all the people thereof except Noah and his family, the country so destroyed could not have been Europe, Asia, Africa, America, or Australia, for there has been no universal destruction of the people of those regions; or, if there had been, how can we account for the existence to-day of people on all of those continents whose descent Genesis does not trace back to Noah, and, in fact, about whom the writer of Genesis seems to have known nothing?
We are thus driven to one of two alternative conclusions: either the Deluge record of the Bible is altogether fabulous, or it relates to some land other than Europe, Asia, Africa, or Australia, some land that was destroyed by water. It is not fabulous; and the land it refers to is not Europe, Asia, Africa,
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or Australia--but Atlantis. No other land is known to history or tradition that was overthrown in a great catastrophe by the agency of water; that was civilized, populous, powerful, and given over to wickedness.
That high and orthodox authority, François Lenormant, says ("Ancient Hist. of the East," vol. i., p. 64), "The descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japhet, so admirably catalogued by Moses, include one only of the races of humanity, the white race, whose three chief divisions he gives us as now recognized by anthropologists. The other three races--yellow, black, and red--have no place in the Bible list of nations sprung from Noah." As, therefore, the Deluge of the Bible destroyed only the land and people of Noah, it could not have been universal. The religious world does not pretend to fix the location of the Garden of Eden. The Rev. George Leo Haydock says, "The precise situation cannot be ascertained; bow great might be its extent we do not know;" and we will see hereafter that the unwritten traditions of the Church pointed to a region in the west, beyond the ocean which bounds Europe in that direction, as the locality in which "mankind dwelt before the Deluge."
It will be more and more evident) as we proceed in the consideration. of the Flood legends of other nations, that the Antediluvian World was none other than Atlantis,

Donnelly makes note that at his time of writing, it was still only recently that ships were being built the size that the Bible says Noah built his Ark at. That would be during the 1800s and Donnelly is speaking about some of the largest sailing ships of all times. Zechariah Stitchin makes a reconstruction of the description of the Ark as given in the Mesopotamian version and notes that the specifications go beyond the Bible's size for Noah's Ark by aconsiderably greater height (or depth) and assumes that the larger part of this must ride below the waterline:

Noah's ark is given dimensions of a hull 450 feet long, 45 feet tall and 75 feet wide. that accounts for the part above water level in Stitchin's drawing. But there is another possibility, the design can be flipped up the other way ant the height then refers to many tall masts full-rigged with sails:                 

Which is the solution given in a book I own called Lost Survivors of the Deluge (Gerd Von Hassler translated by Martin Ebon,1976) And if so, Atlantean shipping technology, navigation and mapmaking seems to have far outstripped all other aspects of their culture. They must've been hauling tons of cargo in some very large enterprises in those days (I can only think they must have been designed for carrying enormous loads of heavy mineral ores, jade in gross bulk and truly epic amounts of jewels and semiprecious stones. Great Lakes Copper might have been part of their hauls but that would be in mines now completely erased by glacial action. Europeans got the idea for multisailed, multimasted ships from the Chinese, and some Ming ships meant to sail around the world were reported to be about this same size.

The Antediluvians As Donnelly Conceived of Them 1881: Let us now, with all the facts before us, gleaned from various sources, reconstruct, as near as may be, the condition of the antediluvians. They dwelt upon a great island, near which were other smaller islands, probably east and west of them, forming stepping-stones, as it were, toward Europe and Africa in one direction, and the West India Islands and America in the other. There were volcanic mountains upon the main island, rising to a height of fifteen hundred feet, with their tops covered with perpetual snow. Below these were elevated table-lands, upon which were the royal establishments [or religious refuges-DD]. Below these, again, was "the great plain of Atlantis." There were four rivers flowing north, south, east, and west from a central point. The climate was like that of the Azores, mild and pleasant; the soil volcanic and fertile, and suitable at its different elevations for the growth of the productions of the tropical and temperate zones. The people represented at least two different races: a dark brown reddish race, akin to the Central Americans, the Berbers and the Egyptians; and a white race, like the Greeks, Goths, Celts, and Scandinavians. Various battles and struggles followed between the different peoples for supremacy. The darker race seems to have been, physically, a smaller race, with small hands; the lighter-colored race was much larger--hence the legends of the Titans and Giants. The Guanches of the Canary Islands were men of very great stature. As the works of the Bronze Age represent a small-handed race, and as the races who possessed the ships [?and gunpowder} joined in the war against the Giants, we might conclude that the dark races were the more civilized, that they were the metal-workers and navigators.(p. 474) The fact that the same opinions and customs exist on both sides of the ocean implies identity of origin; it might be argued that the fact that the explanation of many customs existing on both hemispheres is to be found only in America, implies that the primeval stock existed in America, the emigrating portion of the population carrying away the custom, but forgetting the reason for it. The fact that domestic cattle and the great cereals, wheat, oats, barley, and rye, are found in Europe and not in America, would imply that after population moved to Atlantis from America civilization was developed in Atlantis, and that in the later ages communication was closer and more constant between Atlantis and Europe than between Atlantis and America. In the case of the bulky domestic animals, it would be more difficult to transport them, in the open vessels of that day, from Atlantis across the wider expanse of sea to America, than it would be to carry them by way of the now submerged islands in front of the Mediterranean Sea to the coast of Spain. It may be, too, that the climate of Spain and Italy was better adapted to the growth of wheat, barley, oats and rye, than maize; while the drier atmosphere of America was better suited to the latter plant Even now comparatively little wheat or barley is raised in Central America, Mexico, or Peru, and none on the low coasts of those countries; while a smaller quantity of maize, proportionately, is grown in Italy, Spain, and the rest of Western Europe, the rainy climate being unsuited to it. [On the other hand, all the other indicators are that the Atlanteans utilised what was at hand but did not specialise in the products the same way that their descendants did. No doubt they utilised some grain corresponding to later maize but equally certainly, more modern peoples would not recognise it as such. They could very well have regularly utilised such things as wild wheat, rye, oats and so on, but not raised it regularly as a standard crop. My guess is that many interior areas harvested wild rice much as the Natives of the Great Lakes region still do, but the main crop that they grew would be barley. And they seem to have had a variety of rootcrops, peppers and gourds or melons, but we no longer have the information to know exactly what these were-DD] We have seen (p. 60, ante) that there is reason to believe that maize was known in a remote period in the drier regions of the Egyptians and Chinese. As science has been able to reconstruct the history of the migrations of the Aryan [Indo-European] peoples, by the words that exist or fail to appear in the kindred branches of that tongue, so the time will come when a careful comparison of words, customs, opinions, arts existing on the opposite sides of the Atlantic will furnish an approximate sketch of Atlantean history. The people had attained a high position as agriculturists.The presence of the [foot-]plough in Egypt and Peru implies that they possessed that implement. And ... the horns and ox-head of Baal show the esteem in which cattle were held among them... They first domesticated the horse, hence the association of Poseidon or Neptune, a sea-god, with horses; hence the race-courses for horses described by Plato. They possessed sheep, and manufactured woollen goods; they also had goats, dogs,[? and swine.] They raised cotton and made cotton goods; they probably cultivated maize, wheat, oats, barley, rye, tobacco, hemp, and flax, and possibly potatoes [or arrowroots, and yams]; they built aqueducts and practised irrigation; they were architects, sculptors, and engravers; they possessed an alphabet; they worked in tin, copper, bronze, silver, gold, and iron[they at least used the red ochre form]. During the vast period of their duration, as peace and agriculture caused their population to increase to overflowing, they spread out in colonies east and west to the ends of the earth. This was not the work of a few years, but of many centuries; and the relations between these colonies may have been something like the relation between the different colonies that in a later age were established by the Phœnicians, the Greeks, and the Romans; there was an intermingling with the more ancient races, the autochthones of the different lands where they settled; and the same crossing of stocks, which we know to have been continued all through the Historical Period, must have been going on for thousands of years, whereby new races and new dialects were formed; and the result of all this has been that the smaller races of antiquity have grown larger, while all the complexions shade into each other, so that we can pass from the whitest to the darkest by insensible degrees. In some respects the Atlanteans exhibited conditions similar to those of the British Islands: there were the same, and even greater, race differences in the population; the same plantation of colonies in Europe, Asia, and America; the same carrying of civilization to the ends of the earth. We have seen colonies from Great Britain going out in the third and fifth centuries to settle on the shores of France, in Brittany, representing one of the nationalities and languages of the mother-country--a race Atlantean in origin. In the same way we may suppose Hamitic emigrations to have gone out from Atlantis to Syria, Egypt, and the Barbary States. If we could imagine Highland Scotch, Welsh, Cornish, and Irish populations emigrating en masse from England in later times, and carrying to their new lands the civilization of England, with peculiar languages not English, we would have a state of things probably more like the migrations which took place from Atlantis. England, with a civilization Atlantean in origin, peopled by races from the same source, is repeating in these modern times the empire of Zeus and Chronos; and, just as we have seen Troy, Egypt, and Greece warring against the parent race, so in later days we have seen Brittany and the United States separating themselves from England, the race characteristics remaining after the governmental connection had ceased. In religion the Atlanteans had reached all the great thoughts which underlie our modern creeds. They had attained to the conception of one universal, omnipotent, great First Cause. We find the worship of this One God in Peru and in early Egypt. They looked upon the sun as the mighty emblem, type, and instrumentality of this One God. Such a conception could only have come with civilization. It is not until these later days that science has realized the utter dependence of all earthly life upon the sun's rays: "All applications of animal power may be regarded as derived directly or indirectly from the static chemical power of the vegetable substance by which the various organisms and their capabilities are sustained; and this power, in turn, from the kinetic action of the sun's rays. "Winds and ocean currents, hailstorms and rain, sliding glaciers, flowing rivers, and falling cascades are the direct offspring of solar heat. All our machinery, therefore, whether driven by the windmill or the water-wheel, by horse-power or by steam--all the results of electrical and electro-magnetic changes--our telegraphs, our clocks, and our watches, all are wound up primarily by the sun. "The sun is the great source of energy in almost all terrestrial phenomena. From the meteorological to the geographical, from the geological to the biological, in the expenditure and conversion of molecular movements, derived from the sun's rays, must be sought the motive power of all this infinitely varied phantasmagoria." But the people of Atlantis had gone farther; they believed that the soul of man was immortal, and that he would live again in his material body; in other words, they believed in "the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting." They accordingly embalmed[mummified] their dead.[On the other hand, indications are that whenever there were large quantities of dead bodies to be dealt with they were BURNT-DD] ... The Atlanteans possessed an established order of priests; their religious worship was pure and simple [The state religion was Apollonian and worshipped the current monarch as divine; on the other hand religion of the Commoners was more likely to be crude, Dionysian, and much given to revelry-DD]. They lived under a kingly government; they had their courts, their judges, their records, their monuments covered with inscriptions, their mines, their founderies, their workshops, their looms, their grist-mills, their boats and sailing-vessels, their highways, aqueducts, wharves, docks, and canals. They had processions, banners, and triumphal arches for their kings and heroes; they built pyramids, temples, round-towers, and obelisks; they practised religious ablutions; they [possibly even] knew the use of the magnet and of gunpowder. In short, they were in the enjoyment of a civilization nearly as high as our own, lacking only the printing-press, and those inventions in which steam, electricity, and magnetism are used. We are told that Deva-Nahusha visited his colonies in Farther India. An empire which reached from the Andes to Hindostan, if not to China, must have been magnificent indeed. In 'its markets must have met the maize of the Mississippi Valley, the copper of Lake Superior, the gold and silver of Peru and Mexico, the spices of India, the tin of Wales and Cornwall, the bronze of Iberia, the amber of the Baltic, the wheat and barley of Greece, Italy, and Switzerland. It is not surprising that when this mighty nation sank beneath the waves, in the midst of terrible convulsions, with all its millions of people, the event left an everlasting impression upon the imagination of mankind. Let us suppose that Great Britain should to-morrow meet with a similar fate. What a wild consternation would fall upon her colonies and upon the whole human family! The world might relapse into barbarism, deep and almost universal. William the Conqueror, Richard Cœur de Lion, Alfred the Great, Cromwell, and Victoria might survive only as the gods or demons of later races; but the memory of the cataclysm in which the centre of a universal empire instantaneously went down to death would never be forgotten; it would survive in fragments, more or less complete, in every land on earth; it would outlive the memory of a thousand lesser convulsions of nature; it would survive dynasties, nations, creeds, and languages; it would never be forgotten while man continued to inhabit the face of the globe. Science has but commenced its work of reconstructing the past and rehabilitating the ancient peoples, and surely there is no study which appeals more strongly to the imagination than that of this drowned nation, the true antediluvians. They were the founders of nearly all our arts and sciences; they were the parents of our fundamental beliefs; they were the first civilizers, the first navigators, the first merchants, the first colonizers of the earth; their civilization was old when Egypt was young, and they had passed away thousands of years before Babylon, Rome, or London were dreamed of. This lost people were our ancestors, their blood flows in our veins; the words we use every day were heard, in their primitive form, in their cities, courts, and temples. Every line of race and thought, of blood and belief, leads back to them.
 Atlantis, the Antediluvian World, by Ignatius Donnelly, [1882], at


  1. In his opening arguments about the Deluge being less than truly universal, Donnelly quotes authority to the fact that American natives did not have flood myths. Donnelly himself does not think this is the case since he quotes American flood myths in his subsequent chapters: he was merely trying to establish that the Deluge of Noah was not universal, that not all of humanity had suffered through it, and not everybody had to be fitted onto a family tree that descended from Noah. In his day, this was still a fairly newfangled notion. As far as my data indicates, East Asia, Australia and Large parts of the Pacific were relatively untouched in the cataclysm at the end of the PLeistocene, but that cataclysm was centered on the Atlantic itself. The inhabitants of thoose areas would not have to be designated "Flood Survivors". That is the point which Donnelly is also trying to make.

    Best Wishes, Dale D.

  2. It probably goes without saying that the archaeological remains attributable to the Atlantis Empire and Expansion (Which Spence identifies as Azilo-Tardenosian and equated to the African Capsian)are NOT characterised by use of bronze swords! There were a very few copper items found at that level: a link of copper chain dredged up from the Atlantic seafloor near the Azores according to Muck, a copper crotal (jingle bell) and file from Southern Spain according to Whishaw, and some copper wire, ornaments and other objects from Palestine acknowledged by official science. However, the Mesolithic invaders could well be using the FLINT analogue to the Aztec swords or the military application of the "Reaping-sickle" and they could be using an endless quantity of those as far as we could tell from archaeology. They certainly seem to have had an endless quantity of arrowheads so far as we can tell from those strata. And a flint-edged reaping sickle would be quite capable of severing members if the mythology of such things is any indication.

    The African Capsians also had a backup variety of swordlike weapon: a human fibula (smaller bone at the outside of the lower leg or shin), sharpened to a point, which makes a quite effective "Rapier" for finding its way through chinks in the armour of the foes. It also has the psychological advantage of being a weapon borne of death and used to bring more death.

    Another consideration would be that the Atlanteans were the ones to use armour and the Greeks and Egyptians of that age would fight nearluy naked but for the shield. Plato would incidentally have thought nothing of that part either: Greeks of his day ALSO commonly fought mostly naked but for the shield. It also seems from all indications that the Atlanteans wanted Egypt and they were pressing hard in that direction: they were not particularly interested in Greece although they evidently landed there to trade obsidian and other minerals. That the Greeks entered the side of the Egyptians at the last hour and rallied them to stand against the Atlanteans would have been completely unexpected by them.

    However, what defeated the Atlanteans was the Deluge as is clear from the account, and the Deluge dealt death equally to both sides of the struggle. However one very likely possibility is that when the original Atlantis myth was finished, the credit promised to the Athenians in the war seemed to vanish because the war was really won by the will of the gods and the forces of nature. The Athenians might have ended up feeling themselves damned by slight praise. Some theorists including Bellamy have assumed that the end to the Kritias was in the form of an attached translation of an Egyptian document because the story was never spoken of in Antiquity as if it were complete-BUT that the attached document became detached and lost later on. If the situation was that the end did not deliver exactly what the beginning of the Dialogue had promised, that would be an easily-understood rationale for its being intentionally lost.

    Best Wishes, Dale D.

  3. megaliths in america date to the same time as europe, got directed to this site again... was looking for megaliths similarities

  4. True, and copper use in North America is probably as old as in most of Europe (outside of the few items in Spain specified by Whishaw)
    Megaliths on BOTH sides of the Atlantic probably date the period of their appearance to the time of the Global Superflood 3, The Black Sea Flood, which is also when the Behring landbridge finally went under.Evidence for copper mining at Lake Superior also starts about then (connecting the dots some more)

    Best Wishes, Dale D.


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