Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Thursday, September 1, 2011

The Northern Atlantis From Gunter Bischoff


Extracts from the online article
"Atlantis - the unraveling of the 20th Century "
(2010) by Günter Bischoff



Many people interested in history are still fascinated by the theme of Atlantis .Since the Greek philosopher Plato mentioned the sunken island empire in the 4th Century BC. in his dialogues "Critias" and "Timaeus" , many eminent researchers have made attempts to solve this puzzle have[1]. Did Plato want us to imagine a mythical country, or did he actually receive a customer of a high-quality, long before its time submerged culture? Is it worth looking at all even if more than two millennia of investigation have revealed no clear archaeological evidence?

Many a time it was believed that the unraveling has succeeded, but after the initial euphoria has been repeatedly raised serious objections. Among the most frequently discussed previously localizations include the Azores, the Canary Islands, the ancient trading city in southern Spain Tartessos, Crete and the nearby volcanic island of Thera, the Sahara and most recently Troy. The scientific discoveries of recent decades can be explained with this hypothesis, however great contradictions to the tradition of Plato, Atlantis and important passages of the report found no explanation. A now more than fifty years old, often regarded as the opinion of an outsider theory comes after the current knowledge of the truth the next. She comes from the pastor and archaeologist Jürgen Spanuth (1907-1998), the long time the small rural community of North Frisian Bordelum served as pastor. In 1953 he published his first thoughts in the book "The Atlantis riddled". That sparked the violent clash of opinions so far from this problem, which is not finished until today. But a number of scientists now shares the main views of this investigator [2]. In a nutshell, the solution can be summarized as the old riddle:

Plato processed credible information about the home of the Egyptian priests and North Sea Peoples in Southern Scandinavia and Central Europe. Most of the details relate to the former islands in the German Bight and the adjacent coastal areas. Their destruction in a particularly devastating storm surge at the end of the Bronze Age was a sinking of Atlantis in the story.

The idea of ​​an Atlantis in the North Sea may sound strange, but at SpanUth interpretations agree to tradition and reality match the best. On his main arguments, but also to important discoveries of other scientists, and especially on controversial details of the Atlantis research will be discussed further below.


Misunderstood times
Plato, it was mentioned in the drafting of the dialogues is not so much a vision of an ideal state. Rather, he sought for a historical treatise reliable information about a real, strong opponent of Ur-Athens, in order to appreciate the once exemplary political system due to its hometown. In one of his meetings with Critias and other friendly conversation scholars also came to the community of Atlantis. Plato It seemed useful for his purposes and, moreover, guaranteed to be because the customer about the generally revered statesman was brought by Solon from Egypt.

As we now know, contains the description of the situation on Atlantis next most valuable information and errors, misunderstandings and mythological motifs. Not least were faulty translations and controversial interpretations of the Greek sources help to give a partially false picture of the sunken island kingdom from generation to generation. What insights can now be taken for granted today, or are at least as highly likely?

No doubt, in the dialogues "Critias" and "Timaeus" described only downfall of Atlantis at the end of the Bronze Age in the 14th or 13 Century BC. Have taken place. This finding is of great importance, because we unwittingly wrong time Plato information handed. 9000 or 8000 years before his time [3], during the Mesolithic period, there was still no evidence Egyptian state and no city Athens, which would be attacked by the Atlanteans. As little would be for this time period, the use of chariots and war ships, the massive use of copper and tin, and occasionally even of iron, to explain. These gains can, however, without problems with our view of history be reconciled if one assumes a tradition from the late Bronze Age. Already arrived at this conclusion, the Swedish polymath Olof Rudbeck the end of the 17th Century. With some certainty, he found the explanation for the wrong times, pointing to the likelihood of the ancient Near East after counting months later with the emerging after years of enumeration. According to J. Spanuth means the Egyptian hieroglyph for "year" and "circulation". So that was obviously meant in ancient times the sidereal lunar month. If one ie 9000 months to 28 days of Solon's visit to Egypt in 571 BC. back, so you get to the second Half of the 13th century BC, the actual time of events [4]. Later in Egyptian records, there were still other times unrealistic. Thus, for example, since the beginning of the first Dynasty (around 3100 BC.) Until the end of the 30th Dynasty (332 BC). 36 525 "years" have passed.

That really just the end of the Bronze Age and not the Middle Stone Age over 10,000 years ago as a transitional period in question is, can be assigned to another safe indication. In the dialogue "Critias" are not only the states on Atlantis, but also in the original language of Athens. It is described in detail including a cyclopean wall that was actually unearthed by archaeologists and of these as a barrier to the 13th Century BC. encroaching North Sea Peoples and is considered [5].



The attack by the North Sea Peoples

The Viennese classicist W. Brandenstein and J. Spanuth followed in 1950 as the first researcher to trace what Solon had received his knowledge of Egyptian priests in the western Nile Delta city of Sais. In fact there are still accessible documents which surprisingly exact same events as in Plato's Atlantis legend are portrayed. Above all, here are the Papyris Harris, the military deeds of the pharaoh Ramses III. glorified, and identified the inscriptions on the temple at Medinet Habu. In it, among many other matches are talking about nations that ruled over parts of Europe and Africa and Egypt severely distressed. They had come "from the islands and continents in the world ocean in the farthest north," "of the islands in the ocean" and "the ends of the earth." Your country has gone down, "destroyed its main cities" and that "their islands by the storm uprooted and blown away" [6]. After that is for sure: Atlantis Plato did not invent, but his dialogues are based on historical events.

The nations that in the reign of Ramses III. broke into the Mediterranean world, were in the Egyptian records as the "North and Sea Peoples" means. They moved in the 13th and 12 Century BC. through much of Europe, the Greek city-states submitted with the exception of Athens and destroyed the original in Hittite Asia Minor, situated within a few weeks. Finally they had the intention to invade, along with the Libyans in Egypt. In 1191 BC. It came to a decisive battle in the Nile Delta, which should have been up to that time the largest in world history. The contemporary Egyptian sources conceal the otherwise meticulously specified numbers of trapped and killed enemies. However, the set for the Defense of the Reich botenen 700 000 warriors and 2,000 warships can imagine the enormity of that time was of the fighting. The attack was repulsed again with the mobilization of all forces. Further fighting with the North Sea Peoples and in the ensuing decades, however, weakened the country so that the pharaohs an economic and political decline could not prevent.

A vivid impression of the fierce defensive battle, the Egyptians give the carved reliefs on approximately 10,000 square feet of space on the temple walls at Medinet Habu. For example, carries a part of the conquerors round bronze shields and helmets as a headdress horns or tufts of horsehair interpreted "Radiation crowns". In addition, those warriors have been good sailors. Their agile sailing ships with the raised and decorated with bird heads, front and rear Steven very similar to the two thousand years later, the world's oceans crossing Viking ships. Especially the battle scenes depicted could now be considered in addition to archaeological finds to rate in order to obtain information on the origin of the foreign nations. That Plato were among the Atlanteans had invaded Egypt and North Sea Peoples, is undoubtedly the most important discovery of modern Atlantis Research.


Figure 1:
click for larger image
Seeschlachtszenen between Egyptians (ships with lion heads) and the North Sea Peoples and (ships with bird heads, warriors with "crown radiation")




It took years of research by archaeologists to answer the question about which nations it was in the North Sea Peoples and the individuals and where they came from. According to our present findings represent the North and Sea Peoples an association is of Late Bronze Age tribes that came mainly from Central Europe and the more northerly areas and were forced by Major natural disasters to the "Great Migration" into new settlement areas [7]. Militarily the strongest part of this coalition were known from the biblical Philistines, who settled after the failed attack on Egypt and Palestine in this country its name. She also belonged to the so-called early Urnfield people. Their name was derived from the custom to keep the ashes of the burnt dead in ornate Tonurnen and bury in the fields.

The Egyptian sources speak of the Philistines, they were the "survivors of sunken islands" have been, which would have been in the northern ocean. They were "Haunebu" also called, should have come from the home of Bernstein [8]. Another time, in this context of the "Nine Bows peoples" is mentioned. According to the Egyptian idea divided the then known earth from south to north in ten sheets. The ninth arch was where "the longest day lasts 17 hours", ie the area around the 54th Latitude [9]. It therefore came in search of Atlantis, the only countries bordering the North Sea and Baltic regions of the early Urnfield people in question.


The trail leads to Helgoland
In fact, geologists were in the 19 and at the beginning of the 20th Century on the North coast of the downfall of many marshes and destruction of evidence on coastal areas. At the end of the Bronze Age, around 1220 BC., Sank in a devastating storm surge, much of the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark as well as many offshore islands.

Figure 2:
BC around 1220. sunken marshes and islands off the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, (according to J. Spanuth, 1953)





One of them was the main amber island Althelgoland. It was larger by far than it is today and extended east of the sandstone rock in the direction Eiderstedt. In it looked J. Spanuth the "Sacred Island" Basileia the Atlantis report, and he had good arguments for it. Plato characterized location and appearance of the "King [Queen] and pillar island," as one might translate Basileia [10], as follows:

she was at the mouth of great rivers,
On the island, a trip was possible in the opposite ocean,
foremost was a rock, looming "like cut with a knife",
On the island there were red, white and black stones,
the sinking of the island left behind a sea of ​​mud that there was still time to Plato.
The natural conditions in the Helgoland Bight exited the Bronze Age can be customized with many details of the Atlantis report well reconciled. Althelgoland lay at the confluence of four great rivers: Weser, Elbe, Eider and her now-defunct tributary of Hever. All estuaries were before the flood disaster south of the island close to each other. An almost continuous connection "in the sea opposite", namely the Baltic, was then much larger than the eider, the Treene, the Au Rheide possible to Schlei. The small gap between the latter two rivers may have been closed as canals [11]. Althelgoland had therefore an excellent location as a trading center for goods from inland and coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. In addition, the ports were the best island in the remote trading hubs with the other North Sea countries and the Mediterranean countries.
For mariners who approached from England, was then about 70 m high sandstone rock, a unique identifier. Such an island whose foremost part of "cut like a knife" looming, there is the whole North Sea region a second time too, the red, white and black stones are in this combination, only a few places on earth to be found. "... The red head is ..." is played in an old saying Helgoländer the striking color of the sandstone rock. The now-defunct white cliffs were made of gypsum, chalk and limestone. The last remnants of the formerly very high "Wittenklyppe" in the area of ​​today's "Dune" in 1711 fell victim to a storm surge. A blue-black to black rock still stands in lower depths of the sea north of the dune. He received his color by impregnation with copper carbonate [12]. These three distinctive colors and towering cliffs offered in the Bronze Age is certainly a magnificent sight.

After the sinking of the Frisian Islands and other Althelgoland spread at this point, a shallow sea of ​​mud, which disabled any shipping. Atlantis Most researchers ignore this important statement, because they find no explanation [13]. In contrast, the German Bight, the Wadden Sea is immediately apparent, stretching to the Dutch coast. This amphibious seam between dry land and open sea can only develop in the shallow shelf seas of the continental shelf. Strong tidal forces cause the regular deposit of mud and silt and the formation of sporadic water flows, the tidal creeks. Plato was probably very current news of this sea of ​​mud, because the explorer Pytheas of Massilia by 350 BC. just returned back from his explorations had led him to Scotland, and to the islands of Thule in the German Bight.


The mysterious orichalc
Another strong support was given by the theory SpanUth credible interpretation of a strange substance that the "people then living next to the gold valued at the most," the orichalc. The fiery, shiny "gold copper ore," the literal translation should have used the Atlanteans, to the ceiling, columns and floors to prove their temple and crowns to decorate walls.

The scientists hoped that just from the deciphering of this material an important clue to the location of Atlantis. There was no shortage of the strangest suspicions. Most dissemination finally found the assumption that it could probably only be a brass. However, according to tradition, Plato dug the orichalc in many places of the earth, and alloys are not known before in the wild. Spanuth turn came as the First thought that the description can apply only to the Bernstein [14].

This yellow to dark brown fossil resin was in the Bronze Age, but not as today in the Baltic region, but mainly derived from the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein. Trade with the prestigious Nordic Bernstein helped the local population to considerable wealth. The "Gold of the North" came on amber routes, which took its start in the Elbe estuary, over arduous mountain passes across to the Mediterranean countries. Precious grave goods made of amber were in most of Europe and in the grave King of the Egyptian pharaoh found Tutanchamum. The population of Jutland developed over the centuries, a high level of skill in the handling of ornaments. They knew how to cook in the fossil resin and oil as "amber varnish" to use the wall paint. So the hint is understandable that the Atlanteans Our mission orichalc with oil. After the demise of the marshes of the Bronze Age amber trade was noticeably behind with the Mediterranean countries. Therefore, the orichalc to Plato's time was "nurmehr still known by name." One question remained hitherto unexplained. Why use the Greek philosopher, "elektron" is not the time commonly referred to amber? But at least the Greeks the "orichalc" asked the fossil resin close [15]. Despite these minor concerns Spanuth can still equate "orichalc" with amber as still the best explanation [16].

To another, in the Bronze Age, much needed raw materials, was also hotly debated. Atlantis broke the report, the residents and dignified fusible copper on the island. Even the Helgoland rocky harbors in the white, greenish brown and red layers of red sandstone some very striking copper ores. Often they found a pea-sized pieces of native copper. The largest reported at least one weight from a few hundred grams. The Helgoland copper has no admixture of tin due to its high arsenic content, high hardness and was thus suitable for the manufacture of weapons very well.

In order to rebut the arguments of his opponents, made by hand Spanuth J. melting experiments in specially made ovens. Here he managed a striking discovery. The investigation of a sword and the North Sea Peoples, which had been captured by the Egyptians at the time of Pharaoh Seti II, delivered the clear evidence that the copper contained in the deposit could only have come from Helgoland [17]. In the following years laid the geologist and W. Lorenzo H. Schulz further evidence for the use of copper resources in already in prehistoric times. Unfortunately, the significance of this copper deposit for the Bronze Age cultures in the North and Baltic Sea is still underestimated by the scientific community [18].


Odysseus sailed to the Phaeacians
For a long time was of the opinion that there is no other report except Plato's Atlantis traditions of sunken islands. But above all, the two German scientists A. Schulten and R. Henning opened after 1930 another independent source. In the study of Homer's "Odyssey," which describes a random walk of the King of Ithaca, through the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters, they came to a surprisingly close resemblance between the Phäakeninsel "Sharia" and Plato's "Basileia". In a parallel overview of both descriptions were over thirty essential, some are even literal matches found [19]. Notably, both times the water surrounded by broad rings royal castle, a channel leading through the plain, a magnificent temple of Poseidon at the heart of King's Island and many others Like Basileia Scheria was at the "end of the world" in the ocean, and just before the island was a "steep, sloping rock face into the sea."

But there are also some important differences. The Phäakenreich was ruled by 12 kings, for example, the only Atlanterreich of 10 Homer does not mention the demise of "Sharia". This is historically correct, because he lets his hero's fictional journey around 1300 BC., Make in the heyday of the Mycenaean empire. Largely agree are the scientists that the king of Ithaca this random walk is not really made, but the poet only seafaring trip reports and journals from the Bronze Age processed.

Homer also provides information about how Odysseus came to Phäakeninsel Sharia. The nymph Calypso, who inhabited the remote island Ogygia and held him for seven years, the hero was a sailing instructions for the journey. He also sailed the ocean at night, "he concluded ... no snooze the watchful eyes.
On the Pleiades, and turned on the vessel, the first goes down late,
and the Bear, the other one too, wagon 'name,
which rotates in a circle, turned their eyes towards Orion,
and alone never dips down into Okeanos bath there.
For the farewell he bade the noble goddess Calypso,
that he could be on his way to the left of the north star always.
Seventeen days he sailed the vast waters,
on the eighteenth day appeared the shadowy hills in the distance on
phäakischen of land, because this was now at the next
To see such a sign in the cloud-covered seas ... "[20].


As a starting point of the voyage sought only a lonely, deserted island came out of the Strait of Gibraltar into question. It also Madeira and the Canary Islands were considered, but most of the arguments in favor of the Azores island of St. Miguel. This island was still in the 18th century. with "umbelicus maris" ("navel of the sea") refers, that is exactly how Ogygia in the "Odyssey."

The sailing course, thanks to Homer can be scientifically evaluated data. From the orientation after the constellation "Ursa Major" and the average rising varieties of craft and Pleiades at different night times, Prof. K. Bartholomew, from former professor of Archäogeodäsie in Essen, an NO-course with an azimuth of 54 ° (against North) [21]. If the Bronze Age mariners to take this course of St. Miguel, and one day then usual distance of 100 nautical miles laid, so they had to eventually advance through the channel from Dover to the German Bight. In 17 days, the distance of 3100 km was plenty good to handle. The description of the sight of Phäakeninsel "... like a shield in the cloud-covered sea," hits exactly on Althelgoland because of the distance rose in the middle of the "above the sea of ​​rock solid" like a shield boss, and both sides extended beyond the flat, interrupted only by dunes, hills and countryside of the main island.

Also the name of "Scharia" suggests itself points to a location near the Cimbrian peninsula. The similarity of name with the "archipelago", the rocky islands in Sweden, is not to be overlooked. Actually means "archipelago", the "shaven" or the "bald", and that's a very apt description of almost smooth, steeply sloping sandstone rock of Heligoland [22].

Sometimes other localizations for Ogygia and Sharia are proposed. But the determined R. Henning and K. Bartholomew situation Phäakeninsel Scheria considered the best all astronomical, nautical and geographical aspects of Homer's "Odyssey" can be derived [23]. Thus another argument suggests to seek the center of Atlantis in the North Sea.

Finally, I refer to the Greek myths about the Hyperborean, a carefree people living in the far north. The Hyperboreerinsel "Helixoia", sometimes also called "Elektris" known to have been situated at the mouth of the ancient amber river Eridanus. At this legendary river is still amber wash ashore, the eider, but possibly also about the same.

On Helixoia it should have given the legend with many swans on a pond. Every year at spring time these birds swarmed around the island. To ensure close liaison and special friendship of the islanders with the Greeks indicates the myth of the Hyperborean Apollo. Every year he visited once in a wagon pulled by swans in the north of his home and then returned in the spring at Delphi and Delos back [24].

Basileia, Scheria Helixoia and are therefore only different names for the same island, which had obtained in the bronze age of their culture also very important.


Expeditions to the stone base
In the past few decades numerous archaeological finds on the rocky island and into the Heligoland Bight, the North Sea have substantiated theory, even if certain details are not yet completely clarified. Althelgoland needs his former role adequately, BC before 1220th a considerable population have had. At the end of the 19th Century were studied several stone cists and cairns in the Oberland. In them were found beside the skeletons of men, a small bronze dagger, two golden spiral disks, another bronze weapons, gold rings, a bronze pin of almost 18 cm in length and some double buttons.

The first dives were made in 1911 when the warship "Zähringer" on the so-called "stone ground", an underwater survey to the east of Helgoland aground. Navy divers are said remnants "of the old castle Basileia" have discovered, have seen the addition of an old "temple" with a raised stone wall, weapons and broken glass. In the spring of 1943, in the very war that took place there in the presence of P. Wiepert, who later became an honorary citizen of the University of Kiel, another dive. Here are a number of stones have been discovered by man attached a kind of stone slabs and stone vaults. Unfortunately, the records were lost in the chaos of war, so that Wiepert should have memories from the year 1956 for skeptics no evidence [25].

Spanuth even fitted out in the years 1950, 1952 and 1953, three out of five expeditions to search for signs of settlement on the "stone ground". The expectations were not too high and the visibility very poor. But the divers, among them H. Beelt and E. Fries, 10 km east of Helgoland discovered a hill, which places a double, about 3 m high stone wall was surrounded. Apparently they had encountered in the Atlantis report mentioned castle hill which will have 50 stages (10 km) inland from. The divers hid hinge stones, worked flint and the remains of bronze casting plates. In another dive a grooved tiles was sighted on the ocean floor, and a cobbled street could be tracked over 50 meters wide [26].

Completely independent of SpanUth dive plans in 1951 to the German research vessel "meta" should leak, which had the mandate to inspect the seabed in the vicinity of Heligoland. The newspapers reported then finds invaluable. In 30 m water depth were allegedly tracked down a mud bank in two burial mounds, as well as housing remains, grave goods, tools and other commodities from the third and second millennium BC [27]. However, these reports must be viewed with caution, because until now no such found objects have been registered in an institution or museum.

A few years later started a research ship several times an archaeological Society, headed by C. Roper. This Bronze Age settlements in the area of ​​the submerged marshes were detected. Even later pulled from the finds do not. Was mined in 1971 different perforated copper disks revealed by a quarter of a meter in diameter and considerable weight. Nine years later, divers examined a group of the Geological Institute in Kiel, the maritime area. They found 2 km south of Helgoland Dune in 6 to 8 m water depth a "mass of copper ingots find site" from the local copper ore with a total weight kg of 90. To a lost shipment, it could not act, because even different sized pieces of iron slag were found [28].

According to previous research results, at least it is clear that BC until their demise around 1220. one or more inhabited islands between Helgoland and were Eiderstedt. So far, unfortunately, still lacks the crucial archaeological evidence that could convince even the skeptics: this was 3300 years before the major Atlanterinsel Basileia. Sensational discoveries are not expected because of poor conditions in the North Sea in the future. Maybe one day in spite of modern technology further discoveries are possible.

The Nordic Bronze Age
Plato gave three very different regions of the same name "Atlantis". This contributed to the confusion in the past the researchers. He once said that only the "Sacred Island" Basileia that actually sank, another time a much larger area on the mainland and other islands, and eventually a community of countries that were ruled by ten kings. On the "kingdom of Atlas", according to Plato, the most important of all ten kingdoms, will now be discussed in more detail.

At about 2400 BC. united in the territory of North and Baltic Seas, the long-established builders of the megalithic Streitaxtleuten with the military, which previously occupied as a rider and pastoral peoples of the southeast European plains. It began in a relatively short, intense fusion process of both cultures. The result was the "Nordic Bronze Culture", which is often referred to as "Nordic Circle." After centuries of uninterrupted development of these nations reached from 15 Century BC. an amazing flower and showed in some areas of life, quite the well-known civilizations of the Mediterranean's equal. Some historians see the bearers of this culture as the Bronze Age ancestors of the Teutons.

The settlement area of ​​the bronze in men was limited east-west direction of the rivers Weser and the Oder. It ranged from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and parts of Lower Saxony to the Great Lakes west of Stockholm, including a narrow coastal strip in southern Norway. The report mentioned in Atlantis great plain with an area of ​​2000 times 3000 stadia (about 370 by 560 km) is not on an island, but the closely linked with the sea landscape is aptly characterized. In northern Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden are known to spread from an interrupted only by low elevations lowlands, and praised for its beauty in the mountains we can see the over 2000 meter high snow-capped peaks of the Norwegian fjords. Considering also the relatively rapid changes in both sides of the Jutland peninsula in the recent geological past, then the description of the great plain is better understood. It was only after 7000 BC. It came in the southern North Sea to large land losses. For a long time the Dogger Bank and Jutland Bank of dry land before the open sea around 2000 BC were. Althelgoland and north of it reached the islands. The dimensions of the great plain, then, rather to make the geographical conditions during the middle Neolithic period to (see the section "The great plain").

The people lived in primitive communal relationships initially, which broke up more and more. Among the free peasants class differences were very pronounced. Contrast, were in the 14 and 13 Century BC. Influence, power and wealth of tribal leaders strongly. Agriculture and livestock, which were favored in some areas by the exceedingly fertile marshes, formed a solid basis for life. The rural population lived due to their production almost exclusively in small villages. Mostly, however, was built starting from the Neolithic larger, surrounded by ring walls settlements were probably the regional centers. Such a system has been heavily fortified by eight acres of expansion, for example, in 1971 unearthed at Rendsburg in a loop of the river Eider [30]. The large Bronze Age settlement on Althelgoland may well already be viewed as a city, even if they all could not compete with certain other powerful cities of its time as Ur-Athens or Troy. Plato's description of the urban center with its cult facilities, different types of buildings, shipyards, ports and several sporting venues reveals a wealthy cult and commercial metropolis of the Bronze Age. A similarly prominent role in their region gained more than 2,000 years later the great Frisian settlement Haithabu and the rich medieval trading town of Vineta.

Not only the Bronze Age graves discovered in the jewelry and utensils to make important conclusions about the way people live. Extensive knowledge of the simple, yet very fashionable woolen clothing, shoes and hair styles of the Bronze people owe the archaeologists discovered the bog bodies. They have been preserved for millennia as a result of better air tight seal as the comparatively Egyptian mummies. An exquisitely woven blue cloak that an important dignitary much later, around the 3rd Century AD. wore, were found in Berger Thor bog in Schleswig-Holstein. Here the tradition is evident, because the Atlantis report is a dark blue coat king "of wondrous beauty" mentioned by each of the ten kings to the climax of the festival wore on Basileia [31].

Many acts of worship were dedicated to the warmth-giving sun. Overlooked is the number of petroglyphs with sun symbols, depicted as circles and wheels along with all types of crosses. Initially, the revered primarily used as a riding animal horse that also attracted to the mythic ideas of the solar disk during daylight. Later came the worship of birds, especially the base in Northern Europe to sing swan. Some cults of the Bronze men are also described in the Atlantis legend. These include inherited from the early days of mankind appreciation of twins, the fire cult and sacrifices with sacred vessels.

One of the reasons for the "Golden Age" was the climate optimum in the second Millennium BC. In no other period of the last 15,000 years, the average temperature was as high as ever. Archaeologists call it the "light-carrying, heat-loving Bronze Age," and so it is no wonder that wine has been grown in southern Sweden [32]. Despite the much milder temperatures in the northern part of Central Europe, there was certainly no elephants. It is the only detail in Plato's tradition, remain the most significant theories is explanation. At least seems a confusion of these animals with deer and aurochs in this part of Europe very credible [33].


Gold, silver and bronze
The Atlanteans are the main sanctuary on its "Royal Island and columns" Basileia have exceedingly abundantly decorated with gold, silver, tin and amber. In the Temple of Poseidon, moreover, many resplendent golden statues. All of this may be a frequently occurring in old legends exaggeration. But it is clear what has always played important role these precious metals in the life of the Atlanteans.

Can people have the bronze after today's findings by no means lacking in it. Archaeologists hid alone in the re-discovered tombs in Denmark ornate gold jewelry with a total weight of more than three tons. The wealth is considered so significant that it is not only limited to tribal leaders, but also that farmers and artisans were able to achieve significant wealth. In North Germany there is no lack of finds from this period. For example came in 1987 during field work in a village near Greifswald, an ornate, 147-gram gold cuff to the fore. The sought-after precious metal was probably caused by sea from Ireland managed to win, perhaps, in Thuringia from gold-washing. They exchanged it against Bernstein, who was in the Bronze Age, almost to a European currency.

Less popular was apparently at the bronze, the silver men. In its pure form, it has been handled extremely rare, however, found it more frequently than other alloys used in admixture. One for the development of human society to be evaluated much higher metal is bronze, a copper and tin alloy existing. The miners hid the soft, white tin in the not too distant Cornwall in southern England. Here were the Cassiterides, the tin islands of antiquity. On the other hand, trade relations in the Erzgebirge are not excluded, because there was this metal is recovered.

Most archaeologists today still represent the opinion that they had to rely exclusively on expensive imports of copper from Central Europe. The extensive studies by J. and W. Lorenzo Spanuth evidence, however, that the copper ore for the bronze is the link that people have actually exploited [34]. Degradation took place in the second Millennium BC. under favorable conditions at the western top of the then larger sandstone rock. Besides this amber ore, the source of enormous wealth was mainly Althelgoland.

At first you probably tied in the manufacture of bronze objects from models still on adjacent crops. Soon found their own skilled craftsmen forms with tang swords and razors, for belt buckles, brooches and rings spiral, holding the dress together. A popular decorative motif was back in the running spiral, which would symbolize the eternal roles of ocean waves. Especially typical for the Nordic group are often richly decorated swords and daggers tang. Lost your area outlines very well the settlement area of ​​these people and their future trails in the south. The highlight of the metal processing at this time are the cast bronze lur, which were blown in pairs at parties. Experimental archaeologists have trouble these days to produce these instruments so masterful as ever. One of the most important finds from this period is the so-called sun-chariot of Trundholm, 1902, the plowing on the island of Zealand to the fore. In these 60 cm long and 36 cm high bronze statue attracts a somewhat stiff-legged horse, a gilded, decorated with spiral motif sun disk behind it.

Figure 3:
The Sun Chariot of Trundholm (c. 1500 BC).





The Metal Age fundamentally altered the relations of the nations among themselves. It developed into a flourishing trade, because much-needed raw materials could be obtained only in remote regions. Partly, we used the dealers along the way European rivers, some vessels are made on the long journey through the Straits of Gibraltar. Mid-1990s hid underwater archaeologists from the southern Turkish coast near Kas, the remains of a merchant ship from the Bronze Age. The scattered on the seabed of charge to BC 1318th Sunken sailing ship was a sensation in addition to the magnificent gold and silver jewelry, large storage jars, resin, weapons, pottery and polychrome glass ingots were found tons of tin, copper and Bernstein [35]. Presumably, these sailors were also created in the ports of Cornwall and Althelgoland to exchange these valuable commodities for other goods.


High cultures without writing?
Almost unanimously, the archaeologists are of the illiteracy of all peoples living north of the Alps during the Bronze Age convinced. Are contrary to this view, however, some early historical references to the use of a font in this region. Sun Euhemerus Messene reported in its "holy record" that the northern ocean on an island sanctuary stood an old, were kept in the golden tablets on which the history of the local kings was recorded in ancient time. A similar statement can be found at the Atlantis report: "... the government and the community was among them maintained pursuant to the orders of Poseidon, like them, the law and the inscriptions surviving, who were buried by the founding fathers on a column of orichalc; she stood in the middle of the island in the sanctuary of Poseidon "[36].

That has always been a clear indication of a font. This, however, it gave up in the 1970's, no evidence in northwestern Europe, and therefore there was no doubt already in the North Sea theory. Around the year 1982, however, managed a sensational discovery. Professor Barry Fell, who formerly taught at Harvard University in Cambridge (USA) felt in the southern Swedish province of Bohuslän on petroglyphs dot and line effects, which he interpreted as an alphabet letter. The deciphering why he succeeded without much difficulty, because the signs are very similar to those that use the Tuareg in Libya today for her writing.

Then had the phonetic value of letters were known, he could see the petroglyphs on some meaningful words. The deciphering can, however, to a certain room for interpretation, because the reading is not always clear and there was only one universal vowel that has been mostly left out yet. For example, could be seen beside the rock drawing of three bird-men, the letters "Swan" (Swan), another time "BL" and "GH W" next to a depiction of a bull and a cow. In addition to scoring several different types of ships were the letters "K M-A-GH GH GH LL WK SAMSL" be summarized for a presumed prayer inscription. This is Old Norse "ma aga gul kugge ol samsla vik" or "May be a gentle breeze and we reach our cogs run all along the harbor," German for example [37]. In this language, there is apparently a Primitive Germanic or Norse dialect before it developed later, the English, Norwegian and German.

Still very common to assume that the writing of the Tuareg's is a late, simplified form of the Phoenician. But the so-called letter of the alphabet Tifinagh guided only makes sense from the first letters of key terms, when the Norse dialect and not the Berber language is used. So used, the Bronze Age scribe the sign "Ring" is the letter "R", the character "door" (English "dorway") for "D", the character "weights" (English "weights") for "W" , the sign "(sign) hump" (English "buckler") for "B", etc. [38]. Also noteworthy is the derivation of some letters of the celestial objects moon ("M"), sun ("S"), the 4 box stars of the constellation Pegasus (the "H" = Hestemerki, ie "Horses Marks") and the conspicuous constellation of the sky-W ("Y" = Yorsa Cassiopeia).




Figure 4:
Forms of letters of the alphabet Tifinagh



The biology teacher believes WPAFischer a clue to the age of the alphabet to have found. For him, the three equilateral arranged points of the letter "K" for "head" is a symbol of the north celestial pole dar. He is now the polar star in the "Little Dipper" close. About 4000 years ago but was not a prominent star in this place. Instead, it was around 1800 BC. Kochab of the celestial pole, and another star Thuban in the constellation framed kites. During this time, or only slightly before the bronze people have probably invented this writing [39].

In contrast to the Babylonian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics to the Bronze Age runes were probably not used for administrative tasks. Only priests and dignitaries are expected astronomers have dominated this alphabet. She has been through trials apply only to districts and sacred carved on rocks and major structures. The way to the Berber tribes took the writing, because people have the bronze settled several centuries before the Great Migration in North Africa.


Vikings of the Bronze Age
A single, high culture, which spread over many islands and coastal areas, is not without a well-developed shipping imaginable. Even today, it makes special demands on pilots to maneuver within the dreaded archipelago between Jutland and southern Sweden. The bronze people must have been at sea in their element. Of these, a variety testifies to petroglyphs in the southwestern Swedish Bohuslän coast landscape. Thousands upon them are stylized, represented with high front and stern bearing ships and even entire ship armadas. On some scratches cultic acts are seen on the deck [40].

The slender, up to about 10 m long timber ships could carry from one to two dozen oarsmen and had a fold-down mast. In stark contrast to the types of ships in the Mediterranean were the duck and goose with Steven heads, sometimes decorated with dragon-like heads. A most ingenious invention for the drive into coastal waters was a double, Steven, who at the boat underwater cliffs and spring-trap to protect it from damage.

The bronze as people ventured out onto the high seas. With their lucrative commercial enterprise, they sailed to Britain and Ireland because of the strong tides at a safe distance from the coast. Probably daring expeditions came to North Africa because of some Swedish rock paintings are almost certainly exotic animals like giraffes, ostriches and elephants visible [41]. Already A. Koster, a formidable scholar of ancient seafaring, 1923, the bronze men among the "most experienced sailors of their time."

This assessment is confirmed again by further discoveries of Prof. B. Fell in the 1980s. He pushed namely near Peterborough in Canada on those characters which he had previously found in southern Sweden on petroglyphs. One of the carvings showed him next to the similarity of the writing clearly on the origin of the bold sailors out: "Woden lithium-stor konungr hringriki kweid runa gneidi". This Old Norse text interpreted as fur as "lithium-Wotan, the great king of the ring empire, ordered that should be carved runes" [42]. It further concluded from inscriptions that the ship's crew, loaded with copper from a nearby reservoir, should return after nine-month stay. The home of the sailors was an influential Norwegian landscape north west of the Oslo fjord, which still bears the name "Ringerike" (Ring Empire) [43].

B. Fell dated the clues derived from astronomical time of the expedition BC to 1700. The residents of the North Sea were thus at least since the early second Millennium BC. able to cross the Atlantic routinely. This represents a unique nautical performance that only a millennium later by other nations, the Phoenicians, was repeated [44].

Given these findings, it is not unlikely that the Nordic sailors came also to other areas in the new world and left evidence of their presence. In the Brazilian jungle, the Frenchman Homet discovered some time ago, for example, stone circles, megalithic tombs and dolmens. The similarity of the megalithic monuments in the Amazon with those in Northwest Europe is undeniable [45]. The term "Atlantic" was therefore not unduly derived from the name of legendary island empire.


Beyond the Pillars of Hercules
Plato According ruled the Atlanteans "for many generations," not only on the King Island Basileia and its immediate surroundings, but also about some other European coastal states and islands and even parts of North Africa: "On this island of Atlantis that is was a great and admirable power of kings who ruled the whole island as well as many other islands and parts of the mainland. kings also ruled that even the countries on the inland sea of ​​Libya to Egypt and Europe to Tyrrhenia ". And the later-born twin brother of Atlas, "the outermost part of the island received from the Pillars of Hercules to Gadeirischen country", which was therefore beyond the Straits of Gibraltar.

The territories mentioned all belong to the distribution area of ​​the megalithic cultures during the Neolithic period. It may be presumed with some certainty that even the not mentioned among the kingdoms of this culture. BC since about 5000. moved from Norway to Spain and from Ireland to Germany, people whose religious beliefs and ritual practices are very similar. Especially when they had spread the custom of massive stones to erect large grave and residential facilities. The Megalithleute preferably populated coastal regions and islands of the North Atlantic. Had a fondness for the old master builders round temple made of wood palisade and usually circular, more rarely oval moat and ramparts. These investments reflect their basic blueprint, the "City of Troy" in the center of the island Basileia, which consisted of five concentric rings. A later variant of the Trojan strongholds with labyrinthine corridors is particularly common in southern Sweden to be found.

The following areas can be counted are likely to influence the Atlanteans:

the "kingdom of Atlas": the distribution area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age with the Center Althelgoland; another astronomical center were the Extern Stones in Detmold;
the "kingdom of Gadeiros": southern Spain to the port city of Cadiz (Gades), also Portugal, a southern Spanish town was the center of Los Milarres (from 2900 BC.)
England and Scotland, where there is the greatest concentration of megalithic cult facilities, such centers were Stonehenge (first construction phase from 3100 BC.) And the construction of Avebury
Ireland, the transition chamber grave at Newgrange is the oldest surviving building in the world (3250 BC.)
North West France and areas between the rivers Garonne, Loire and Rhone; (. From 4800 BC) were the centers of rows of stones at Carnac and Stone Age equipment at Gavrinis
North Africa, Atlas Mountains, the Tuareg area (Libya)
Islands of the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, Malta) and the coastal areas of the Tyrrhenian Sea
Atlantic islands off the Straits of Gibraltar (Canary Islands, Madeira)
Central Europe; distribution area of ​​the grave circle systems; BCE 5000th cult built facilities, such as Goseck (Saxony-Anhalt); Kyhna (Saxony); Osterhofen-Schmiedorf (Bayern)


Figure 5:
Click for larger image
The distribution area of ​​the grave circle Megalithbauwerke and plants in the Neolithic period and the area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age around 1500 BC.

The settlement area of ​​Megalithleute extended over a vast territory and was therefore "larger than Libya and Asia minor taken together". It was not through military expansion of a strong core state, but religious beliefs, customs and architecture ideas found in a peaceful way by traders and sailors spread and became the common property of these people.

The megalithic theory has in recent years gained increasing popularity. However, some supporters do not strike the island "Basileia" in the Heligoland Bight, but other places as the main center. H. Tributsch 1986 favored the area around Carnac in Brittany, the Dutchman de Meester, however Stonehenge and its surroundings. One disadvantage of these different ideas, however Spanuth. The former hypothesis can explain not only the destruction of Atlantis and the other as a mirage.

Facts
(With respect to the main island and surrounding area) Azores 1) Crete / Thera Tartessos3) Tunisia
Sch.El Djerid Althelgoland /
NBK / MKn
Main proponent of the theory I. Donnelly S. Marinatos A. Schulten J. P. Borchardt Spanuth
Year of publication 1875 1938 1925 1930 1953
Decline around 9000 BC. no no no no no
Decline in the 14./13. Century BC. no yes / no 2) no no yes
Archaeological finds from the 14./13. Century BC. yes no yes no no
beyond the Straits of Gibraltar yes no yes no yes
Accordance with the position Phäakeninsel Scheria no no no no yes
west and / or north of Sicily (according to Diodorus of Sicily) yes no yes no yes
larger than Libya and Asia Minor together no no no no yes (MKN)
370 * 560 km plateau no no z.T. (Less than) / no yes to Cadiz (Danish / Norddtl.)
high, beautiful mountains in the north of the plain no no yes (Sierra Morena) no yes (Mountains of the norwegian fjords)
Located at the mouth of major rivers no no sometimes (Gua-dalquivir) z.T. (Triton-flow) yes (Weser, Elbe, Eider, ...)
Sea of ​​mud after the fall no no no no yes / Wadden Sea
Population went to war against Egypt, Greece and Asia Minor, no no no sometimes (Libyans against Egyptians) yes (North / Sea Peoples)
Orichalc (Bernstein) available no no no no yes
dignified, fusible copper no no yes yes yes
structures with large ring structure no no no no yes
Elephants no no no yes no


Table 1: The most important theories of Atlantis in comparison [57]
(NBK = area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age, megalithic cultures of the area MKn =)
Note 1) according to the realities around 9000 BC. and 14./13. Century BC.
BC 2) yes, if volcanic eruption in 1220;. No, if Vulkanausbr. BCE 1628th
3) founded by the Phoenicians (= Cadiz) in BC-S Spain, from 1100th BC to 500

[Unfortunately the table did not transfer well. I apologise but I have little choice but to leave it the way it is-DD]

Early astronomers and geodesy
The sea routes between the various cultures, and especially the trips to the remotest islands on average required an early nautical achievements. The people of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were indeed no modern navigation instruments available, but they were excellent observers of nature. They oriented themselves to the sea at the sun during the day and night at the prevailing seasonal constellations [46]. They probably already took advantage of the later common with the Vikings sun compass. With this easy-to-handle navigation device could fairly accurately determine during a particular year-section at any time of day the north [47].

Advantage they made one for thousands of years of accumulated knowledge priest astronomers. Especially the European North has some unusual celestial phenomena that remain denied to the viewer on the latitude of the Mediterranean:

North of the Arctic Circle, the sun over an extended period at or below.
The celestial pole is almost at its zenith. Therefore, only from about 65 ° n.Br. support the idea of ​​the sky and created the giant Atlas, who holds the heavens on his shoulders.
All nearly 19 years is excessive moon positions that are observable at a latitude of about 61 ° from amateur astronomy. This summer, the full moon is at its culmination extremely low over the horizon and touches him (9 or 10 years later, however, the abundant Kulminationshöhe 10 °). Similarly, the winter full moon every 19 years is circumpolar.
The boat ride over long distances is N-/S-gerichtet forcibly on the west coast of Norway, however O-/W-gerichtet preferably in the Mediterranean. The decrease of the latitude of 71 ° in northern Norway to 54 ° at Helgoland can therefore pay more the idea of ​​a spherical earth.
It should not therefore surprising that Diodorus of Sicily on the Atlanteans and their astronomical skills: "Atlas, the first king on the holy island and ancestor of the prevailing gender has a lot of effort and hard work devoted to the knowledge of the stars and with great ingenuity found that the Himmelsbau was a sphere. ... Atlas has captured the movement of heavenly bodies and reveals the man. This was the announcement that he would bear the heavens upon his shoulders. ... As a diligent observer of the stars, he said Much of what happened in the sky ahead. The people he taught to the motion of the solar year, and to determine the months of the moon. " [48].


The astronomical knowledge of Megalith builders was indeed amazing. They knew the exact length of the year, divided them into 16 months each 22 and 23 days and turned their stone circles from under the rising and setting of bright stars transitions. Most notable, however, was their knowledge of the 18.6-year cycle in the sequence of lunar and solar eclipses. These so-called cycle Meton knew the builders of Stonehenge-BC system at least since 1800. Knowledge of a similar length of time for darkness calculation, the Saros is, to the Babylonians until 600 BC. attributed.

Another incentive to intense astronomical activity was created by the transition of our ancestors of the nomadic life to farming. To determine the best time for sowing and harvesting, for the first time the precise knowledge of the annual course of the sun was required. While initially it was enough, the Dawning-places for winter and summer solstice to be marked with simple rows of posts, and later came round sun temples in which they celebrated on certain days of the year festivities. Particularly widespread were astronomically oriented circle grave constructions and multiple timber palisade rings in Central Europe. Moved here from BC 5300th the Linear Pottery, probably the first farmers on the continent. A lasting over several millennia, the preoccupation with celestial events can be detected in central Germany. BCE 5000th grave in the county system was built Goseck, and not far from BC was laid in 1600. a high dignitary of the famous cultural Únětice Sky Disk of Nebra grave.

Admirable also are surveying the ability of these people at such an early time. They maintained in their stone circles and circular grave proportions of certain plants, which resulted in the size and diameter round in their system of measurement metrics. The practical application of the Pythagorean theorem was already familiar to them, such as stone circles in Odry (West Prussia) and Brittany show [49]. There were even arranged prehistoric sanctuaries across great distances in a straight line or a particular angle. While were tracked down in southern England have long been known as ley lines, get Bedal K. and H. Zschweigert similar discoveries several years ago in Upper Franconia and Schleswig-Holstein [50]. The prehistoric surveyors used when erecting their buildings a unified, proven by A. Thom unit, the "Megalithic Yard" (MY) of about 83 cm length [51]. Probably has already been used for longer distances, the unit of measurement used later in Greece "stadium" (approx. 185 m) and the circumference of 216 000 stadia determined [52]. If this amazing knowledge have been actually present, then the measurement is 2000 times the 3000 level has certainly made great stadiums of the people living there himself. Even if one had been over-interpretation of facts is archaeometric never be completely excluded, yet the mathematical and astronomical skills of these people are likely to be higher than envisaged a few decades.


The "Holy Island" Basileia
Archaeologists have long been familiar with some important Neolithic settlements and cult installations of Megalithleute band and ceramist. However, it must also have given a broadcasting center, arranging the interfered in the common life of all ten kingdoms of the Atlanteans. Unlike, for example, the spread of the "Megalithic Yard" in half of Europe can not be explained. Also to Prof. W. Schlosser, the existence and strict adherence to the "megalithic yard" as a basic measure in such a large area of ​​high culture by structuring an almost least in geometry [53]. Atlantis to approve the report also points to this truth, then this "significant" role just have repeatedly highlighted the "Sacred Island" played Basileia. Met here every five or six years, the kings of the widespread community to cult activities and advised of the compliance of all laws.

So far it has not been possible to determine the exact shape of the outer islands. But at least there is evidence for their approximate location. Early on it was realized that not Helgoland today may have been looking for the ancient amber island. According to a study of geology in 1937 by E. Wasmund they could have extended just over the South Beach back in the direction of Eiderstedt. The center of Atlantis was therefore a relatively large contiguous island of Helgoland ranged up to a point where the island was later temporarily separate the "South Beach" was. The information for Basileia derived from Plato's diameter of 127 stadia (23.5 km) appears plausible, because some in the Middle Ages, North Frisian Islands dilapidated originally had a similar size.

A moot point is still the question of the center of the Bronze Age island, where should have been "a low hill on all sides" with the major cult systems. J. Spanuth was always convinced him to have found 50 states east of the dune on the slightly elevated stone base, where his major discoveries were made diving. WPAFischer contrast, takes as its center a second submarine elevation about 11 km from nö on stony ground. Only here was his opinion, enough room for a nearly round, large island with over 10 km radius. This assumption is of course the - 20 m depth contour, which reflects about the Bronze Age coastline. However, have not yet made any underwater discoveries that confirm that the focus exactly on this point, and other researchers will share more SpanUth view.

Similarly, in the detailed description of the "Queen Island" in terms of size and specifications of the equipment attached some buildings doubt. It is for example a 93 m wide and 31 m deep, and reports designed with copper channel. The main temple is said to have once had dimensions of 185 93 m. G. Kehnscherper assumed therefore, that Plato has only generally summarized his knowledge of the peoples living north of the Alps and the island Basileia endowed with only very few "real" blocks. The central City of Troy with a total of five land-and water rings and an outer diameter of 27 stadiums (5 km) would have been his opinion, only the larger-cult system of Stonehenge [54].

click for larger image
Figure 6:
Development of the center of the island Basileia reconstructed, according to the information Plato (dialogue "Critias");


Recent considerations make it likely, however, that gave the Philistines captured the Egyptians but relatively accurate descriptions of the locality. Exhibited in museums reveal some finds from the area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age to amazing details that were previously interpreted satisfactorily. The ornamentation of several nearly 1 m circular shields represents the opinion of H. Zschweigert nothing other than the center of the island Basileia artistically represent [55]. We recognize the land and water rings around the center with the oval island castle hill, the narrow bridges over the locks, the long outer channel to the sea and on some shields and swans, the sacred bird of the Hyperborean.


Figure 7:
One of the 16 found in Sweden "Herzsprung shields" from the Bronze Age with a stylized representation of the center of Basileia (?)
(Photo: H. Zschweigert)


It is significant also that these bronze shields found in Sweden are decorated almost identically to the two from heart leap in the coming Prignitz shields [56]. The so-called heart leap Shields was found not only in the area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age, but also in the British Isles, Central Europe, Spain, Greece and Cyprus. The distribution of these shields is evidence of the national importance and veneration of the main island of Atlantis.

Some up to 12 cm wide, mostly of women supported belt discs also remind her artistic representation at the center of the "pillar and King Island": one with a small spur bearing, slightly raised central area is surrounded by several rings, each second with one wave band was shown. Even when the sun chariot of gold Trundholm is not ideally smooth plate, as expected for a solar representation would be, but decorated with a similar ring and wave patterns.

The "real" components in describing the island certainly includes that the central pillar covered with amber , were sacrificed to the bulls, the warm and cold spring, the "barbaric" looking temple, the sacred grove, several ports and the "merchants' quarter ". Probably even in the supposedly infected with a copper channels designed not properly interpretable information because of an old legend says that Helgoland is said to have once been on the stone base an immensely rich city with copper channels.

Plant construction area
BC. Outside Ø
Number of rings in m Features / Remarks
Basileia / Althelgoland German Bight from 5000 1) 4995
(27 stages) 5 3 2 land and water rings;
Temple e.g. Shrines in the center
Avebury Southern England 2700 427 1 + 2 with two smaller inner rings (stone circles);
largest remaining investment
Birkendegaard Zealand / DK 1000 (?) 320 with three stone pillars (like Stonehenge)
Kyhna Saxony 5500 150 4 3 doors
Stonehenge, southern England 3100 /
from 2600 104 /
30 embankment
4 2) preserved stone circles, drawn up in a horseshoe shape Trilith 5
Quenstedt Sat-Anhalt 2200 95 5 5 wooden palisade rings, 3 goals
O. Schmiedorf Bavaria 4800 75 3 2 Goals
Goseck 5000 74 2 Saxony-Anhalt earliest astronomical alignment system with proven, 3 goals
Table 2: The grave circle at Basileia system compared to other major facilities in Europe, Note 1) According to Plato, was the first Stage (no locks and channels) "before the start of navigation"
2) stone circles z.T. not fully closed
Der Untergang
The relatively peaceful, free from major wars period came from the middle of the 13th Century BC. by an incipient drought period and the subsequent exodus of the early Urnfield people over. BC when the first immigration wave between 1230 and 1220. Greece reached, occurred on the North Sea coast is a terrible natural disaster. In this as early as 1844 the Danish researcher E. and Forchhammer 1910, the German geologist D. Wildvang drew attention. They reconstructed a minimum of 20 m high tsunami, which was thus three times higher than the worst storm surges, which we know from the past centuries. Several surf walls were erected on the coasts, and a gravel layer of 100 Danish square miles (5,000 square km) covered the interior. In addition to the destruction of the main island of amber-Althelgoland Altsüdstrand and many fertile marshes, the entire west coast of Schleswig-Holstein has been moved to about 60 km to the east [58].

The center of Atlantis sank "in a day and a night of dreadful horror." It is likely that this extreme North Sea storm surge caused by the impact of an asteroid in "Helgoland Hole" 4 km south of the rocky island. The ancient Greek legend of the fall of Phaethon, which was the Roman poet Ovid in his "Metamorphoses," processed, reports a "ball of fire" which had fallen into the mouth of the river Eridanus Amber [59].

Presumably, the 56 m deep "Helgoland Hole" is a now covered with sediments of submarine impact craters. But there are other indications of an impact event. After the impact seemed ancient lore has not the sun for a day, and the raging fires were unbearably long time for people. Also, a continuous fire horizon in the peatlands of the North German Plain confirms a comprehensive disaster around 1200 BC. There should be an hurricane storm have raged since the force as a steadfast countless oaks were uprooted. Archeologists found charred remains of trees in Schleswig-Holstein and in Emsland [60]. Finally, tell the Old Icelandic "Edden" of a three-year Fimbulwinter after "Ragnarok", the world in the mythology of the ancient Teutons.

Before the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, then spread the still obstructing any waterway from the Wadden Sea. "The immense masses of sludge, the accumulated sinking the island" to find such a clear explanation. By the terrible disaster, was the so-called Lundene Spit, which blocked the old river near the present mouth of the Eider. Therefore, a journey into the "beyond the sea" from now on impossible.

Atlantis will be lost in a time of "terrible earthquake." This aspect could also prove a scientist. At the end of the 13th Century BC. It came almost simultaneously with the eruption of volcanoes in the Mediterranean, a series of earthquakes in the Middle East and the "flood of Deucalion," struck the coasts of Greece. Even in geologically quiet North Sea area caused the felling of Phaethon, according to tradition from an earthquake, because the mouth of the Eridanus, "the earth shook and sank a little deeper," [61].

The Plato so vividly described the life of the people should bronze after the floods and the ongoing climate deterioration no longer continue on this cultural level. Then in the field of Nordic Bronze Age remaining population was instrumental in the emergence of Germanic tribes.

In the first centuries of the Iron Age of the North Sea sea level lowered due to the general slowdown and other factors. In the Helgoland Bight gradually reappeared numerous islands. Your continuous settlement since at least the fourth Century BC. to 14 Century testify to ancient and medieval chronicles, travelogues:

In Aethiopica, an ancient Greek epic, the message is recorded that at the point where Atlantis once stood, were settled later in seven small and three large islands. The residents had inherited from their ancestors, the memory of Atlantis preserved [62].
Mentioned 23 "electrides" and a capital Amber Island "Basileia" (in the Celtic "Abalus" = Apple Island) in connection with a voyage of Pytheas the Greek explorer from Massilia. He arrived around 350 BC. among other things, to the Elbe estuary.
In 16, a commander of Germanicus led naval expedition near the Jutland peninsula fell into distress. The Roman legionaries entered the so-called because of Bernstein's Island "glaesaria".
The bishop and chronicler Adam of Bremen, according to Helgoland was in the 11th Century has a footprint of 12 by 6 km a. In one of the many floods in the late Middle Ages, the eastern area separated and formed the now independent island "south beach". This was very probably during the "Great Manndränke" in 1362 under. On a map of Husum Watts John Mejer cartographers from 1652 is the original location of the medieval Islands "Helgolandt" and "Suderstrand" still clearly visible.
New Year's Eve 1720/21, the rocky island was separated by a storm surge of the "Dune". Both parts together today to take up an area of ​​about 2 square kilometers, which is about 1 / 200 of the probable size of the Bronze Age "King's Island and columns" Basileia.
click for larger image
Figure 8:
The medieval Helgoland on a map of Husum cartographers Johannes Mejer (outline around the year 800; gray area: around the year 1300; small island 1649)


The heavily subscribed in the last war, but after 1952, newly constructed offshore island attracts many visitors again. A view from the top country in the direction of dune can hardly even the thought of one of the most important commercial and religious centers pay the Bronze Age. The only reminder of just the name "Heligoland" is - Holy Land - has remained.

Since Plato's time the legend of Atlantis inspired human imagination and scientific curiosity. The archaeological discoveries of the last century eventually brought the key findings, the researcher Jürgen Spanuth could be summed up in a scientifically sound theory. The solution to the old riddle surprisingly led to our own, surprisingly sophisticated ancestors and their European neighbors. The valuable historical traditions about the early Atlanteans, and Phaeacians Hyperboreans will help to understand the lifestyle of these people better.


The large level

[64] researchers have always tried to find the legendary island kingdom and to clarify the question, where could have spread the great plain of Atlantis. The plain was said to be of approximately rectangular shape and have measured 2000 times 3000 stadia (about 370 times 555 km) [65]. At its edge, the island would Basileia with the surrounding land and water rings, and cult center located in the north were mountains "in number, size and grace surpassed all others." Atlantis a good theory should be able to interpret these not insignificant geographical details make sense.

Looking at the major hypotheses suggest more closely then the previous explanations were more or less unsatisfactory. In the past frequently discussed Thera-/Kreta-Theorie has none of the two islands is a similarity in size and shape of the surface. Also, the levels in the south of England, North West France and the southern Spanish port city Gadiz have been considered, but they differ significantly from the rectangular shape, or are too small. Better to have met the ideas of the French engineer J. Deruelle. In his interpretation, the level reached in the Neolithic of the Netherlands to the Dogger Bank. But here is missing the explicitly mentioned in the mountains north.

Even the otherwise very convincing theory of J. Spanuth previously agreed on this point do not match as expected. The spread area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age was the most part flat, but the required longitudinal extent of 3000 stadia is exceeded in both a NS orientation of the rectangle (Southern Norway to Northern Germany) and in an EW orientation (Weser estuary to the island of Gotland) by a third. In addition, the plane through the Skagerrak and the western Baltic Sea would have been interrupted by larger areas of water [66].

Came with a startling solution to the problem in 2004 and a retired school teacher H.-W. Rathjen from Minden to the public. He left with his approach out of hand off the areas of southern Scandinavia, with its "surrounding mountains" and bordered by a continuous layer on the former Northern Germany, the peninsula of Jutland and the Danish islands. In terms of land and water distribution at the end of the Bronze Age, he recognized one by 20 ° from the NS direction deviant rectangle with a very good agreement with the dimensions: Skaw at the northern tip of Denmark is the Oder estuary near Szczecin actually removed 3000 stadiums, and the distance between Helgoland and the Sound is quite exactly 2000 stages (Fig. 9).

As a rectangular border within Germany takes H.-W. Rathjen the southern extension of the Nordic Bronze Age, including the so-called group Stade, Lüneburg and Allermündungs ​​group at [67]. The Atlanteans have obviously the whole mostly flat land north of the Weser mountain country up to or considered their habitat. The southern corner of the plane, which, like the East point not geographically exposed position can therefore be assumed in Minden, now the junction of the Weser and the Mittelland Canal. The measured accurately from the north south corner is theoretical however, near the Externsteine ​​in Teutoburg Forest. Perhaps the bronze people were even aware of this chance, because the towering rock formation was in prehistoric times as an astronomical observation site, and possibly also used as a locating point.

Figure 9:
By H.-W. Rathjen reconstructed great plain of Atlantis


The "realm of Atlas" also included parts of the country of Norway, Sweden and Germany, but only Denmark was completely within the former Great Plains. This almost completely flat land lost in the last 7,000 years, more than half of its original territory by storm surges and other natural catastrophes [68]. Today, the area of ​​water between Jutland, Ruegen and southern Sweden, but is predominant in the 13th Century BC., Immediately before the collapse of the central areas of Atlantis, were the major Danish islands of Zealand, Funen, Lolland and Falster separated by noticeably narrower Belts. Many currently existing islands were linked with each other or with the mainland. Also the west coast of Jutland lined lot now sunken islands. A Bronze Age would have been better map the outer contours of the approximately rectangular lowlands emphasized. Yet it was clear at the beginning of the Neolithic period around BC 5000th forth. Here the mainland Jutland Bank perfected as the NW tip of the rectangle, and the Danish Baltic Sea island of Ruegen were mostly closed to the Skaw a land area [69].

The deviation from the idealized plane by 20 ° from the north on its eastern side is still clearly visible. Not only the southwest coast of the former Swedish Kattegat has this much narrower focus, but also the imaginary extension to the Oder estuary. The west side of the plane, however, was still in 5th Jts. BC. by a powerful current is limited, which was formed by the confluence of the river Weser, Elbe and Eider northwest of Helgoland. The mean direction of this "primal-Weser" from Minden to the former estuary between Jutland and Dogger Bank was approximately parallel to the east side of the plane and is still using the 25 m - (Fig. 10) Deep Sea traceable line of [ 70]. larger image
Figure 10:
Southern North Sea in the 7th Jts. BC. Fixed country (gray) and still complete the "Great Plain" (rectangle)


The generally very flat North German and Danish lowland is interrupted by only a few surveys, the Helpter Ostmecklenburg reach the highest mountains in less than 180 m. The landscape of this level was marked by many lakes, small rivers, fjords and sounds. The great wealth of aquatic offered people on the coasts and in inland favorable conditions for settling. The bronze people apparently lived in a certain wealth, as in Plato's description of the involved level hills had "... many of the surrounding villages and rich rivers, lakes and meadows to sufficient food for all wild and tame cattle ...".

Were with the "revolving mountains" outside of the plane certainly in the south of the German low mountain range, in Sweden, the gently undulating woodland landscape of Småland and in the north, the snow-capped, meaning about 2000 m high peaks of the Norwegian fjord landscape, which the Atlanteans praised for their unique beauty.


Canal builder between the North and Baltic Seas
The shipping provided as early as the Neolithic period, but more so in the Bronze Age, the most important mode of transport over long distances, it dar. is therefore not surprising that the bronze men, the existing waterways expansions yet and some rivers through canals and locks associated [71]. Atlantis is in the report of several "gaps", ie the speech canals, including a "Super Channel" with 31 stages and 10,000 m depth (1850 km) long, is said to have surrounded the whole plane [72]. Plato himself doubted this incredible information, but yet again they were paying close faithful. With the discovery of H.-W. Rathjen can now interpret this important detail makes sense. Of course there was never a channel of this length, but the informant among the Philistines migrated from the north wanted to express clearly that a ship could completely bypass the large part on natural water level and partly to artificial channels.

A Bronze Age ship's crew were also at the former shoreline easily passes from the mouth of the Oder by the Öresund, the Kattegat, would Denmark sailed through the Skagerrak and would be along the islands off the west coast of Jutland to the middle reaches of the Weser sailed. Today it would be from the Midland Minden channel, the Elbe-Havel canal and the Oder-Havel canal, in order to actually be around 1850 km long border shipping route back into the Oder. Bronze Age, a continuous channel system is still questioned by most archaeologists, but the historian K. Goldmann takes this very elaborate system of waterways from the Vistula to the Rhine, already for the Bronze Age [71].

The significance of the Atlanteans and the entire Umschiffbarkeit the external shape of the plane when eating is evident from a previously misunderstood remark. What "missing the square," wrote Plato, "they made up for with a ditch dug around it." The bronze people obviously felt it as a disadvantage that existed on the southern edge of the plane and thus at the limit of their scope of power from west to east running no navigable river. To remedy this deficiency, therefore they laid on a channel. Certainly we moved here to reduce the high workload as many rivers and lakes between Weser and Oder with one.

A kind of Kiel Canal to the Bronze Age was the eider-loop path. He joined the North Sea area close to the cult and commercial metropolis Althelgoland / Altsüdstrand directly with the Baltic and divided the plane into two approximately equal halves. The Bronze Age history of the eider Treene, the Rheide Au was added to the dismantling most likely in Schleswig by a canal and lock system to ensure a continuous connection to the "beyond sea" to produce.

This has in the southwest of the plane lying between the rivers Weser and Leine Steinhude certainly also played an important role in transport geography. It was also - just like Heligoland - a bird sanctuary and a hub of flying birds in Central Europe.

The construction of canals, sluices and dikes required organizational skills, technical engineering knowledge and mathematical knowledge, but he promoted the same time. The constant struggle against ocean tides and loss of land shaped the people and Bronze forced them to high-quality collaborative work. This seems to be the core of Atlantean Empire over the centuries mentioned in Plato introduced the leadership role among the ten kingdoms, and accelerates the development of an orderly state system to have. In organizing the construction and public life apparently geometric considerations also played a major role. The cross channels that connected the main water lines were not created randomly, but were declared to stages far from each other 100. Furthermore, had to ask a 10 by 10 stages of large district in the event of war, a specific, well-defined military contingent.

In light of recent findings by clarifying the most likely to another puzzle of the history of Schleswig-Holstein. H. 1997 Zschweigert made aware of an earlier discovery by G. Carstens, that prehistoric cult facilities have been created along an imaginary rectangular grid [73]. Understand it was only the 20 ° deviation of the lines from the northern direction (exactly 341 ° azimuth), which neither astronomical nor otherwise made sense. The relationship is only now apparent: the prehistoric surveyors and architects were obviously trying to roads and connecting lines between major buildings and places of worship to align parallel to the outer sides of the idealized large plane. Because like it was never previously observed in other populations, this performance earned the bronze people and their ancestors similarly recognized organization such as the construction of the pyramids in Egypt.

Figure 11:
click for larger image
The area of ​​the Atlantis today (NASA image)
Geodesy 5,000 years ago?
The specific size specifications for Plato's Atlantis level and their good agreement with reality can be explained only by an actual survey made. You must have occurred very early, perhaps in the 5th or 4 Jts. BC. when Heligoland was still connected to the mainland and "Ur-Denmark" had a mostly contiguous land area. Starting point and direction of measurement can be taken even in a case of the Atlantis legend "from the sea inland, wide middle stages of 2000" means nothing else than the worship center Althelgoland out across the plain to the Sound. The zero point of the measurement was certainly a point near the middle or even the most holy place on this island, adorned with amber big world pillar in the center of the hill [74].

But why was chosen as the length unit for measuring land just 185 meters and not a hundred times or a thousand times the Megalithic Yards (83 cm)? Presumably, the preference of the old people and small whole "round" numbers was crucial for it. They searched for a "holy", the naturally occurring distance with a high symbolic importance, and found them in the width of the smallest ring on Althelgoland water. He surrounded the central worship area of ​​the island and had Basileia Plato that "a stadium wide". The other land and water had the rings twice and three times the width, the diameter of the innermost central island was 5 stages, the channel length is comprised almost to the sea "round" 50 stages and 2,000 times the level of 3000 stadia. A "perfect" unit was then found with a stadium of 185 m length. The local conditions at Althelgoland could be grown in this way "measure" essential to the oldest of length to land surveying in ancient Europe [75].

Sometime after surveying the plane was safely on the priest astronomers or the prehistoric mariners, the desire, the size of the entire northern hemisphere to find out. There is evidence that this ambitious project was really tackled, and before long Eratosthenes, the first unnamed geodesy. H. Zschweigert been referring to this strange, difficult to understand passages in the Edden what Valhalla and Thor's palace in 540 sections divided Bilskirnir are. Perhaps therefore the length of the earth's quadrant is meant when a section is a measure of length of 100 stadia used. 54 000 stages total length (about 9990 km) do in fact very little of the reality from [76].

A practical method for triangulation for surveying in the northern latitudes and with simple tools consisted of measuring the elevation angle at the former North Star. She had to take place at two different locations that were reasonably accurate on a meridian and as far away from each other were. The inhabitants of the great plain had a good basis for such a task. May have been in the canal and dyke farmers the necessary angle measuring instruments already in use. A sufficiently long time and because of the flat land good ausmessbare NS-directed segment they could close the 10th eastern longitude have been found. Today's port city of Jutland Hirtshals is located in the south of Celle 3000 stadiums. On this length varies for an observer to the celestial north pole of the elevation angle of 5 °, an eight-tenths of the right angle. From this relationship could easily be calculated the length of the earth's quadrant of 54,000 stadia [77].

Thanks to the precession of the axis of rotation of the planet can be determined a likely date for the prehistoric geodesy. Only rarely was in fact the last few millennia, a sufficiently bright star very close to the north celestial pole. Today's North Star at this point in the long run is the exception. Prior to fulfill the somewhat weaker Thuban in the constellation Draco function as an exact north-Weiser, BC, namely 3000-2650. [78]. One must trust the people of this era certainly, to have produced a "Eratosthenes of the Neolithic period," precisely because the European North offered - as already mentioned - creating favorable conditions for astronomical discoveries and the discovery of the sphericity of the earth.

Although some of these ideas are still speculative, but there are several indications for an intensive study of land surveying and the early use of the unit of length "stadium". H. Zschweigert found in recent years, many "accidents" out. So there are a number of Schleswig-Holstein Land and field names with respect to these activities as "red herring", "Red Meuse", "Holm angle" etc., which are moreover in a geometrical relationship to each other. Not least, it could be a connection between the term "stadium" with "Stade / shore" and an accumulation of the place names on "stade" in the Elbe-Weser triangle-type [79].

Recent research on high level have enriched the half a century ago, first published theory of Jürgen Spanuth in one important respect. Several details of Plato's Atlantis legend have now become more understandable. Future archaeological discoveries are valuable for further interpretation of this tradition from the Bronze Age to contribute and complement the image of a sophisticated prehistoric culture in northern Central Europe.


The Bronze Age metropolis Althelgoland
[80] It was after the common view of history is not necessarily to be expected, that can be found far from the famous Mediterranean cultures, evidence of high-tribes "beyond the Pillars of Hercules". Meanwhile, evidence such discoveries as the "Sky Disc of Nebra", the early Neolithic circular grave installations in central Germany and finds in the German Wadden Sea from Mycenaean-Minoan times of a remarkable civilization, as it was a hundred years not held in this region possible. But to understand why exactly was in the field of Heligoland Bight, develop a significant cult and commercial center of ancient times, one must look back far into the past.

When Europe after the last ice age warmed again, this also had a profound impact on the land and water distribution between Great Britain and Scandinavia. The southern boundary of the North Sea was about 9000 years between Scotland and Northern Jutland (Fig. 10). South of it at that time was dry land, and the area around Helgoland was located 300 km from the coast. Yet even then it had a privileged position. In the middle of the flat landscape of brown and rose abruptly red sandstone cliffs, beside the equally high, gleaming white "Witte Klyppe" chalk and plaster and a black impregnated with carbonate of copper, blue-colored rocks. Geologically interesting formations such individual has always attracted the people to be religious purposes, as evidenced, for example, the Extern Stones in Detmold and Ayers Rock in Australia.

As a consequence of the gradual discharge of the Scandinavian peninsula from the ice surface area decreased continuously from the southern North Sea, following extreme natural disasters sometimes abruptly [81]. The sea gradually devoured the mainland areas between Denmark and England until around 2000 BC, just west remained an island chain of the Jutland peninsula remains. The North Sea had now spread to the north to a line of Helgoland, which had meanwhile become the island itself. Their location in the southeastern corner of the Atlantic rim sea had now become more favorable, because the far-inland-bearing rivers Elbe and Weser and the springing near the Baltic coast Eider were of great benefit to the emerging during the Bronze Age Europe trade in valuable goods (Fig. 2 ) [87].

"Most of the demands of life, but the island was itself". This remark is certainly true of Plato no longer applies to today's Heligoland, but they are quite closely reflect the natural conditions in the Bronze Age. The most fertile marshland stretching east of the rock group, about 20 km far in the direction Eiderstedt. The optimum climate in the Bronze Age brought forth the warmest period after the Ice Age. The fields were irrigated according to tradition and allowed two crops a year. There were probably created apple orchards, because in various Greek legends, which refer to this region, apples play a role. Also referred to the Celts in the meantime to take this opportunity once again surfaced as an island "Abalus", the "apple island" [82].

In addition, there were two Althelgoland raw materials, both of which could be worth its weight in gold. First, it was mainly found on this island amber that was estimated in Europe and has been exported to the Bronze Age to Egypt. Furthermore, we used the copper minerals found on the island from about 4000 BC for the first production of metallic commodities in this region. The Helgoland copper ore is characterized especially by its high arsenic content. The copper was therefore derived without admixture of tin so hard that it is well suited for the production of weapons. A local specialty made it easier the Islanders the exceptionally ore. The Rohkupfererz had not broken down troublesome underground, as in many other reservoirs, but it was due to the inclination of the geological layers of time on the western top of the sandstone cliff and also "in the interior of the island" near the ground to light [83].

The presence of large amounts of amber and copper minerals and the favorable geographical location were therefore crucial to ensuring that the commerce and trade could develop very well and the tribal leaders on Althelgoland over the centuries gained unimaginable wealth. Plato describes with orichalc, gold and silver ornamented buildings and objects in the innermost holy place very vividly, including for example, a huge rectangular temple, more-than-life statues of the gods, the world pillar and a statue of Poseidon. Even the ancient Greek poet Homer in his praise-singing Phaeacians Alcinous' palace, "the shine over all" [84]. To get an approximate idea of ​​the glory and wealth to do some building, only to be reborn now the Amber Room in Pushkin (near St. Petersburg) recalls.

On the 400-acre island Althelgoland after rough estimate could tens of thousands of residents have lived. For Bronze Age ratios corresponded to a major city [85]. Very clearly at the Atlantis report the conditions in the bustling commercial metropolis are told: "All these things (ie the outer ring of water; author's note) was surrounded by densely packed houses, the Seezufahrt and the largest port teemed with ships and merchants from all places flocked together there and by their mass occurrences during the day and at night screaming, commotion and noise caused by various kinds "[86].

A final, the urban lifestyle among trending detail, it should be noted. A springing on the island of cold and a hot spring is used to build for the well being of the inhabitants of several bathing establishments, partly outdoors, partly "in covered areas" for the winter. This luxury was not reserved only for kings, but there were also separate baths for the subjects and for women.

The cult and commercial center Althelgoland once was - the witness to the traditions - in the whole North Sea region and known far beyond. The latest in the Bronze Age, the news reached this exceptional island to the Mediterranean countries [87]. Lying on her city may have had in those centuries a similar appearance as ancient Rome around the turn of time.


The Bridges of Basileia
Unfortunately, from a geological and archaeological point of view very little about the actual appearance of the Bronze Age the island and the buildings thereon known. At the J. Spanuth in the 1950s led diving expeditions were discovered on the stone base 10 km north-east of the dune after all hinges on stones, parallel stone walls, cobblestone streets and grooved tiles. It was given the poor conditions in the North Sea more than expected. A realistic reconstruction of Althelgoland was the then state of the art, however, not possible and will be difficult in the future. So there was still a mystery, as well coincides with the reality of Plato's tradition 3,300 years ago. But there is this new and startling insights.

The Greek philosopher, described "Basileia", the city and island of Poseidon, very detailed, but some of his statements seem so implausible that they were even called into question by proponents of Atlantis. It concerns mainly the description of a gigantic system of concentric rings of land and water around the innermost area of ​​worship, the holiest part of Basileia. The outer and largest ring of water will be three stages (555 m) wide and have an outer diameter of 27 stadiums (5 miles) have had. From there, a three Phlethren (93 m) wide, 100 feet deep and about 9 km long channel which have connected to the open sea. The view of the prehistorian G. Kehnscherper seemed to be justified, therefore, that these investments do not really exist, but their description only vague ideas of the residents of Mediterranean plants in the north circular, especially about the Stonehenge shrine, were based on [88].

Hollingstedt the private researcher Hermann Zschweigert However a few years ago a discovery succeeded, according to which these concentric ring water, canals, locks and bridges on this island, but very likely did, even if the sizes are not checked for the time being. The basic premise has long been known that Bronze Age ceremonial shields of the type "heart leap" were. Their names were given in 1844, discovered by a farmer, about 70 cm specimens after its discovery site in the Ostprignitz (NW-Brandenburg). Most ceremonial shields of this type have since been found in the circulation area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age, the others scattered elsewhere in Europe. Your unique ornamentation, the archaeologists could previously not be interpreted satisfactorily, and so they called, for example, the two small semi-circular strips as "half-moon", "crescent-shaped horns" or "u-shaped curves" (Fig. 7 and 12).


Figure 12 a - d:
Herzsprung shields; pair of Hertzsprungen (a), from Denmark and southern Sweden (d)


Zschweigert than H. 2004 evaluates the photo of a heart jump-shield, which he had made during a visit to the Museum Vitlycke in Tanum (south), he recognized at once the importance of unusual patterns: it is here to stylized representations of important buildings Basileia the island [89]. The similarities with Plato's tradition are striking indeed. The two outer, slightly oval concentric strips corresponded to the reality revealed in the circumscribed by two rural water rings rings, and the semi-circular "half-moon" do not necessarily reflect the arched bridges spanning the inner connection channels. Developed with this initial knowledge is then also the other features of the Bronze Age complex: the sea leading wide and long channel was presented as a triple hump series, with orichalc paneled walls around the less than 1 km wide central island circular as another bar. Also for the unusual in other ways shield large hump in the middle there was a meaningful counterpart in reality it should represent the lower castle hill in the middle of Basileia.

With the help of further details on the shields can be Althelgolands complete the look of mosaic. The innermost ring is not completely closed. Probably the enclosure was at this point for a pier or harbor entrance interrupted directly by the sacred precincts. The tidal effect could be neglected in the inner ring of water, because the two narrow channels were using "gates and towers," that is equipped locks. The interpretation as a wall opening is supported by the fact that has been provided for some in the National Museum in Copenhagen issued Herzsprung shields the raised central circular area with a circular recess, which apparently is located behind a sheltered harbor bay (Fig. 12c). In the middle of a very broad outer channel buoys could turn a row, a mole or something like that have been represented by the middle one of three approximately radially running back ranks.


Detail of Figure 12 d was finally in some heart jump outside shields still represented an ongoing cycle of waterfowl (Fig. 12d). The Hyperboreans Saying mention in this regard is an island "Elektris" or "Helixoia" in the "Northern Ocean" at the mouth of the river Eridanus amber, it should have been on a pond with swans sacred [90].
Sometimes the heart leap shields were also found in pairs, and the simple sign-designed were the only two land bridges the two rings with stylized play. These long-span structures, the sailors apparently most impressed when they drove along the canals and straight forward set up on a hill looked magnificent Royal Palace [91].

Several striking details of the island structure can be so unusual in the ornamentation of the heart leap shields seen again. In other words, the decorations on these ceremonial shields can be interpreted as more or less detailed "map" of Althelgoland. Once again, this discovery points to the location to the core area of ​​Atlantis.

In the art of Nordic Bronze Age, but still we come to other objects, most likely reflect the well-known center schematic. The concentric circular rings, which are to represent the pattern with alternating rings of land and water, are very frequent. The small of the "jewelers bronze" with high precision strips produced from double spirals and circles symbolize the water rings. They can be found for example on both sides of the solar disc of Trundholm car and many other art objects. For the fashion-conscious women were gilded, with the ring decorated very popular motif belt discs, which have a spike in the center (Fig. 13). He was probably greatly simplifies the set-coated orichalc World column on the castle hill dar. As for Christianity, the cross the symbol of their religion, the concentric ring pattern gained a special appreciation for the bronze people. It took pride in the center of their cultural expression (Fig. 15).



Figure 13 a - c:
Belt pulley with pin and ring motif with stylized waves
(Girl with belt pulley, overview and detail of the disk center)










A stronghold of the old European Astronomy
When the first archaeologists thought the sky disc of Nebra in their hands, they were very surprised. Such a complex astronomical knowledge had been credited not the Bronze Age cultures in Central Europe to date. Maybe it would be amazing on the knowledge of our ancestors had not been so surprised if you had given the early historical traditions more faith. The Greek historian Diodorus of Sicily (1st century BC) described namely the astronomical knowledge of the Atlanteans, as follows: "Atlas, the first king on the holy island and ancestor of living there, sex has a lot of effort and diligence on the knowledge used the stars and with great sagacity found that the Himmelsbau was a sphere. Atlas ... has captured the movement of heavenly bodies and reveals the man. Thus arose the legend that he would bear the heavens on his shoulders ... "[92].


Diodorus also mentioned an "island in the Northern Ocean" at the Hyperboreans, should have found themselves on a building "in the schema of the spheres". The Archäoastronomen thought it immediately to the sanctuary of Stonehenge in Britain. But this could thus not be meant, because that Hyperboreerland was stated by ancient writers, from a British perspective "towards Asia" [93]. To ensure that only an island off the west coast comes Schleswig-Holstein or Jutland in question before. With the additional position description "in the mouth of the river Eridanus amber" which in turn applies only to Althelgoland. It is therefore obvious that there was on this island in ancient times a similar, perhaps even more astronomical and ritual system.

The real importance of this often called "circular" structure described tapped but only J. Spanuth. He put the property "in the schema of the Spheres" ("sphairoeide to schematic") literally, and said, here it could only be a construction modeled on the imaginary celestial spheres act [94]. This important, but not then thought is provable in the light of new evidence an unexpected confirmation. Such a stamp might in fact a "world model" have been reflecting the contemporary understanding of the structure of the planetary system. In this temple would, therefore, if this assumption is true, have been placed in the middle of a model of the globe, surrounded by seven concentric circles in a certain sequence according to the distance between the spheres for the moon, sun and five planets visible with the naked eye.

There was little hope to obtain a material reference to this plant, but in the search for distinctively designed bronze shields, the author was an unexpected find. In a showcase of the National Museum in Copenhagen hung a copy, which differed greatly from the usual ornaments and corresponded exactly to the theoretically expected figure of "spheres of the temple." In the middle was a lofty, vaulted circular area that will certainly represent the simplified earth model in the form of a dome or hemisphere, surrounded by 7 exactly circular strips (Fig. 14) [95]. In between there were also six concentrically arranged rows of humps. As the number of humps in each circuit 42-112 strictly increasing in 14mm increments, were the real diameter of the "spheres" of the temple secure harmonious conditions have been chosen. The hump may represent a circle drawn up post, which in turn supported a roof, similar to the former Woodhenge plant in the county of Wiltshire in southern England. The outer diameter of the entire system to Althelgoland may well have amounted to 80 m [96].


Figure 14:
Bronze plaque with "spheres" ornamentation
(Photo: National Museum, Copenhagen) [97]


Part patterns on the shields of the North-heart leap. Bronze Age building / landscape Althelgoland (or "Basileia", the center of Atlantis) source of the tradition
Two concentric circular strips, interrupted by two semi-circular strips, the two small circular mounds high on the inner and outer ring land, each with an arched bridge over the two inner channels of Plato;
Dialogue "Critias" 115e and 116a
inner circle bar with a small interruption of the perimeter wall with center island opening to the harbor wall only: Plato;
"Critias" 116a
round recess in the raised central circular area with a narrow entrance innermost port on the edge of the central island (opposite inner channel) Plato;
"Critias" 115d (?)
raised oval center surface or innermost circle oval bar lower (oval?) castle hill on the center island of Plato;
"Critias" 113c
side leading to the outside two or three times the number of humpback wide and long outer channel to the North Sea (possibly with a buoy or similar series in the middle) Plato;
"Critias" 115d
revolving circle with waterfowl pond (lake) with whooper swans Hyperboreans Saying to the island Helixoia
One or more circular rows of hump-scale circular rows of fruit trees, Plato (?);
"Critias" 115b
7 concentric circular plates with a domed circular central area 1) circular temple "in the schema of the spheres"; (circular temple as a model of a geocentric planetary system) Diodorus of Sicily, II, 47; (after Hekataeus, 6th century BC).
Spine on the raised center surface of a belt pulley 1) World column (similar to a Germanic Irminsul) in the center of Middle Island on the castle hill Plato;
"Critias" 119c-d
3 (or 4) concentric circular rings with stylized waves 1) 3 water concentric rings (ring ports) around the central island of Plato;
"Critias" 115e
Table 3: The ornamentation of the heart jump-shields and their association with buildings and landscape on the island of Althelgoland / Basileia Note 1) does not exist on cardiac jump-shields, but on the other circular objects of art



click for larger image
Figure 15:
Center of the island Basileia according to Plato,
supplemented by information from the heart jump-shields (see Figure 6)


The preference of the resident on the island chiefs for astronomy can be understood if one draws parallels to other eras and cultures. In the succession of powerful rulers and important, there were always some who promoted the sciences in particular. The astronomy and astrology was often a preferred position because they believed the course of the stars from one's own destiny and foresee the whole of the empire to. Priests with these special skills have always been respected and were very influential. It would therefore be no doubt that the kings of this cult-regional trade center and as good astronomers and other scientists have brought to their court [98].

The leading role Althelgolands as legislative and science center can be derived from the fact that Plato's Tradition has met the ten kings of the entire cultural sector of the Atlanteans in every five to six years Basileia and discussed among other things, on compliance with the law. It is easy to imagine that the Bronze Age scholars of widespread community here occasionally met to share their latest knowledge.

Certainly over the centuries, in addition to the "spheres Temple" built in other astronomical equipment, especially to carry out precise observations. Moreover, Diodorus gives a peculiar remark prompted a further speculation: of the Hyperborean island is from "the moon appeared to be at a slight distance from the earth, and surveys show quite clearly visible as on Earth" [99]. Did the Bronze Age astronomers even simple visual observation aids? Conceivable that already is, because by Bernstein (Latin for "glass area") of the bronze could have been inspired people to experiment with different materials and have developed some magnifying glasses. The over two thousand years later, people living here, the Vikings used incidentally polished crystals, whose polished face lit up when she turned toward the sun on cloudy days. This so-called "solar stone" was a useful tool for navigation at sea [100].

The best astrologers on Althelgoland should have passed even as teachers on their knowledge to other nations. Greek traditions report that "Atlas, who was born on Basileia and there was the first king, has applied the doctrine of the spheres and a sanctuary built in the scheme of spheres. ... Hercules has spread the teachings of the spherical shape of the sky among the Greeks, which he had learned of the Atlas Hyperboreerland "[101].


To the amicable relations between the two distant countries reminds also of note that the god Apollo, every 19 years on a swan car off the island in the north to Delphi and Delos, said to have come. The early Greek scientist Thales of Miletus and Pythagoras, who were also excellent astronomers could probably still fall back on old, traditional knowledge of the Bronze Age to develop and build new ideas. The world model "in the schema of the spheres" in any case had to Copernicus' time on hand and had only soft after modern ideas.

It will be exciting new discoveries for future explorations of the North Sea ground. Perhaps even the discovery of an archaeologically valuable single piece succeeds like the Nebra disc. Even more spectacular the detection of concentric rings of land and water would be using modern geophysical methods, because it at the location of Atlantis center near Helgoland no doubt [102].


Summary

Plato's Atlantis legend can be regarded as largely unraveled. Despite many new hypotheses in the second half of the 20th Century were set up, is still the only theory of Jürgen Spanuth valid in its main statements. You can tell the only satisfactory including the expedition of the Atlanteans against the then powerful countries of the eastern Mediterranean region. The following findings are expected in the current state of knowledge of the truth to come [63]:

All events associated with the destruction of Atlantis occurred in relation to BC around 1200. (1250 - 1150 BC)..
Plato's insistence that he had received the information (via intermediaries) of Solon, and this in turn by Egyptian priests at Sais, is highly credible. Even today, documents are available (Harris Papyrus, wall reliefs in the mortuary temple of Ramses III. At Medinet Habu), describe the very similar events, such as the Atlantis report.
The Atlanteans were among the North Sea Peoples and the BC around 1200. attacked during the "Great Migration of the early Urn Field" Egypt and other countries.
Part of the Sea Peoples came from northern and central Europe and the territory of the Nordic Bronze Age
At the end of the Bronze Age, sank in the German Bight numerous marshes, islands and parts of the Jutland peninsula. Only here can have Atlantis (in the narrow sense) found.
Basileia, the "sacred island" of Atlantis was a large, contiguous island, which extended from today to the former island of Helgoland "South Beach".
Basileia is most likely identical with the Phäakeninsel "Sharia" (in Homer's "Odyssey") and the island "Helixoia" or "Elektris" in the legends of the Hyperborean.
As cause for the decline in the German Bight area of ​​the impact of an asteroid comes BC around 1220. in question (the proof is by professional scientists is still pending). This could also find the Greek myth of the "Fall of Phaethon" a scientific explanation.
Where was Atlantis or Atlantis which areas covered?
With "Atlantis," Plato described three distinct areas:

the island "Basileia" as the center of Atlantis, 127 stadia (about 23 miles) in diameter:
the Bronze Age island Althelgoland / Altsüdstrand
the "kingdom of Atlas", 2000 times the 3000 stadia (about 370 km by 560 km) wide plain with a mountain range in the north:
the area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age
the "culture of the Atlanteans", ie a total of 10 kingdoms, the area was "larger than Libya and (small) put together Asia":
the range of the megalithic cultures in the Neolithic period. Probably also the range of the Linear Pottery in Central Europe to be expected.
In addition to the Atlantis report information about potentially incorporated areas which one can not count on Atlantis (1st-3rd), eg on trans-Atlantic bases.

Atlantis (in the broadest sense) thus existed from about BC 5000th until about 1220 BC., and it consisted primarily of those European regions where astronomically oriented megalithic grave and great circle systems were installed. Among the most important archaeological finds from the Bronze Age, you can count the "chariot of Trundholm" and "Sky Disk of Nebra" (second millennium BC, around the middle.).

Important discoveries are still not widely recognized:

Copper ore was (at least) been mined since the Bronze Age and smelted at Helgoland (J. Spanuth 1953, W. Lorenzen 1965).
Prominent persons of society already used in the Bronze Age in the area of ​​the Nordic circle one alphabet (script Proto-Tifinagh, B. Fell, 1982).
Already at the beginning of the second Millennium BC. Some sailors were crossing from the North Sea bordering countries are able, and the Atlantic to reach America (B. Fell 1982).
On the island Althelgoland Bronze Age there was a metropolis that was known as a cult and commercial center widely in Europe (J. Spanuth 1976, H. W.Rathjen 2004).
New discoveries that are under discussion:

The ornamentation of the so-called Hertzsprung shields symbolized in various forms by Plato, described the center of Atlantis. The representation corresponds to the natural and structural conditions on the island Althelgoland before its demise in 1220 (Zschweigert H., 2004, G. Bischoff, 2005-2006) BC.
A special type of bronze shields, the "spheres Shields," is probably the astronomical temple "in the schema of the Spheres" is an artistic, ie a building in the shape of a "world model" (G. Bischoff, 2006).

Questions and Answers
The theory of Jürgen Spanuth can boast of all past and currently discussed hypotheses, most similarities between tradition and reality (see Table 1). Nevertheless, certain aspects of the Atlantis legend and interpretations interpreted SpanUth still wrong. In addition, there are divided opinions as to assess its publications are from today's perspective.
Frequently expressed questions and concerns should therefore be answered briefly at this point.

1st Question:
Atlantis should be no larger than Libya and Asia have been together? Althelgoland was much too small!
Answer:
Althelgoland was only the Atlantis center, a nearly circular island to have been with a diameter of 127 stadia (23.5 km converted). The term "larger than Libya and Asia," however, refers to the entire area of ​​influence of the Atlanteans, which should have consisted of ten kingdoms.
Both size data are consistent with the former geographical conditions. Plato information on the extent of "Basileia" is an island in the Helgoland Bight quite realistic, and the hypothetical island radius (distance of the stone surface from the current rock island) is in fact approximately 12 km. Just as well take the phrase "larger than Libya and (small) Asia" on the range of the megalithic cultures. In addition, the size specification fits the empire located within the core level (2000 times 3000 stages), when the former land area of ​​Denmark and N-Germany moves into the Neolithic period into consideration. No other hypothesis all three data agree so well with reality.

2nd Question:
But Atlantis should have before it the "Pillars of Hercules", that is located west of the Strait of Gibraltar?
Answer:
Plato used "before" in the description of the location of Atlantis and the preposition "beyond" with respect to the "Pillars". With this direction or location indication was from a Greek term generally meant the sea outside the Strait of Gibraltar, that is the Atlantic with its marginal seas. The exact geographical knowledge of the Greeks in the 5th ranged and 4 Century BC to the west only to the end of their Kolonisierungsgebietes this strait, better knowledge about this time also prevented the drifting in the Atlantic seafaring Phoenicians. Plato could not or would not be able to specify precisely the island, because the Strait of Gibraltar as it were a western "Ultima Thule" of the Greeks represented.
Incidentally, according to Herodotus, the Celts also lived "beyond the pillars", and their spread area was known (in addition to central Europe) and NW-Europe. The information on the location of Atlantis and the Celtic land are therefore out of sight of the ancient mariners to understand who knew of course after passing the Strait of Gibraltar, as they had the boat to the coastal countries of the Bay of Biscay, the Channel and in the German Bight.

3rd Question:
The Climate of Atlantis was described as "warm", and it should even elephants have lived there. Both statements are certainly not on Althelgoland and the distribution area of ​​the Nordic Bronze Age, right?
Answer:
During the climate optimum at the end of the Bronze Age, the average temperature was 3 degrees higher than today. After the description of the Swedish scientist E. Oxenstierna was this period, a "heat bath and lichtumflossene" time, even in the wine growing in southern Sweden [32]. The words "warm" are thus quite accurately depicts the contemporary climatic conditions in northern Central Europe.
The existence of elephants, however contrary to our modern ideas of the Bronze Age fauna in this region. Spanuth theory does, however, on just this one major objection to Plato's tradition, while there are other hypotheses, much more. One can therefore assume in this case of a transmission error. In his most recent books J. Spanuth favored the view that the "elephant" with aurochs (= "Elebhanten" Indo-European. For "horned") confused. Other assumptions are assuming that maybe some elephants were imported as exotic animals from Africa and were kept at Althelgoland in a "zoo". Or was there a confusion with the mammoth, possibly long after the last ice age on residual islands in the southern North Sea ("Doggerland") had survived [33].

4th Question:
Was there ever a civilization in the north?
Answer:
The Nordic Bronze Age was a typical bronze age culture, the neighboring cultures was not superior. In the metal processing, the bronze men were, however, as with leaders in Europe (dishes of gold, the bronze tang swords were the most dangerous weapons of their time, etc.). However, they moved to the current view of the archaeologists not in cities, and they used no writing, both prerequisites to speak of a high culture. An 8-acre estate was, however, already been excavated (Büdelsdorf near Rendsburg), which might well be called the city after normal definition (according to F. Bin). She was certainly not comparable to the contemporaneous cities in the countries of the Mediterranean. The presumed Bronze Age city on the island of Helgoland is situated east of Basileia (if they exist) of sediments in the North Sea covered reason. The archaeologists have now no interest and no financial means to look after her.
Also, a copy of the bronze men were from the researcher Prof. Barry Fell in the 1980s discovered in southern Sweden and in Canada, but when she found letters written in most archaeologists do not recognize. But as the Bronze Age is in high regards as the first "global" era with a wide exchange of ideas and resources, it is only logical that the people of the north bronze also developed their own script or another took over from neighboring nations.

5th Question:
Why J. Spanuth later published his books in the right-wing publishing houses?
Answer:
His first two books appeared in 1953 and 1955 at the prestigious publishing house 'Union German publishing company in Stuttgart, "which was never considered to be fairly judged. After his two Atlantis lectures at Gottorp Castle in Schleswig in 1953, which led the Kiel geologist Prof. Karl Gripp, along with several other scientists with an unprofessional and Spanuth humiliating discussion, the originally benevolent spirits used in the German press against him . Increasingly ideological aspects also played a role. They criticized e.g. adherence to the term "Germans of the Bronze Age", was compared at once - a totally absurd idea - Spanuth theory with Rosenberg's "Myth of the 20th Century ", etc., because the scientists could not put down the subject of the Helgoland hypothesis with factual arguments. After this campaign, the above-mentioned publisher wanted to publish any of his other more book manuscripts, and so had perforce Spanuth other publishers (Zeller and Grabert) turn to spread his views. In none of his books - not even in the Grabert-Verlag published - he expressed racist or nationalist ideology. His papers were always written objectively and free of controversy [103].

6th Question:
Has not the Spanuth theory been refuted in recent years? How can the theory meet the concerns expressed in the Wikipedia article "Jürgen Spanuth" as well?
Answer:
"! ... And yet unraveled Atlantis" The main tenets of his theory which he first wrote in 1955 in the book, could so far - can not be refuted - despite contrary opinions from journalists and scientists. These core issues were formulated in 1978 by similar prehistorians Greifswald Prof. Dr. G. Kehnscherper in the book "In Search of Atlantis" and again in 1997 by A. Strohmeyer. These views are by no means obsolete today. Based on new findings have only the date of the Santorini eruption are from about 1400 to 1220 BC, pre-dated to around 1630 BC. To ensure that this volcanic eruption eliminated as a cause of tsunamis in the Mediterranean at the end of the Bronze Age, the time of the North Sea Peoples and invasion (the cause of this tsunami was "only" an earthquake).
The article mentioned in the Wikipedia criticisms are not suited to refute Spanuth theory as a whole.

Several criticisms are simply wrong (eg the absence of archaeological finds in the Heligoland Bight, the non-use of the ships sailing in the Bronze and many more people);
It was partly refuted allegations that Spanuth has never been made (eg that the sky Nebraer disc consist of Helgoland copper ore);
(eg to the north and sea peoples have migrated from the Aegean area only), there were opinions listed that are currently being debated in scientific circles, yet controversial, and thus present no consistent finding;
or individual opinions of Atlantis amateur researchers are listed by certain passages have misunderstood (eg, that the great mountains of Atlantis by Plato, were allegedly in the north of Basileia, however, the mountains on Helgoland in the south).
Of course, may have erred J. Spanuth in some details, because the science is progressing steadily with its findings and no researcher is infallible. Among the main points he has but still the better arguments on its side. Even in the 21st Century, some authors refer to his theory, and have contributed important new interpretations [104].


Outlook
The controversy over Atlantis will certainly last for several decades, because Plato's dialogues can not be interpreted unambiguously in all sections. Gradually, however, the notion of an "Atlantis in the north" to enforce. To bear such sensational finds as in the stellar disc of Nebra, which has increased the interest of archaeologists in the early European civilizations felt. It is expected that future discoveries can be solved by some remaining mysteries of the Atlantis report.

This article is reprinted from the site and translated into English:
http://www.eichner-dresden.de/atlantis/


Internet-Adressen zu Atlantis / Phaéthon

Autor : Günter Bischoff
(alle Internet-Artikel wurden vorher in mehreren Zeitschriften veröffentlicht)

Stand : April 2011
zu Atlantis

Artikel a) “Atlantis – die Enträtselung im 20. Jahrhundert“ :
(2005 – 2010; Beitrag wird sporadisch aktualisiert; Webmaster C.Eichner)
www.eichner-dresden.de/atlantis/


b) sowie erstellt durch anderen Webmaster (Grundlagenartikel 2005) :
www.efodon.de/html/archiv/vorgeschichte/bischoff/atlantis.htm


c) „Die Ebene und das Zentrum von Atlantis“
(Fortsetzungsartikel 2007; neue Erkenntnisse nach 2000) :
www.efodon.de/html/archiv/vorgeschichte/bischoff/80-2007_bischoff_atlantis.pdf

d) „Ein archaischer Kalender im nördlichen Europa“
(Ergänzungsartikel zu einem in der Bronzezeit wahrscheinlich verwendeten Kalender)
www.efodon.de/html/archiv/vorgeschichte/bischoff/2008_bischoff_archaischer_kalender.pdf

e) Außerdem der Artikel (2007; jetzt auch im Internet bei „Trojaburg“ online)
„Zum 100. Geburtstag des Atlantisforschers Jürgen Spanuth“
(erschienen in den Zeitschriften „Megalithos“, Efodon „Synesis“, „Trojaburg“) ]


zu Phaéthon

Artikel „Der Sturz des Phaéthon“ (2003)
(möglicher Asteroideneinschlag in der Helgoländer Bucht am Ende der Bronzezeit)

a) www.eichner-dresden.de/Phaethon.php

b) www.efodon.de/html/archiv/vorgeschichte/bischoff/phaeton.htm

Anmerkung :
Alle diese Beiträge sind im Internet auch auffindbar mit Google-Suche
nach den Begriffen/Namen :
Atlantis + Helgoland + Bischoff + Eichner


3) E-Mail-Adresse von G.Bischoff :
Guenter.Bischoff@gmx.de




No comments:

Post a Comment

This blog does NOT allow anonymous comments. All comments are moderated to filter out abusive and vulgar language and any posts indulging in abusive and insulting language shall be deleted without any further discussion.