Plastered and deformed skull from PrePottry Jericho, about 8-9000 BC. Deformed skulls begin showing up all around the Mediterranean at about that time, including Western Europe and Northern Africa.
The technical paper in the last installment had many good points but it failed in one particular matter: the initial widespread appearance of artificial cranial deformation came at the end of the Last Ice Age and involved the last waves of Cromagnon migrants out of Atlantis according to Lewis Spence (The Problem of Atlantis, The History of Atlantis, etc. Spence identified them as the Archaeological Azilo-Tardneoisians and some of them were already showing the initial signs of cradleboarding as infants in that the backs of their skulls were flattened and the outline of the skull when seen from above was much shorter from front to back than either their ancestors or even contemporaries out of the same ethnic group.
Climate stage chart extracted from Secrets of the Ice Age, with the corresponding dates. This matches up with the construction of Atlantean history as I have outlined it below. The red line indicatesthe general trend of deglaciation from the Glacial Maximum stage and there were several floods of freshwater-meltwater which resulted from the process, each one of which raised the mean sea level some tens of meters.
This is a page from Donnelly's Atlantis: the Antediluvian World (1881) which remarks on the unusual circumstance that the Egyptian and Babylonian calendars coincide at a date about 11500 BC. The updated version edited by Egerton Sykes further mentions that the Mayan and Indian calendars also coincide at about the same date and it must signify that some signifcant event happened then. This seems to be an Astronomical date and other sources in Antiquity confirm it. I believe it is the date of the founding of the Atlantean Empire and at just about when the cycle of the Precssion of the equinoxes put the Spring equinox in the sign of Leo. ALL the dates Plato mentions in connection to Atlantis are derived from the Precession of Equinoxes, the Great or Platonic Year (Which the Egyptians certainly knew about before Plato)
A North-African skull of this period, one which I should have put up for comparison to the North American skulls from Spirit Cave and Kennewick Man when I ran the first part of the "World of Atlantis: The Atlanteans" blog entry earlier. Lewis Spence suggested in The History of Atlantis that the actual Atlantean empire Plato spoke of was a relatively recent addition on the Atlantean scene at the time of the invasion, and that the Civilisation of Atlantis came out of North Africa, That "Poseidon" as spoken of in the Critias represented a Culture-hero analogous to Quetzalcoatl, and that the original person would have been a Capsian and belonging to the Iberian or Mediterranean 'race'. The wave out again was what he hypothesized as the Azilians and one direct outcome was the emplacement of the Neolithic cultures in the Near East starting in Palestine and Phoenicia. This was supposed to have been about 10000 years ago.
Image from Wikipedia demonstrating the use of the pressboard on the bound infant, to produce the desired pointed head look. and below, a reconstruction of a German woman from a burial during the period of domination by the Huns, ca 500 AD
Other traits that came along with the artificial deformation of the skull and sometimes sid to be a direct consequence of it are the surgical techniqie of trepanation and the development of extra bones at the joints of the skull (Inca Bones) Trepanation definitely arrives along with the Neolithic in Europe and it is thought to have been done largely to relieve the pressure of stressed bones at the joints in the skull. Skulls with Inca bones have also been found in the initial Neolithic at cyprus (B&W photo below) and at Crete.
It would seem that the drier conditions in the Sahara at about 12000 BC (that is 14000 years ago) drove the population there into the cycle of famine, war, and then Patriarchal dominance as specified in the long paper posted last time, and that an elite military force established upon Atlantis shortly thereafter. They may well have come there as hired mercenaries rather than as invaders, and after the harsher conditions occurred on Atlantis as well, they eventually took control of the situation. The result of which was that Atlantis became a Patriarchal Sun-Hero-Divine-King-Worshipping state such as Donnelly envisioned in the first place. It was something which was unusual in those early times but probably not unprecidented: the Sahara was undergoing periods of extreme drought att throughout the Ice Age. There could well have been earlier events which resulted in the earlier adoption of circumcision and genital mutilation, possibly in 25-30000 years ago or maybe even 60000 years ago when one of the large movements out-of-Africa took place. The genital mutilation trait could have spread to Australia at that early date (there is also evidence for cranial deformation in Australia as well, but nobody knows how far back it goes) If there WERE turns to Patriarchy in these earlier events, then the trends to go that route subsequently died out in Europe and Asia since we have no good evidence for its persistance there. However, they might have been retained in Subsaharan Africa for any length of time, even all along perhaps.
Message 98 from Dale's Atlantis Files group on Yahoo; February 2007
Basically, the Platonic Kritias (Critias) narrative encapsulates a history of Atlantis that can be converted into a rough chronology. There was an early Golden age of peace and Plenty and then a worsening of conditions that led to a ruthless period of expansion. Going on what is known of climate in the period and some inferences from accepted archaeology, it seems that the history of Atlantis can be traced back to the Solutrean period and the Glacial Maximum with some assurance of continuity, in a period of hunters (who probably already knew the bow and arrow). After about 12000 BC or 14000 years ago,a period of more intensive agriculture was started on Atlantis, which is something that correlates to finds in Egypt and the Transjordan, but also correlates to the opening of the Bolling AND to Donnelly's opening of the calendar cycles from Oppert. This would be the 'Golden Age', but more so as remembered by succeding generations. the period of plenty lasted until a bit before 10000 BC or 12000 years ago, and there was a worsening of climate. The chart gives a last possible date for this as 12100 years ago, the beginning of a Dryas phase, but it was probably a gradual process. At any rate, the worsening of climate led to a period of stricter control of resources and tighter control by the leaders. Up to this point, a marilineal, probably matriarchal, queenly government was in control, backed by the priestess of the mother goddess who controlled all produce from the Earth. The Perry, Children of the sun theory states that the Heliolithic culture that later diffused around the world had a dual leadership, with a priestly class and a warrior class, and this seems to have been the setup as of about 10000 BC in Atlantis. Perry also stated that a number of derived cultures turned over to rule by a warrior elite by way of military coups and this also seemed to have occurred in Atlantis. Kingships were beginning to dominate about 10000 BC and the religion was reorganized into a state- approved hero-worshipping, sun-worshipping religion (Poseidon originally being a sky god with a thunderbolt, hence the trident) Then the climate began to ameliorate and the sun-priest-kings took it as a sign of divine favor. This would have been the beginning of the Allerod climatic phase, 11800 plus or minus 200 years ago on the chart (as late as 9600 BC by our reckoning). This initiated the period of Atlantean aggression and expansion recorded by Plato, and the entire Island of Atlantis was regimented and systematically subdivided, with every lot of land accounted for and responsible for supporting the invasion drive. This continued until the universal cataclysm that included Atlantis and millions of the inhabitants of that land among its many victims. It also severely depleted the "Athenians" as well, but enough of them survived to continue their line of descent up to the present day.
At least that's the way it shapes up to me.
Best Wishes, Dale D.
(Romeo and Juliet of Neolithic Italy. These two young people were killed and then buried in a position of embrace, irresistably recalling the doomed young lovers of Shakespeare's play. Going on the parallel it is even possible that their families were feuding with one another and they were killed for their disobedience. The burial could then have been made by sympathetic surviving friends or done in cruel mockery)