Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Saturday, March 26, 2011

Some Largescale Migrations into the New World


This is the subject of one of my reviews of cranial materials that I did at college, any one of which COULD have been a doctoral thesis. It was a review of the varieties of Native crania in both of the Americas with an eye to determining whether or not the variations indicated separate migrations into the New World. This is a longstanding theory popularized in such sources as the book Men Out Of Asia
by Harold T. Gladwin in the WWII era.
The map at Left illustrates a recent attempt to mark out the migrations and I have it as a reprint, not from the original source. It is interesting that while most other maps indicating mtDNA groups in the New World indicate the presence of group X, this map does not and indicates its ancestor group N in its place. This is if anything worse for the theorists that want to keep the Europeans out of the early Americas, because mtDNA group N is ancestral to ALL of the European mtDNA lineages.

Group 1 on the map is the same as the "Australoid" migration of Gladwin and other authors, as indicated by such groups as the Pericu of Baja California and the similar skulls from Lagoa Santos in South America, illustrated in the photo montage at left here. This group was presumably already in place before the Clovis peoples arrived and possibly even before 25000 years ago, and they originated in SouthEast Asia, the same place as the actual Australian Aboriginals came from. They are actually later in date than the colonization of Australia and somewhat more gracile, in that the brow ridges are not so heavy, but the cranium is long and has a high peaked ridge down its top medially placed.



The main group of the ancestors of later Amerinds were the Clovis wave, initially tall longheads with prominent noses, only later populations tended to become rounder-headed over time. The skulls at left are the Spirit Cave skull in pencil drawing and a photograph of the corresponding South American type. More recently these two populations have tended to center at opposite poles of the Americas, at Argentina and in Canada




The Archaic or Arawak type of skull is basically a smaller-sized variant of the tall longheads and similarly tended to become more rounder-headed as time went on. These skulls are common in the Southern USA after the end of the Ice Age, Central America and the Andes region, and eventually intio the West Indies when they were colonised some time around 4000 BC. There used to be a South American language classification called "Andean-Equatorial" which admirably corresponded to the distribution of this type of skulls, but it has since fallen into disfavor. In the Southeastern USA the earliest peoples that built mounds continued to be of this type. Since this type is found in warmer climates and at the time agriculture was being introduced, we can see it as the more "Civilized" reduction (Smaller, frailer) of the Tall Longheads.



This time at left we have the Small Longheads, drawings (credited to Charles Darwin) from Argentina (Patagonia) and the coloured center artwork done by an artist from Brazil. At one time this was the predominant type in South America just as the Tall Longheads predominated in North America before the Dene peoples came in from the West. However, the same type was also present in the US Southwest and in Central America at an early age, and it is also referred to as the "Basketmaker" type because it is characteristic of that Archaic ("PrePueblo") peoples in the Southwest. In the past there has been confusion about this type which has been said to have odd affinities including with African natives, Pygmies and Bushmen. Most more recent authorities have dismissed those suggestions as unlikely. However in a reivew of the types of skulls corresponding to those illustrated on this page, Neumann said that both of the shorter populations were probably related to one another because of some anatomical similarities and they had separated from one another in different Geiographical locations. Neumann did allow migrations into the Americas corresponding to 1 and 2 on the map above during the Ice age and migrations 3 and 4 after the end of the Ice Age. That would be consistent with most other authorities. The other, shorter types he was not so certain of but he suggested that either one or both could have arisen in the New World out of members of migration 2, the Clovis one. Neumann also identified a Plains type corresponding to the Sioux (Lakotid) but he said it came from a mixing of the newer Dene populations (Athabascans, including Navajos ans Apaches) with the older American lineages derived from migration 2. And he also recognised the Adena type as distinctive but was also uncertain as to its place of origin. It was definitely intrusive into the Eastern USA when it appeared.
As the Migrations map indicates, the Dene or Athabascan peoples are postglacial and definitely came by way of the Bering straits, since they are still extremely populous in Alaska. This type has several distinctively Asiatic features and in fact they have not onlly been called "Inner-Mongolian", the more racist of the Anthropologists remark that the facial structure of their skulls are most like the Chinese. They also speak a tonal language related to Chinese, as mentioned in an earlier blog posting. The more racist classifiers call this type Pacificid.
In summation, although there is some reason to recognise the variety between these discrimiated types, the bulk of the variation comes out of Migration 2, the Clovis one, which differentiated into a couple of different smaller types in the South and which also has a couple of more recent mixed types in the North. So it would still be legitimate to say they were all one big family or make the distinction and say the big family has a North American and a South American branch-with crossovers. but no reason to keep the racist labels and theories of yesteryear since we ARE talking being inclusive rather than trying to be separitists about this. Although the Dene and Inuids of Migration 4 can be traced back to Asia in more recent ages, they are also mixed with the already-established American Natives and also truly deserve the label of Native Americans.

For the most part I have relied on older illustrations for older skulls (Ice-Age and immediately following) in North America and avoided illustrations of more recent skulls, in deference to Tribal policy that respect should be shown to the dead. I have included photographs of some older South American skulls which also fall outside of that definition. I mean no lack of respect by that and I always remember when dealing with human skulls that they were once living people.

Best Wishes, Dale D.

2 comments:

  1. The smaller-sized variant types are also similar to the Azilian mixed types as mentioned in the Crystal Skull article. Since the mixed types that turn up in Europe presumably originated iin different Geographic regions before they showed up in Europe together, I assume that it is possible that they differentiated in the Americas, came back to Atlantis and mixed there, and then re-entered Europe from the West. There is genetic evidence that goes with this notion and it shall be presented in a subsequent blog entry.

    ReplyDelete
  2. It also does seem to me that the "Australoid" type as found in the New World plus the "Original Mexican" type I mentioned before in connection with the Tlatilco skull material both correspond very well to the skulls found at the Upper Cave of Zhougoudian ("Peking Man Upper Cave level") and that both are more than likely out of mtDNA group M subsections.That easily translates to mtDNA groups C and D usually identified as New World migrants frm the onset: A, B and X are all out of the N mtDNA groups in the same series as the European groups. Presumably they originated in Central Asia and dispersed to the East and West from there, but all of them could have been involved in the Solutrean Crossing to wind up as Clovis. CroMagnon skulls of Solutrean age do include a larger ansd smaller sized variation something along the lines of the middle two sets of skulls here, but presumably not identifiable to the extent that A might be the larger type and B might be the smaller one. We cannot determine these things to that high a degree of resolution yet.

    Best Wishes, Dale D.

    ReplyDelete

This blog does NOT allow anonymous comments. All comments are moderated to filter out abusive and vulgar language and any posts indulging in abusive and insulting language shall be deleted without any further discussion.