Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

Cattle Out Of Africa, Too

Lately I have been going through Mathilda's Anthropology blog because it is a mine of information. Mathilda does her various researches and stashes articles on the blog as a sort of a scrapbook, with the result that you will find the bog popping up at you all the time when you are doing your own research. I'll probably get her link installed on this blog as a permanent link sometime: http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/

In this case I happened to run smack into a pack of articles about the origins of domesticated cattle. In the map at right there is an example that the oldest domesticated strain's DNA occurs in North Africa and it does so in dominantly large numbers. It also seems that both the European type and the Indian type occur in Africa and that there are many intergrades between the two. Otherwise the cattle of the two areas are quite different and the genetic divergence between the domesticated cattle in Europe and in Inda are separated by a length of 20000 to 25000 years (that's twenty to twenty five thousand years, possibly more so counting in the Oriental breeds)



Watusi Longhorn Cattle








Texan (Spanish) Longhorns
There is also clear evidence that the African breeds diffused into Europe by way of Spain. And the Canary Islands also, incidentally.




The wild cattle of Europe as known to the early CroMagnons were the Aurochs, as depicted on the walls of caves in France and Spain especially. This one evidently reporesents the constellation Taurus the Bull since the spots on it seem to mark the positions of recognisable stars in the constellation.










This is a map showing the different subspecies of Aurochs which led to the development of distinctive Geographically-different sets of breeds such as in India as opposed to Europe.





This is a chart of actually distinct species of cattle. Several authorities also include bison on the list, which they classify under the same genus name Bos as opposed to Bison.









The two strains of Domesticated cattle in India and in Europe are very difference in appearance and even physiology. The Indian cattle often have prominent humps and more prominent dewlaps, and they perspire more profusely since they are better adapted for heat than the European breeds.













The European cattle have that distinctive "Rectangular" body build and they are more often shorthorned breeds, although there are also hornless and shorthorned Indian cattle.







This is a back-crossing to create a "Throwback" Aurochs bull. The early domesticated cattle of Greece, Turkey and Italy were all scarcely-modified Aurochsen. In the Aurochs species, the bull is more usually black while the cows were red or red-and-white.








Although credit is usually given for the first domesticated cattle as being in Greece or Turkey at about 6000 BC (that's 8000 years ago), it now turns out from fossil evidence that African cattle are definitely domesticated two thousand years before that (let alone the part about 20000 to 25000 years ago, which also was a separation that must've occurred in Africa)








By 12000 years ago, Upper Egyptians (Nubians) were treating cattele horns as bestowing special honours on some burial and some Archaeologists have said this was suggestive of the way in which traditional domesticated cattle were treated. Since this was upsetting the applecart of the theory that cattle were domesticated in postglacial times in the Mid-East, the period is referred to as a "False dawn" of the Neolithic. The passage about Early Agriculture just quoted recently from R. Cedric Leonard's Atlantis Quest website (in the article about Atlantean horses) makes mention of the early Nubians of this period with evidence that they kept cattle and goats (Tamed ibexes)

North Africans of the Ibero-Maurusian period from 20000 to 10000 years ago were said to have been "Experimenting" with cattle and goats, but also more importantly the Barbary Shhep (Aoudads) of the Atlas mountain region which the Moullian (CroMagnon) Ibero-Marusains
were said to have been "Managing" since the idea was they could not have actually TAMED the creatures.





















It also seems that these CroMagnons also "Managed" other likely types of Antelopes such as the Hartebeests. And evidently this included the tamed ibexes (Wild goats) as well, partially to go along with the notion that goats HAD to have been domesticated in the Near East, in Postglacial times.





There is a slight problem with this idea: the domesticated goats are mostly warm-weather goats and not mountain goats like the well-known ibexes. Furthermore, neither the Spanish nor the Near-Eastern (Turkish) ibexes can be directly related to the domesticated goats because the shape of their horns is wrong, the horns are too heavy with the wrong type of rings on them. Egyptian and Ethiopian (Nubian) ibexes are much more likely progenitors of the domesticated goats.




The Sahara also gives direct evidence of domesticated cattle in the form of abundant rock art. At this juncture it is best to clear up a widespread mistake that has found itself into literally ALL of the rferences to Saharan rock art: the earliest or "Hunter" period is also named the "Bubalus" or Buffalo period because of the prominent appearance of the creature shown engraved on this rock. THAT is actually an extinct animal, part of the African megafauna, and its scientific name is NOT "Bubalus"--Bubalus is the genus name of the common ASIATIC water-buffalo, nothing to do with Africa whatsoever. And the "Bubalus" period comes to an end at the end of the Pleistocene, during the mass-extinction event probably about 11000 to 12000 years ago. The "Cattle" or herdsman period follows directly after that.






These are Indigenous African Cattle of the type that early Saharan herdsmen would have been herding since 11000 to 12000 years ago at the very least.






And which are depicted on African rock art. This includes Egypt-the Nile Valley is one of the key locationds for rock art and cattle were important to Egypt all along. (Often the kinds with "Lyre-shaped" horns, also shown on the heads of deities such as Hathor and later Isis.) The Egyptian "Cattle period" is in full force already at the beginnings of Egyptian history, by six thousand years ago at the very latest, twice that if there was no gap since the Nubian Neolithic




The more distinctive European "Shorthorned" breeds also have a respectable antiquity as can be seen from such shorthorned-Aurochs skulls as this one from Poland dated to 15000 BC. Shorthorned cattle do seem to have appeared first in Central Euope around the Alpine area and in an interglacial break between colder phases of the Ice Age. It could be argued that these skulls are only individual mutations and do not represent domesticated cattle at all, but the reduction in horns and body size (such as in this example) ARE what are usually taken to be indicators that the cattle are domesticated in the Postglacial period, in this area and elsewhere in Europe. No less an expert than Sir Richard Owen denied there was such a thing as a wild shorthorned race of cattle when he was presented with skulls such as therse when they were found pulled out of Irish peat bogs.



And finally the skull of an Aurochs for comparison.







It seems that Atlanteans might well have had domesticated cattle, sheep and goats as part of the cultural kit Out of Africa, but in fact apart from the supposition there is no direct evidence that such a thing was so. From other evidence I feel strongly that the sacrificial cattle of Poseidon were Bison (American buffalo) which means the Atlanteans probably had domesticated dogs, and horses and elephants that were regularly captured out of half-wild, half-tamed herds; but anything else that they made use of was by way of "Experimentation." The theory needs require no more than that.

2 comments:

  1. Thank you, Dale, as always for these lovely bits of information that help to fill the gaps in our knowledge.

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  2. Very interesting. Another researcher's information posted on Wikipedia, dated I believe 8/12 goes back to cattle being domesticated in Turkey rather than Africa in the timeline you mentioned. Sometimes it's hard trying to figure out who's information is correct, & who's trying to pull the wool over one's eyes intentionally or not! I find such fuss is made over the notion of any advances having risen in Africa during ancient times, or even now. This is really disturbing, because we place ourselves at an disadvantage to knowing our full history simply because of being biased against others due to physical traits!

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