-Where among other things, it is mentioned that O'Brien found that the area around the Azores included traces of watercourses that ran far below sealevel and showed definite erosional gradients flowing downhill. In order to produce these deposits, the water had to be freshwater and laid down above sealevel, flowing down to a level much below the modern surface, which would have been the sealevel at the time. O'Brien is correct, and in fact the erosional gradients continue on to much greater depths than he imagines.
For many years, charts showing the relative ages of the seafloor in this area South of the Azores read it as a "Blank" because of its unusual geology.
Interaction between the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Azores Hot Spot during the last 85Myr:Emplacement and rifting of the Hot-Spot plateau - Pascal Gent et al - click here to download
This gives nothing less than the Geological History of Atlantis (not using that name)and speaks in terms of uplifts and depressions of one or two kilometers vertically. That is adequate to lift the landmass to the surface and dowse it under the waves again.
Atlantis turns out to be nested conveniently within sets of "Stepping-stone" islands between Europe and North America. To the lower right-hand corner of the map are the Canary Islands.
What is most amazing about this is that the pre-destruction Island of Atlantis is almost exactly what Otto Muck specified, and corresponds exactly to the Island named as Atlantis in the Maps of The Ancient Sea Kings [For which, see Charles Hapgood]
Compared to the former state of the island, its current state is definitely splintered and smashed to pieces. Bescause of this, it is not useful to think of all parts of the former landmass as being all sunken to a common level as a result of the convulsions which sent it to the bottom.
The most commonly cited map for Atlantis was originally made by A. Kircher in Germany in the 1600s: Muck thought the area shown on the map was strikingly close to what the reality was by his estimation. Nor is the map possibly a mistaken map of Antarctica or anyplace else.
George Firman collected the images from the Maps of the Ancient Sea Knings and published a small pamphlet on the subject. The most useful part of the book is the map he constructed as an "Original Portolano chart" and reproduced here. Firman also notes that the Atlantis island shown on these charts was originally the zero meridian from which all of the other charts draw on as a reference point.
Poseidia (Atlantis) from a map dated 1506 (Firman)
On the Piri Reis map the island of Antillia is identified as Cuba. In this case, we can make out something of an s-shaped axis of the island with indicated mountains in the position of the Azores and Atlantis seamounts
The same island is copied down on several later maps and continued to be moved further and further to the West as cartographic knowledge expanded. It was shown as Antillia, then Cuba, and eventually as Japan (Cipangu) when the New World intruded in the way. These are some Ancient Sea Kings Maps of Atlantis. The Mountain is there for Mount Atlas, figures in circle represent the Garden of Eden. Middle map indicates position of Atlantis circle-city. Maps vaguely compare to MAR soundings, but drawn as straight where the MAR area has a kink in it by comparison. Some of offshore islands are coral atolls, largest one in south possibly is Great Meteor Tablemount
Ptolemy's world map, compiled in Egypt from all available records, standard for the Roman world and then the Renaissance when Cartography became important again. Includes the "Atlantis" island of the Far West. The non-preserved half of the Piri Rei's map was undoubtedly something much like this map.
Atlantean Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings World. Modified version of last map. Central area of Atlantic indicates "Sea Kings" areas evidently well-known and mapped in Ice Age: Lighter grey indicates less well known areas (Behring Landbridge was indicated while it was still up, but left off more recent maps) and darker grey areas were incompletely or inadequately known. Antarctica was possibly mapped by whaling expeditions.
The tradition of Atlantis is NOT a Greek myth, it is admittedly an EGYPTIAN set of myths retold for a Greek audience. Some things got changed in the translation. Nonetheless, some experts have been able to identify parallels in specific Egyptian texts with their analogues in the Timaeus and Kritias. This includes the origin myth (Poseidon,Cleito, and their children, on the Primieval Mound later to became the Omphalos-capital city of Atlantis) and the missing end portion (Which would have been a retelling of the myth "The Destruction of Mankind"-the beginning of the story is still preserved in Plato's version). These texts are known from the oldest records in Egypt and the story was in circulation long before Minoan Crete or any such more recent power was in existance. Some of the Egyptian Sources of the Atlantis Mytrh were identified in an article in PURSUIT under that same name. They include sources counted as The Pyramid Texts.
Because of this, it is very short-sighted to assume Atlantis would have been literally the way that Plato later described it, as some supporters seem to have thought in more recent years. Yet the core of the story remains the same. The Greek names only mask their Egyptian analogues, such as "Atlas" being used in the place of "Shu".
Egyptian texts usually show Atlantis (Aaru or Amentet) as a rectangle or series of rectangles, and the Plato dialogues describe the shape of the Island as being an "Oblong" with mountains to the North annd around the rim, corresponding to the Azores Platform as above. Mount Atlas itself was almost certainly Pico Alto of the Azores.
This is the description of the Capital city of Atlantis and it incorporates several mythical features that represent a known stage in Cosmology and mythology. The world view is approximately as in the Bible, a flat round earth surrounded by the River Ocean and cetered on the Omphalos, here the city itself. This becomes a rather complicated discussion but the level of civilization that sees the world in these terms is about in the level of dynastic Ancient Egypt and Babylon. I shall post a separate message later about the Mindsteps To The Cosmos, Astronomy, Zodiacs and Calendric developments.
J. Feril Writes in The Origins of War about a shift in weapons technology at the end of the Ice Age. All at once, bows and arrows, slings, swords and daggers, marching units of men by rank and file, strategy and tactics begin to be represented in rock art of the Spanish Azilo-Tardenosians. These are the same weapons as described by PLato as the ones the Atlanteans used. The Mesolithic peoples involved are related to the Sharan rock-artists and the beginnings of agriculture: the Saharan rock-artists eventually gave rise to the Ancient Egyptians.
It would seem by contrast that the "Athenians" were hoplessly outmanned and outgunned. The Atlanteans had all of the ranged weapons, for one thing. But the "Athenians" were waging a guerilla war against an army far from home with extended supply lines. Nevertheless, had not catastrophic events taken place, they probably would have LOST.
The "Athenians" are identifiably the ancestors of the Indo-Europeans as their social organization clearly shows. The Atlanteans, by contrast, look like nothing so much as a large, organbized state of Native Americans and in their homeland they would have resembled the Mayans or Aztecs.
Neith is identified as Athena in the Platonic dialogues: Egyptian sources would have said "the People of Neith". The symbol of Neith was a shield with two spears, as shown, and as identified as the weapons of the "Athenians".
In the Noth of Indiana, Illinois and in Michigan there is a geological marker for the Atlantean age: there had been a warmer period when the Twocreekian Pine forests grew, and then a subsequent worsening of conditions when the forests were felled and buried.
The other key point which Graham Hancock touches on but does not pursue, the postglacial uplift of formerly-glaciated lands is more than enough to offset the simultaneous sinking of an area in the center of the Atlantic. R. Cedric Leonard in his book (and later internet site) Atlantis Quest mentions that a steady sinking of the area at a rate of a foot a year would sink the landmass almost two miles in ten thousand years. While I do not say that exactly, it is worth taking into consideration.
Otto Muck hypothesized that the end of the Ice Age came about by a collision with a giant meteorite, based partly on a series of pits all along the Eastern coast of the USA. He thought the main body had split over the Southeast USA and then the largest chunks plunged on into the seabed, setting off tsunamis and catastrophic volcanic eruptions that in turn sank Atlantis. Muck's maths check out. More recently a separate theory blames the extinction of the megafauna and the end of the Paleoindian period on an asteriod impact during the Younger (youngest) Dryas period. This is an illustration taken from an article describing that theory. Among the other traces of the impact are many microscopic diamonds, pieces of impact-glass (tektites) and a layer of carbon which seems to cover everything right at the time of impact. Absolute dating of the event is a problem, though, because the event itself altered the pecentage of atmospheric Carbon-14.
The same event, called "the biggest meteor shower known to history" was the cause of the largest meteorite fragments known, salvaged in Greenland and now residing at the American Museum of Natural History. We not only have the smoking gun, we still have some of the bullets.
Best Wishes, Dale D.