Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Sunday, April 20, 2014

More On French Giant Skeletons

Reprinted from

Giants : Press reports from the 19th and 20th centuries

Montpelier Skull as graphically reproduced

In addition to the 1892 Yale discovered remains of the giants of Chatelnau on which we report in detail elsewhere, were in France or made ​​during the 19th century other findings, which support the theory that even in Europe called up in the Bronze Age populations into gigantic human being was. Although these ancillary findings are less well documented than that of Castelnau-le-Lez , not nearly so numerous are such similar reports from North America [1] - and although even in these cases the finds in question were lost in the meantime - we want these remarkable Fund reports for the first time dokumenieren here in German language, since we made ​​gigantologischer keep visual for quite evident. Compiled and presented for the first time online these historical reports were the way of the American colleagues Micah Ewers on its website worth visiting rephaim23 .
Let's start with a message that it after all that time managed, even in 'small-town Piety' The Oelwein Register in the U.S. town of Oelwein, Iowa to find attention. In their recent report (Fig. 10) of 8 November 1894, states:
Figure 2 The location of Montpellier, Hérault, in southern France
Figure 2 The location of Montpellier, Hérault, in southern France
" In a prehistoric cemetery, which was recently with Monpellier (Fig. 2) , France was exposed, while workers were digging a reservoir for a water plant, human skulls were (Fig. 1) found that 28, 31 and 32 inches [about 0.71 m - 0.79 m - 0.91 m; d.Ü.] . reasonably within the scope of the bones, which were found along with the skulls, were also of gigantic proportions These remains were sent to the Paris Academy, and a scholar. 'Savant', who gave a Lecture to the discovery, said that they belonged to a race of people who have a size between 10 and 15 feet [about 3.05 m to 4 57 m; d.Ü.] had. " [2]
Further evidence of a giant Fund (this time in northern France) provided - even if only in the form of an 'information snippet' - the Oswego Commercial Times in its issue of August 8, 1851. (Fig. 3) It stated under the heading "Skeleton of A Giant ":" Recently discovered a gentleman in the Nachbarchaft the old city [Reims], when he engaged in an excavation for any reason, a well-preserved human skeleton, the four-meter (13 feet) long. " [3]
Picture: Oswego-commercial-times-aug-8-1851.jpg
Figure 3 The short message from the Oswego Commercial Times dated 08 Aug. 1851
Also from the 20th century exist Fund releases from France , and in principle is to be noted that so far only available also to the period, some international, Anglo-Saxon press releases. As a perhaps more productive, systematic gigantologische evaluation francophone media is still pending.

Figure 4 The Fund message from the Freeport Journal Standard from 15/04/1933
The first of those said their reports comes from the journal The Miami News . In its issue of December 26, 1918 announced the American evening paper : " Paris - military prisoners near Paris conducted excavations at Vandancourt, discovered a back thousands of years of crypts ungeglättenen flagstones full of human bones of gigantic proportions the skull. were oval and the teeth were similar to those of horses. Archaeologists say the tomb from the Bronze Age comes from. " [4]
This message corresponds remarkably well and the following somewhat detailed report of 1933, which also dealt with a detection in the vicinity of Paris. This report, entitled " Skeletons of Seven foot tall giants Neolithic "( skeletons seven-foot-tall giant Neolithic ) comes from the Freeport Journal Standard (Illinois), in its issue of 15 April 1933, stated: " Paris - (LP) - cooking, presumably to a man of seven feet [approximately 2.13 m; d.Ü.] have heard size, were in a Neolithic grave in the local outdoor areas [the outskirts of Paris; d.Ü.] Found one. report on the discoveries of archaeologists who work in the northwest suburbs, was from the Sorbonne issued.
Paul Lemoine (Fig. 5) , the Director of the Paris Museum of Natural History , M. Lantier, the curator of the Archaeological Museum in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Professor Rivet and other scholars have inspected the tomb and agreed that they is of sufficient interest to continue digging with more physical labor effort.
Figure 5 The geologist and paleontologist Paul Lemoine (1878-1940) was one of the scientists who inspected the 'giant Fund' from 1933.
Figure 5 The geologist and paleontologist Paul Lemoine (1878-1940) was one of the scientists who inspected the 'giant Fund' from 1933.
Eight seven feet [wide] skeletons were brought under a massive monolith to light, weighing more than four tons. A number of bones were burnt, indicating that the bodies were burned before their burial, and was around them not much found, apart from a few Flinstein arrows and spearheads, which leads to the assumption that the buried persons of any very high social position were.
The at the Sorbonne report prepared about the discovery was before [the members of] Société de France préhistorique read. " [5]
This finding report containing its details and the mention of his time prominent franösischer professional scientists may well - in addition to the documents for the discovery of Castelnaut - to the interesting documents about the former existence of giants in France are, as it appears to be particularly evident and almost invites further investigation. However, the author is driving at the dark foreboding, such searches are established as a result, today none of the mentioned eight skeletons is more 'discoverable'.
Figure 6 Gap - another milestone on our gigantologischen 'Tour de France'
Figure 6 Gap - another milestone on our gigantologic 'Tour de France'
The next short message - it is the issue of the magazine "The Evening Tribune" taken from August 16, 1935 - reported by a Fund at Gap (Fig. 6) , the capital of the French department Hautes-Alpes in the south east of the Republic. We are talking about the discovery of the cemetery " of some ancient tribe of giants The skeletons, one of which is 8 feet 7 inches. [approximately 2.62 m; d.Ü.] dimension, were in sarcophagi, which were formed from flat stones . " [6]
A little more detail - and provided with further details - this discovery was already a few days earlier by the American magazine The Milwaukee Journal treated. (Fig. 7) In your issue of August 4, 1935, is the following report: " Paris, France - (UP) - Nine graves of prehistoric giants, whose largest 7 feet 10 inches [approximately 2.39 m; d.Ü.] dimension, were an article in the Petit Parisien According discovered by workers who a road below the town of Gap [...] build. The giants were buried in coffins made ​​of flat stones, but there were no tools or weapons are found, indicating the period in which they lived. It was assumed that it to a hitherto unknown race belonged. " [7]
Figure 7 The report on the discovery at Gap in the Milwaukee Journal
Figure 7 The report on the discovery at Gap in the Milwaukee Journal
As early as 1930 had the Geraldton Guardian and Express (Fig. 8) from Australia posted to another French discovery of giant skeletons in stone coffins, the following brief message: " Fourteen immense coffins from Slate, which date back to prehistoric times, are of navvies been unearthed which working on a new road, says the correspondent of the London Daily Mail in Grenoble (south of France).
The coffins were "as it goes on to say there," at a depth of 12 feet [about 3.66 m; d.Ü.] discovered, and when they were opened with great care, the skeletons of 14 men were unveiled by gigantic stature. In all cases, the heads of large size were [and] with enormous jawbone provided ". [8]
Figure 8 The message of the Geraldton Guardian and Express from 28.04.  1930
Figure 8 The message of the Geraldton Guardian and Express from 28.04. 1930
In a sense, an exception among the presented messages Fund represents the following, fairly detailed report that the Canadian weekly Stanstead Journal published in 1924. In your report (Fig. 11) it was namely not to Neolithic or copper or Bronze Age finds, but a discovery from the late Paleolithic period , which in Solutrense Pouilly was, that community of eastern France, after the primeval period of the ' Solutrean is' ​​named. In this, the report dated January 31, 1924, states:
" Just being in Solutré (Fig. 8) , a small, well-known because of their prehistoric relics village in the French department of Côte-d'Or [9] the Enrdeckung 25,000 years old graves takes place, which include the well-preserved skeletons of three prehistoric warrior.
Over the past 60 years are at Solutré remarkable specimen was discovered by remnants of the prehistoric period, and a short time ago the Faculty of Sciences of Lyon, carry out a methodical and scientific search of the district decided on its own account. The first search turned out to be quite disappointing, but nothing desdotrotz the work was vigorously pursued, and after 20 days of patient effort, the responsible scientist for the expedition discovered the skeletons of three men who in the late Paleolithic or Aurignacian lived before 20000-25000 years.
Figure 9 The geographical location of the small community Solutrense Pouilly in eastern France
Figure 9 The geographical location of the small community Solutrense Pouilly in eastern France
The three skeletons had been buried in the same position at a depth of three feet and seven inches [about 1.09 m; d.Ü.] , respectively, five feet and six feet [about 1.52 m and 1.83 m; d.Ü.] , the heads of the rising sun were facing lying With slightly crouched on his back, with his hands on his stomach, resting the skeletons on beds of ashes. On both sides of the head were two rough-hewn stones in the form of a ' stone circles ', which, it is believed, show the exact position taken by the body to complete.
The skeletons were proven extremely strong men, because the smallest of the three and six feet two inches [about 1.88 m; d.Ü.] dimension, while the largest six feet and nine inches [about 2.06 m; d.Ü.] . The shape of the skull is remarkable. The forehead is rather low. The eye sockets are rectangular and of großee dimension; the jaw bone is prominent and the jaws are powerful and still contain well-preserved teeth.
The skeletons are wonderfully preserved. The skull of one of them is intact, while the trunk and the limbs of another in perfect condition. Judging by the teeth after, were the skeletons to men over the age of twenty-four to twenty-seven years, probably died in battle, as a stone arrowhead is stuck in the head of one. - London Mail, " [10]
The latest to date known find report about relics of ancient French giants (the not quite so large type) dates from the year 1946 On March 22 of that year, the Canadian newspaper reported. Leader-Post of Regina (Saskatchewan), another discovery in the South of France " Paris, March 22 - Three human skeletons, each more than six feet and seven inches [about 2.00 m; d.Ü.] extent and dating back 2,000 years, are promoted in stone coffins of German prisoners of war to light been the near Avignon work in southern France, as here, the evening was reported yesterday. At the same place several urns were discovered with remains of prehistoric ages. " [11]
Let us leave now the final word Micah Ewers , who notes regarding one of the messages in summary: " All these reports can, when considered separately, as a anomalies or exaggerations of the press and> Tall Tales be explained away <However, if they and in retrospect. be seen in the light of scientific bone measurements of the giant of Castelnau, then they can actually make a strong, detailed substantiation of the true and physical reality that in ancient and prehistoric times certainly any> giant < France inhabited, and [although] in considerable populations, as opposed to an occasional here and there occur individuals. " [12]

Notes and sources

Figure 10 The Fund message from the Oelwein Register on November 8, 1894
Figure 10 The Fund message from the Oelwein Register of November 8, 1894
  1. Note: See these at also the overview page " Giants in prehistoric North America - clues and evidence "and the numerous linked there further posts!
  2. Source: oA , "Giants of Prehistoric France", in: The Oelwein Register , November 8, 1894 (Fig. x) ; by: Micah Ewers , UPDATE! Prehistoric Giants of France and Spain Part 2.0 , at: rephaim23 , 17 February 2014 (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  3. Source: oA , "Skeleton of A Giant", in: The Oswego Commercial Times ; by: Micah Ewers , op cit. (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  4. Source: oA , "Bones of Giants Are Unearthed Near Paris", in: The Miami News , December 26, 1918 by: Micah Ewers , op cit. ; as well: Fritz Zimmerman , Nephilim Giant's Stone Tomb Discovered Near Paris, France , at: tnephilim.blogspot , January 2, 2014 (both accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
    Figure 11 The Fund message from the Canadian Stanstead Journal on January 31, 1924
    Figure 11 The Fund message from the Canadian Stanstead Journal from January 31, 1924
  5. Source: LP , "Skeletons of Seven foot tall Neolithic giants", in: Freeport Journal Standard , April 15, 1933; by: Micah Ewers , op cit. (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  6. Source: oA , "Ancient French Giants Exhumed", in: The Evening Tribune , August 16, 1935; by: Micah Ewers , op cit. (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  7. Source: oA , "Prehistoric Giants' Tombs Are Located", in: The Milwaukee Journal , August 4, 1935, p 20; by: Micah Ewers , op cit. (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  8. Source: oA,. , "GIANT SKELETONS - DISCOVERY IN SOUTHERN FRANCE", in: Geraldton Guardian and Express , Monday, April 28, 1930, p 3; by: Micah Ewers , op cit. (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  9. Red Note: Today, part Solutré the department of Saône-et-Loire .
  10. Source: oA , "FIND OLD GRAVES - Skeletons of Giant Warriors Unearthed in France - Men Who Lived 25,000 Years Ago Believed to Have Died Fighting - Arrow found in Head of One", in: Stanstead Journal - January 31, 1924, S . 4; by: Micah Ewers , op cit. (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  11. Source: oA , "Giant human skeletons dug up by prisoners", in: Leader-Post , March 22, 1946, p 4; by: Micah Ewers , op cit. (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
  12. Source: Micah Ewers , UPDATE! Prehistoric Giants of France and Spain Part 2.0 , at: rephaim23 (accessed: 19/04/2014; translation into German by )
Picture sources:
1) Micah Ewers , UPDATE! Prehistoric Giants of France and Spain Part 2.0 , at: rephaim23
2) Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia , at: Montpellier (image processing by )
3) Micah Ewers , op cit.
4) Micah Ewers , op cit.
5) Bulletin de la Société géologique de France , Volume XI, 1941; by: Paul LEMOINE (1878-1940)
6) Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia , at: Gap (Hautes-Alpes) (image processing by )
7) Micah Ewers , op cit. (image processing by )
8) Micah Ewers , op cit. (image processing by )
9) Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia , at: Solutrense Pouilly (image processing by )
10) Micah Ewers , op cit.
11) Micah Ewers , op cit. (image processing by )
Translated from German, brought to my attention by 'Micah Gigantology' on Facebook-DD

Saturday, April 19, 2014

Meteor Explodes over Russia

This has been going on over many parts of the world continually since the end of last year, and I just got independent notice of the same thing going on out in the Western USA only yesterday.


Meteor Explodes over Russia, Footage, Saturday April 19, 2014

Saturday, April 19, 2014 12:44

From the copy posted on YouTube

Friday, April 18, 2014

NASA SaysThe Only Thing Stopping a City-Destroying Asteroid Is Blind Luck

NASA: The Only Thing Stopping a City-Destroying Asteroid Is Blind Luck

Ashley Feinberg 4/18/14 1:00pm

NASA: The Only Thing Stopping a City-Destroying Asteroid Is Blind Luck

Related : Risk of asteroid hitting Earth is ten times higher than we thought

This is frightening. Nature just published a study by astronomers who have reanalyzed and recalculated the estimate of asteroids that could hit Earth ...

So you know how we all kind of thought that our odds of getting destroyed by an asteroid were remarkably low? Yeah, that was wrong. According to new research, the odds of a large-scale asteroid impact are actually three to ten times higher than we thought. And the only thing stopping total and utter destruction? Sheer, dumb luck.
The unsettling revelation, which will be presented in full by three former NASA astronauts this coming Tuesday, is the result of a new visualization of data from a nuclear weapons warning network. The B612 Foundation found that 26 atomic-bomb-size explosions have happened around the world in (thankfully) remote locations since 2001. Ed Lu, the Foundation's CEO, explains:
It shows that asteroid impacts are NOT rare—but actually 3-10 times more common than we previously thought. The fact that none of these asteroid impacts shown in the video was detected in advance is proof that the only thing preventing a catastrophe from a 'city-killer' sized asteroid is blind luck.
We're not totally helpless, though. Funded by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace, the Sentinel Infrared Space Telescope will head into a Venus-esque orbit around the sun when it launches in 2017. From orbit, the Sentinel should have a better vantage point for spotting rogue, humanity-destroying asteroids than we've ever had before.
We'll get a better picture of what this all means come Tuesday, when the astronauts present their findings at the Museum of Flight in Seattle at 9pm EDT. So just to be safe, maybe hold off on rewatching Armageddon for now. [Image: Shutterstock/solarseven]

Thursday, April 17, 2014

Posted at Atlantis Empire on Facebook

This is surprising comparison and possibly meaningful, but more needs to be known about the lost civilization of the Amazon to know that for certain.

Buildings at Angkor Wat were often made out of Laterite (tropical red mud) brick and this is plausible for the Amazon civilization too.

History Channel / MonsterQuest Eastern Bigfoot

MonsterQuest: Bigfoot in New York - History Channel (2008)

What is the Monster of Whitehall? In 1976, in upstate New York, several police officers reported seeing an animal that they couldn't identify. It was described as a "large creature, seven to eight feet tall, walking like a gorilla hunched over and making a sound like a woman screaming." More than 30 years have passed and the sightings continue. The original police officers have agreed to be tested. Follow our team as they work with local researchers and renowned wildlife experts on the trail of the Monster of Whitehall.

[This image strikes me as a good depiction of the Big-Neanderthaloid type: it could even be said to be a "Marked Hominid" because it has redder head hair and a beard, and that would probably be the classification Mark A Hall and Loren Coleman would put on it. Once again, a skull of this type has been discovered, reported and illustrated for 75 years or so, and most experts consider the remains to be a type of Homo sapiens. Coleman and Hall say the remains are Homo heidelbergensis, which is identical to what is called "Archaic Homo sapiens" in the literature. So we can say there is a broad consensus of opinion on the point.-DD]

"According to one definition, Homo sapiens is a single species comprising several subspecies that include the archaics and modern humans. Under this definition, modern humans are referred to as Homo sapiens sapiens and archaics are also designated with the prefix "Homo sapiens". For example, the Neanderthals are Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, and Homo heidelbergensis is Homo sapiens heidelbergensis"
[Thus this is one legitimate Scientific point of view although not universally agreed upon. We choose to use that definition here.- DD.]

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Guest Blogger Jayasree - Mundas - a fused culture of Tamil and Sanskrit speaking Vedic society (Mundas -10)

Mundas - a fused culture of Tamil and Sanskrit speaking Vedic society (Mundas -10)

Previous articles in this series:-

One of the common views held by many scholars is that ‘Aryans’ or Hindus influenced the Mundari people such that these people had started worshiping “Aryan” Gods. The same explanation is given to justify the presence of Sanskrit words in their language. However a closer examination of their festivals and practices give rise to a view that such ‘Aryan’ practices are running basically in their culture. Another important observation is that they all have had some connection with peninsular India and ancient Tamil or proto-Tamil. 

The basic problem is in thinking that Mundas are different from Hindus. All the features and ideas of their culture are seen in rural India even today. They are found in Tamil Sangam texts too that describe the culture that existed 2000 years ago. Texts like “Malai padu kadaam” and “Maduraik kaanchi” describe the life style of different types people living in forests and hills and we do find them similar to the life style and beliefs of Mundas. The Mundari speaking people show a close semblance to the life style in Peninsular India. We will discuss them in this article.

The Vedic or “Aryan” festivals of Mundas.
The Mundas celebrate Bissho karma puja which is the same as Vishwa Karma Puja – Vishwa Karma being the Creator-architect. It is easy to attribute this to some influence from ‘Hindus’. But their celebration of “Asharhe Puja” in Ashada month is something that Vedic society was celebrating but had given up long ago. This is similar to “Ashada Puja” in the Vedic society in which Goddess Saraswati was invoked as Vaak Devi to help in determining the level of prosperity of the upcoming rainy season. The available record of this Puja is found only in Brihad samhita authored by Varahamihira. {1) This puja was in vogue before the times of Varahamihira. No wonder Mundas worship Goddess Saraswati too which people think is an influence from Hinduism.

Monsa Puja
Another festival is the Monsa Puja which they celebrate in Shravan month. For Mundas, Monsa signifies serpents. Their belief in Monsa as a serpent God is so indigenous and so deep rooted that whenever they see a snake in the dream, they connect it to Monsa Devi. In Vedic culture there is Goddess Manasa Devi with a hood of a snake upon her head. Manasa Devi appears with a child in her hand.  
Pic courtesy:-  

There is a story behind this appearance of Manasa Devi,  narrated in Mahabharata. This story recognises the child in Manasa’s hand as Astika who was born to release the ancestors. Hindus believe that the snake signifies an impediment to getting progeny and worship of snake removes this impediment. The iconography of Manasa Devi seems to be the precursor to this belief. By worshiping Manasa Devi who is a personification of snake, one is blessed with a child. The child is desired primarily to pay off ancestral debts through ancestral worship. This concept is very much original and oldest concept of the Vedic society. The accessory elements may be missing in Mundari Monsa Devi. But the snake identity is retained by them. Monsa Devi could not have been an adopted concept as they have dream interpretations for Monsa. It must have been a former concept that was retained by them even after they had gone into isolation.
The same idea of Manasa Devi with a child is there in Tamil nadu by the name Isakki amman. 

This Goddess is found in many regions of Tamilnadu where some valorous women in the deed of protecting a child had been deified as Isakki. There is mention of Isakki as Iyakki in the 1st century AD text of Silappadhikaram, thereby establishing this deity as an olden concept. By the name Iyakki, it means that she is one who ‘drives’ the world / souls. She is Iccha shakthi of Creator God. That is identified as Manasa Devi. Thus a similar meaning with a similar iconography had existed throughout India. The original idea must have been Monsa Devi worshiped by Mundas. The idea of Monsa with serpent related to progeny could have been converted into forms of Manasa and Isakki, perhaps after Parashurama ushered in Devi worship through his Kalpasutra.

Plough – festival, Akshay Tritiya and Rohini
The paddy sowing festival of Santals is called “Ero”. It is done on Akshaya Tritiya  in the month of Chithrai– on the day when Sun and Moon exalts simultaneously. Even Toda people have a celebration on Akshaya Triteeya! This day is an important day in Vedic society. How did the Mundari people come to possess the knowledge to compute the date of Akshaya Triteeya if they had not had that knowledge by themselves – from the time of their previous habitat?   
A surprising connection to this day is that it is the day of Parashurama’s birthday! This day must have been an important day in the coastal region of Konkan and Malabar. Toda people hailing from there can be expected to have remembered this day but lost out the significance in course of time. The Santali tradition of remembering this day for ploughing might have come from an early Tamil practice. The Tamils had a tradition of starting the first ploughing called “ponnEru” (golden plough) in the month of Chithrai. It continues even today. The plough is called “Er” or “Eru” in Tamil. The festival Ero sounds like Tamil “Eru” (yEru) which means plough.
On the day of Akshaya Tritiya, Moon will be in the asterism of Rohini (Aldebaran). On this day the agricultural tribes of Jharkhand including the Mundari people start sowing the seeds. The star Rohini is identified with Creator God Brahma. Anything to do with growth and development is done on this day. This is a concept of Vedic society. The Mundas and other tribes of Jharkhand sow the seeds on this day, but without any pomp and festivities. This is something unusual for a society that is known for songs and dances for every activity. Perhaps this day coinciding with Parashurama Jayanathi could have nipped out the festivities! However the day was not discarded due to its significance for growth related activity. The absence of festivity does indicate a conscious decision to do away with it due to Parashurama’s connection to this date. But this reason could have been forgotten over time. 

Today this date had been commercially exploited by gold merchants calling people to buy gold. Originally this date was used as an ideal time for starting the agricultural practices to get a ‘golden’ harvest. 
From axe-culture to Plough culture.

In this context it is apt to make a comparison between ‘axe’ culture and ‘plough’ culture. Axe culture is identified with Parashurama and Plough culture is identified with Balarama, another avatar of Vishnu. In Parashurama’s times, new settlements were made by clearing the forests. Axe was the main implement to cut the trees. The Bhargava people of Parashurama’s clan fell out with Haihaya rulers and were forced to move out of Vindhya ranges. They were said to have made new settlements by clearing the forests.

In his times Parashurama was known to be carrying the axe always. Even the Mundari speaking people carry the axe all the time. Particularly the Savaras are known to be carrying it always. There was even an attempt to decipher the name Savara from the Scythian word Sagaris having the meaning axe. In the words of Cunningham, “It seems therefore not unreasonable to infer that the tribe who were so called took their name from their habit of carrying axes. Now it is one of the striking peculiarities of the Savars that they are rarely seen without an axe in their hands. The peculiarity has been frequently noticed by all who have seen them.” {2}

The Asur- Marundas also must have carried the axe to procure wood for furnaces. The Sanskrit name of axe as Parashu exists in Asur clan names as Parsa. However the common word for axe in Mundari language sounds closer to its Tamil equivalent. In Tamil the axe is called as “Kodari”. In Mundari language a small axe is called as “Konde”. Likewise the plough is called as “Hada” in Mundari – similar to its Sanskrit equivalent ‘Hala’. But the first ploughing is called as “Ero” – similar to the Tamil word “Er” for plough.
Makar festival.
The Makar parba or Makar parva is celebrated by Santals of the Mundari speaking people. The words Makar and Parva are Sanskrit but the festival is similar to Tamil festival of Pongal celebrated on Makar Sankaranthi. It is a three day celebration in Santali as well as Tamil tradition. On the first day that comes before Makar sankaranthi,  Santali children and youth burn logs of wood in the morning in a celebration called “Kumbha”. On the same day Tamils burn discarded things in the morning in a celebration called “Bhogi”.
Maghe festival.
The Maghe festival coming on Full Moon of Margashira is related to Dattatreya Jayanthi. However this was also the day when “Paavai nonbu” was started in Tamil lands. But the features of Tamil Paavai festival is not found  in Maghe Parba. Maghe parba resembles only Dattatreya Jayanthi that was discussed in Part 2. This festival bears the imprints of an earlier memory of the Vedic society.

Phagu festival.
Phagu festival is related to Holi festival. It is celebrated on the full moon of the Phalguni month. The name Phagu is corrupted from Phalguni. It was a very old festival in the Vedic society as it is about Holika, the aunt of Prahalad. This has reference to the Narasimha Avatar,that preceded Parashurama’s times.
Tamil culture in Mundas.
The flower festival of Sarhul celebrated by the Munda people resembles such festivals noted in ancient Tamil lands. Sarhul sounds like “Sarakonnai” flower of Tamil lands 

Sarakonnai flower

The first flower in spring and first rains in summer were celebrated in Tamil culture. Even today “raining the flower” festival (Poo-chorithal) is celebrated in almost all the Amman temples in Tamil lands in the month of Chithrai. Sarhul of Mundas seems to resemble that.
The Karam festival is related to Kadamba festival of the Konkan region which was discussed in Part 1.
Remnants of Skanda culture in Savaras.

One example of a very olden connect with Peninsular India is seen in the traditional names that Savaras have for their religious functionaries. They have a village priest, a Shaman, a helper to the Shaman and one who does funeral rites. Shamanism in India can be traced back to Skanda cult. Even today one can witness Shaman practices among Skanda devotees on popular festival days for Skanda. In the Tamil Sangam age it was too widespread and there were people called “Velan” who used to do fierce dances to the accompaniment of drum-beats to drive out the evil spirits or to spell oracles. This tradition is said to come in Kura-magal community of Valli, the local tribal girl whom Skanda married. Kura- magal means the girl from Kurava community. (There is a Korwa clan among Mundari speakers!).
The Shaman priest of Savaras bears a similar name – “Kuranmavan”. {3}  This is a Tamil word meaning “the guy of the Kurava clan”. Kura-magal is a female and Kura-mavan is a male.
The helper to this Shaman priest is “Idaimayan”. This also sounds like a Tamil word “Idai-magan” the one who comes in between or in the middle – meaning one whose services are taken in between, or one who comes in the middle in the hierarchy.
The one who does funeral rites is known as “Siggamavan”. ‘Mavan’ in this word is a Tamil word used in colloquial form for ‘magan’ – meaning person.  Sigga perhaps comes from “Sigi” in Tamil which means fire! As one engaged in keeping up the funeral fire, it is perfectly logical that he was called as “Sigi-mavan” that corrupted as “Sigga mavan” meaning “the guy working on fire”
Pic courtesy:- 
Project Gutenberg's Castes and Tribes of Southern India, by Edgar Thurston

The Santals call the head of the village as “Manjhi”.”Manjan” is the Tamil word that refers to a man. Similarly the word “Pergana” is common among Santals and widely prevalent in North east India. It refers to some groups or septs among them. This context of the word “Pergana” seems to convey that it is “Perum-gana” in Tamil meaning “the big group”.
Munda’s original name is a Tamil word.
The Mundas call themselves as “Horoko” in which ‘horo’ refers to man, according to them. In their speech the letters ‘h’ and ‘r’ are interchangeable with ‘k’ and ‘l’ respectively. As such ‘horo’ is also mentioned as “kolo” or “kol”. Mundas say that ‘hor’ or ‘kol’ means ‘man. This can be seen in the way they refer to people as “Santali Hor”,  “Mundari hor” or “Mundari kol” etc.
But there exists a word “Kolam” in Tamil that refers to ‘appearance’ or ‘form’. In Tamil it is common to use the word ‘Kolam’ along with a name to refer to someone ‘in the form of so and so’. For example ‘Andi-k-kolam’ means ‘in the form of an ascetic’. This can be understood as ‘ascetic man’ in which kolam comes to refer to man. But that is not the actual meaning of kolam. The word ‘kolam’ here only means ‘in the form of’.  Lord Skanda is famously referred to by the term “Andi-k-kolam – meaning “Skanda in the form of ascetic”.

The same idea seems to exist in the word ‘kol’ of Mundas. They refer to a Santali as ‘Santali hor(kol)’.   By the logic of the usage in Tamil,  Santali Hor means ‘one in the form of Santal’.  They say “Larka kol” to mean “one in the form of war-like person”. The say “sAdAn Horo” to refer to a non-Munda or a foreigner. The word “sAdAn” is a corrupt form of  ‘sAdArana” in Tamil and SAdharan in Sanskrit - which means ‘ordinary’. If we substitute ‘form or appearance’ for horo or kol, the word sAdAn Horo refers to “ordinary man and not a Munda!  The subtlety in the use of ‘hor’ or ‘kol’ is understood from this word.  

The word “Kolam” is used in Tamil when a person is in disguise in that form. The Mundari speaking people were actually living incognito and hiding their true identity. In such a context it makes perfect sense to refer to a person to be ‘in the form of a Santal” or in the form of a Kurukh or Korwa and so on by the use of the word “kol”. So when the Munda identifies himself as “Hork-ko” (ko in the word makes it plural. Similar use of ‘ka’ or “ga” for plural is there in corrupt form of Tamil. Eg – avan’ga’ to refer to they or these people), he is making a reference to his disguised form as so and so. A society that is living by hiding its identity can be expected to use such terms.
Tamil and Sanskrit in Munda septs and totems

The presence of Tamil is seen in the word they use to refer to the septs. Mundas are divided into septs called “Killi”. ‘Killi’  is a Tamil word. There were Chola kings by names “Killi Valavan”, Nalam “killi”, Pernar killi” etc. “Killi” in their name exists as family name or clan name. But no analysis or information exists on why these kings came to have ‘killi’ in their names. But the application of the word “killi” as it exists in Mundari language shows that the word “Killi” is derived from “Kilai.  Kilai means ‘branch’ and also ‘relatives’. Therefore a group of people who are related to each other or those who belong to the same gotra could be called as “Kilai”. From Kilai, the word ‘killi’ had come. Among Mundas, people of the same Killi do not marry within the Killi. This establishes the gotra identity among the same killi. The Tamil meaning as ‘relatives’ concurs with this practice.
I wonder whether any connection exists between Cholan Killis and Mundari Killis! Mundas were Maruttas originally. The Cholans trace their origin in Sibi’s dynasty. This is known from many Sangam texts and also from copper plate inscriptions found at Thiruvalangadu.  A commonality exists between them as both Sibi and Marutta people had gone underground to escape from Parashurama. Sibi’s descendants lived near the river Sindhu in North west India and Maruttas lived incognito in Shindhu kalaka of the same region. It is possible the some of them had gone further west and to central Asia. But Cholavarman, a descendant of Sibi dynasty came to Pumpukar and founded the Chola dynasty. {4} This was before Parashurama’s times as there is a narration in a Tamil text called Manimegalai of how the Cholan king of Pumpukar went into hiding when Parashurama was around on the lookout for kshatriyas.
{Note on Cholas:- Cholavarman’s ancestry coming from Sibi in North west India must not be considered as proof of Tamil speaking people having come from North west of India. The original Tamil speakers were Pandyans who came from the now submerged regions in the Indian Ocean. Tamil as a language refined with grammar was developed by Pandyans. However Tamil in corrupt form called as “Kodum Tamil” (meaning ‘stunted Tamil’ which is what Apabrahmsa also means) existed in other regions of India. It is a different history of how this happened. It will be discussed in another series). 
There is no etymology for Chola in Tamil. But Choda or Chauda or Chaula as variations of this name, refer to tuft. There is a proverb in Tamil related to Cholas and their tuft. (“Cholian Kudumi chumma aadaathu” – meaning the “the tuft of the Cholia does not shake for no reason”) The tuft of a Chola was tied in the front of the head. The existence of this proverb and people with Cholia titles and having tuft connected to Cholia make it known that Cholas were originally known for this kind of tuft. Perhaps the Cholas got their name from the tuft they sported. 
The following illustration shows the front-tuft. The picture is that of Periyaazhwar, a Vaishnavite saint who was the father of AndAL. He is always depicted with the Cholia tuft that is tied in the front of the head. 

Cholistan in present-day Pakistan might perhaps be the place of Chola origin. The presence of Brahui language  with similarities with Tamil could be related to the emergence of Cholavarma from this part of the country. It must be noted that the similar front-side tuft is found in people of the olden days in the stretch starting from Pakistan to Russia. A genetic study on the traditional front-tuft people of Eurasia and Cholia titled castes of Tamilnadu such as Cholia Brahmins and Cholia Vellalas needs to be done to look for connections.
The Cholan presence in the region near Indus makes them and Maruttas share language and traditions. The title Killi for Cholan kings to be same as Killi of Mundas must be viewed in this perspective too. }
Sanskrit and Tamil in totems of Killi.
Each Killi of Mundas has a totem as an identity. The names of these totems are found to be Sanskrit or Tamil. For example Kachap killi has Kachap as totem – kachap means tortoise in Sanskrit. Likewise there are totems like Tuti that refers to Tulsi plant. Mundas use tulsi leaves in pujas to sprinkle water. Soe totem refers to ‘sura’ in Tamil which refers to a fish. Nag totem refers to serpent. Purthi totem means insect. In Tamil ‘Puchi’ means insect. The term Purthi seems to be a corrupt form of Tamil word ‘Puchi’. Hansda totem refers to swan. Obviously Hansda is a corruption of Hamsa!

The fusion of Sanskrit and Tamil is seen in the totem ‘Kamal’. It means lotus in Mundari language too. The link with Tamil word exists in the Sept name that has Kamal as the totem. The sept name is “Tamar Pergana” – Tamarai is a Tamil word for lotus! Tamar Pergana is similar to “Tamarai Perum gana”. The septs and totems are something indigenous to the Mundari people. They have come from their basic culture. Many totems were formed in course of time, but their names certainly show Tamil or Sanskrit words mingled in their language. The co-existence of Tamil and Sanskrit in these names show how these two languages had co-existed as part and parcel of the society in their previous origins.
In this context it must be mentioned, that the famous Tamil Sangam age Grammar book called “Tholkappiyam” (meaning ‘ancient Kavya’) was authored by a descendant of Jamadagni’s lineage or Jamadagni Gotra! Popularly known as “Tholkappiyar”, his original name was ‘Trunadhoomagni  In the very first verse of this grammar book he expresses his qualification as having mastered the Sanskrit Vyakarana text called Aindram. It is with the knowledge of this Vyakarana text, he had written the grammar for Tamil. A JAmadagya possessing fine knowledge of Tamil and even qualified to write a grammar book in Tamil that became the official grammar book of the Sangam Assembly is a crucial piece of evidence that Tamil was a widely spoken language and that it co-existed along with Sanskrit in India, particularly from Vindhyas downward south and among Vedic sages. The probable time period of this grammar book was 1500 BCE – the time when the last and the 3rd Sangam was inaugurated.

The Mundari tribes.

The Mundas had existed as Maruttas and then as Marundas. Those who were engaged in iron smelting were identified as Asurs. The Santals seem to have come from Coromandal coasts. The Savaras came from the Vindhya regions. The Kurukhs aka Oraons came from Kishkindha as they were descendants of vanaras. “The ‘Bhuiyas’, a Munda tribe, call themselves as Pāwan-ka-put or Children of the Wind, that is of the race of Hanumān, who was the Son of the Wind”. {5}

The former regions of these tribes were near Vindhyas and the west coast of South India. The warrior ancestors of these tribes living in these regions left these regions due to fear of Parashurama and later settled in the hills and forests of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Bengal and Orissa. Of them the mention of Savaras by Mahabharata comes as a strong evidence of why they still continue to be as they are now. The Mahabharata  says that they became Kshatriya vrratyas due to the rage of Parashurama. The Savaras and others who fled had to live on whatever they could lay their hands on. They had to subsist on anything that they can catch hold of, say a frog or rat. Mahabharata 18-135 says,

“By accepting food from a eunuch, or from an ungrateful person, or from one who has misappropriated wealth entrusted to his charge, one is born in the country of the Savaras situated beyond the precincts of the middle country.”

This is to say that one would get degraded food in Savara areas which was beyond the Madhya desa – of Saraswathi basin. Though Savaras existed in seclusion, their existence was known to people in Mahabharata times.

The fear of Parashurama resonated upto Pumpukaar of the Chola kingdom. The reigning Cholan king Kanthan handed over the kingdom to his son born to a concubine thinking that Parashurama would not consider him to be pure kshatritya race. That Parashurama went after only valiant kshatriyas is known by a similar reference to one “Balika” of Amshuman dynasty who was always surrounded by women. This earned him a name “NAru kavacha” – the one who is protected by women. It is for this reason he was spared by Parashurama, says Srimad Bhagavatham {6}
 Inscriptional evidence:-
That the Parashurama episode was a fact of history is known from an inscription of the Cholas. Parashurama crowned the one born to a Haihaya princess whose father was killed by him while his wife was pregnant with this child. Parashurama crowned him somewhere in Konkan region near a hill called Mooshika (in Tamil “Ezhil malai”). This king was called as Rama kuta Mooshika – one crowned by Rama of Bhargava kula.  King Rajendra Chola I captured this crown given by Parashurama from the “sAntima dweepa” {7}
Today no place exists by this name. But the Tulu Gramapadhata mentions an island called “sAnti” as one among 77 islands that belonged to Gorashtra on the west coast of India. {8}  None of these islands exist today. But a look at the sea level maps of Graham Hancock shows that some islands had existed in this part of the sea which were once an extension of west coast at the time of Ice age.

The following series of maps would reveal the changes that happened in course of time. 

The figure below shows the complete inundation of the island under sea water. The arrow-mark in yellow points to the sunken island which is seen in light blue.

This image shows the region of south west in the Kurma Chakra of division of India as it existed about 2000 years ago. According to Varaha mihira, places called Hemagiri, Sindhukalaka, Raivataka, Surashtra, Baadara, Dravida and Maharnva were located within the curve as shown in the figure above. {9}
This region housed some important places of pilgrimage in Mahabharata times. 
There is reference in Mahabharata of a pilgrimage by Pandavas that speak about the islands off Konkan coast near Surparaka where sacrificial platforms for Jamadagni were present. {10}. As per Mahabharata accounts, the Pandavas went to Surparaka. From there they crossed certain tract on the coast of the sea and reached the islands dotted with forests. Those places were beheld by rulers and ascetics in the past. The Pandavas offered their worship, fasted and made donations. Then from there they came back to Surparaka. From Surparaka they went to Prabhas (Somnath) where the pilgrimage was formally concluded. {11}

 The islands off Konkan coast that Pandavas visited are no longer there. A marine exploration of this region would reveal many clues to Parashurama’s historicity. 
West-coast connection to Dravida and Manu

The importance of those islands is something that goes far beyond Parashurama’s times. What it could be?
An important feature of the Parashurama episode is that he relocated Brahmins in the stretch of west coast that was reclaimed from the sea. In the process, people like Kurukhs /Oraons had to quit this place or were forced to leave this place to make room for the new settlers. The so-called Dravida Brahmins were made to settle in this stretch who later spanned out to Kanchipuram and Andhra. Of all the places in India, why Parashurama chose this stretch and even made his final abode in Surparaka in this stretch is a big question. Added to this is the mystery of the sunken islands off Surparaka that Pandavas visited.
There are many leads to unravel this mystery in British records, Mahabharata and some inscriptions on Dravida lands in this stretch as far as south Kerala near “Aryan-kaavu” – the place where the famous Iyappa temple is located. An analysis of these leads give us a revelation that Vaivaswatha manu also known as Dravidewara Manu  was living in this stretch before Holocene when the sea levels were low due to Ice age in the Northern hemisphere. When the sudden sea floods happened at the end of Ice age, Manu and his men (who were prepared for the flood) were pushed by the sea currents in the Arabian seas that gushed from Indian Ocean. The currents carried them northward and pushed them into river Saraswati and reached them as far as the Himalayan mountains. The birth of Rig Vedas started after that. But the previous habitat in the west coast of India was lost to the seas.

The following illustration shows the probable movement of inhabitants - Vaivaswata Manu and his subjects and sages who lived in the coastal extensions at the beginning of Holocene.

River saraswati was flowing mightily at that time. The estuary of that river formed the entry point of Manu pushed by the currents (or pulled by the Mathsya, the mythical Fish) which came to be called as Dwaraka. Every time this entry was swallowed by the sea, another Dwaraka was built in remembrance of that early entry that facilitated the growth of new civilisation of Vaivaswatha Manu.
In course of time, when the domination of Kshatriyas grew to the extent of arrogance, Parashurama was present in the picture affected by an act of arrogance and atrocity by the Kshatriyas (Haihaya Kartha veeryarjuna) . He decided to call it a day and destroyed every kshatriya around him. Wanting to start from the beginning, he reclaimed the lost coast of Dravida Manu and settled the Brahmins who had come from the time of Manu. The explanation and justification of this require another series of articles which I will take up in a future date.


{1} Brihad samhita – chapter 26.
{2} “The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India” - Volume IV of IV, by R.V. Russell
{3} “Tribal culture of India” L.P Vidyarthi & Binay Kumar p260
{5} “The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India”, Vol 3 by R. V. Russell
{6} Srimad Bhagavatham - 9.9.40
{7} One dated at 1024 AD found on a rock on top of Thirumalaik kunRu near POLur and another dated 1031 AD found in the southern side of the sanctum sanctum of Rajarajeswara temple in Tanjore.
{8} “Ancient Karnataka” Vol I ‘History of Tuluva’.
{9} Brihad samhita 14- 19
{10} Mahabharata 3-88
{11} Mahabharata 3-118