Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Sunday, August 3, 2014

Resource: Younger Dryas Impact

From the PNAS in 2012. This has the same Carbon-14 dating problem that everything else from that horizon has and there is a strong possibility that such an impact drastically altered the atmospheric balance of Carbon isotopes :

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America      
PNAS July 10, 2012 vol. 109 no. 28

Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago

  1. James P. Kennettq
  1. Edited by* Steven M. Stanley, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, and approved April 30, 2012 (received for review March 19, 2012)

Abstract

It has been proposed that fragments of an asteroid or comet impacted Earth, deposited silica-and iron-rich microspherules and other proxies across several continents, and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling episode 12,900 years ago. Although many independent groups have confirmed the impact evidence, the hypothesis remains controversial because some groups have failed to do so. We examined sediment sequences from 18 dated Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) sites across three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia), spanning 12,000 km around nearly one-third of the planet. All sites display abundant microspherules in the YDB with none or few above and below. In addition, three sites (Abu Hureyra, Syria; Melrose, Pennsylvania; and Blackville, South Carolina) display vesicular, high-temperature, siliceous scoria-like objects, or SLOs, that match the spherules geochemically. We compared YDB objects with melt products from a known cosmic impact (Meteor Crater, Arizona) and from the 1945 Trinity nuclear airburst in Socorro, New Mexico, and found that all of these high-energy events produced material that is geochemically and morphologically comparable, including: (i) high-temperature, rapidly quenched microspherules and SLOs; (ii) corundum, mullite, and suessite (Fe3Si), a rare meteoritic mineral that forms under high temperatures; (iii) melted SiO2 glass, or lechatelierite, with flow textures (or schlieren) that form at > 2,200 °C; and (iv) particles with features indicative of high-energy interparticle collisions. These results are inconsistent with anthropogenic, volcanic, authigenic, and cosmic materials, yet consistent with cosmic ejecta, supporting the hypothesis of extraterrestrial airbursts/impacts 12,900 years ago. The wide geographic distribution of SLOs is consistent with multiple impactors.


More associated references:
 



Additional information on Metallurgy and "Prospectores"

 [reprinted article]

A physico-anthropological study of skeletal material from Neolithic age to Hellenistic times in Central Greece and surrounding region

I have located the text of George Panagiaris important 1993 doctoral thesis on Greek skeletal material. This may be one of the most comprehensive efforts to study the Ancient Greek population from a physical anthropological perspective (413 male and 354 female crania, using 65 biometric characters as well odontological traits).

Panagiaris' conclusions in English can be found in p.10 of the document. He confirms that the greater period of discontinuity in the material is observed during the Helladic period (=Bronze Age in Greek archaeology), where broad-headed incoming groups appear, side by side with the older Mediterranean population. He attributes this to the arrival of such people from the highlands Pindos range, although he sees the possibility of Anatolian influences as well, but has no comparative data. He cites the tendency for broader skulls in higher latitudes, although this general trend in H. sapiens probably does not explain the local trend within Caucasoids where the key difference is between mountaineers (where the Alpine, Dinaric, Armenoid, and Pamir-Ferghana types are well-represented) and lowland folk. Perhaps, if various ancient DNA projects manage to study some Greek material we may be able to ascertain the events that were taking place in Greece at that time.


Of course, the issue cannot be seen in isolation, because at this time we see an increase in brachycephalic types in Crete and Anatolia, the appearance of the intrusive brachycephalic Bell Beaker folk in Western Europe, and perhaps even the presence of the interfluvial type (Pamir-Ferghana type) in the eastern Saka. 
 



Personally, I see something importantin these developments: why would broad-headed mountaineers make their appearance in the lowlands at this time in history? I am strongly leaning towards the idea that this has to do with metallurgical innovation during this time. According to Roberts et al. (2009), from which the figure on the left [above]is taken:

Metallurgy in Eurasia originated in Southwest Asia due to the widespread adoption of, and experimentation in, pyrotechnology and the desire for new materials to serve as aesthetic visual displays of identity, whether of a social, cultural or ideological nature. This can be demonstrated through the early use of metal for jewellery and the use of ore-based pigments along with the continued use of stone, bone, and other materials for most tools. The subsequent appearance of metals throughout Eurasia is due to the acquisition of metal objects by individuals and communities re-inventing traditions of adornment, even in regions hundreds of kilometres from the nearest sources of native metals or ores. The movement of communities possessing metallurgical expertise to new ore sources and into supportive societies led to the gradual transmission of metallurgy across the Eurasian landmass. By the second millennium BC, metallurgy had spread across Eurasia, becoming firmly rooted in virtually all inhabitable areas (Sherratt 2006). The ability to smelt different ores, create different metals or increase metal production did not occur in a linear evolutionary fashion throughout Eurasia, but rather appeared sporadically over a vast area – a result of regional innovations and societal desires and demands. 

There is no evidence to suggest that metallurgy was independently invented in any part of Eurasia beyond Southwest Asia. The process of metallurgical transmission and innovation created a mosaic of (frequently diverse) metallurgical traditions distinguished by form, composition and production techniques. It is within this context that innovations such as the earliest working of gold in the Balkans or the sudden emergence of distinctive tin-bronze working in Southeast Asia should be seen. 
[This ignores the independent evidence for copper and gold metallurgy in Western Europe, especially the Southern Iberian Peninsula, where some of the evidence has been stated to be equally as old. I do also note that in the second map the Southern Iberian area has been darkened (is older) and is indicated to be separate from the larger areas of activity in the East-DD]

The richest ore deposits were found in mountain areas as Thornton (2009) makes clear:

Models for the development of metallurgy in Southwest Asia have for a long time been focussed on research carried out in the lowland regions of the Levant and Mesopotamia. These models do not take into account the different developmental trajectories witnessed in the resource-rich highlands of Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iran. In this paper, the beginnings of the use and production of metals in Iran will be juxtaposed with a cursory overview of the lowland model (the ‘Levantine Paradigm’) in order to highlight these differences. By synthesizing data from a number of current research projects exploring the early metallurgy of the Iranian Plateau, this paper demonstrates how at least one of the highland regions of Southwest Asia was at the very forefront of technological innovation from the seventh through the second millennium BC.  
I had planned to write a separate post on the interplay between metallurgy and the rise in social complexity that led to the spread of (at least some branches of-) Indo-European and Semitic during time, but this is probably as good a place as any to summarize the argument:

The practice of metallurgy launched the first globalization: in order to produce high quality metal objects, one needed a variety of specialized workers: prospectors, miners, metalworkers. The necessary ores do not occur everywhere on the map, and production requires a complex logistic operation to manage resources and talent. One needed, in addition, to establish a network of traders and warriors to carry out and supervise the trade, since demand for metal objects was wide and not limited to the vicinity of their production.

Production and trade networks facilitated the flow of ideas, and necessitated the flow of peoples, both because expertise was non-local, and also because the producers wanted to supervise their profitable business. There is an advantage to being an early adopter of new technology; many of the shifts in power in world history depended on a technology differential (European guns in the New World, mounted archers on the Eurasian steppe, triremes in the Mediterranean, Macedonian long-spears vs. Persian light infantry being some examples).

The technology differential eventually dissipates as everyone gets access to the new inventions. This process may take several centuries, but in the meantime those monopolizing them enjoy a triple advantage:

  1. There is demand for their product
  2. They have the better weapons
  3. They are part of broader communities that can muster resources against anyone who crosses them
It is no accident that the Bronze Age started with technological innovation and ended up in a series of military conflicts. What began as a transformation of Neolithic communities by monopolizing guilds of the bearers of the new technologies ended up with everyone having access to them, and of course they went to war.

Getting back to the topic of Panagiaris' dissertation, I might try my hand at translating some interesting portions. These will be posted as updates in the space below.

http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/07/a-physico-anthropological-study-of.html

Olmec Tikis

Above is an Olmec "Potbellied" figure and looking very similar to statues associated with the Megalithic period of Southeast Asia and then again more recent "tiki" statues of Polynesia: similar statues also appear in the Archaeological record of South America.

I had just been noticing stylistic similarities between the Olmecs and older Polynesians in the jade work when I started seeing that some of the themes and subject matter were also the same. For one thing, some of the little jade human figures were evidently meant to represent fetuses (as are also the Hei Tikis of New Zealand) and some of the jade spirals were meant to be dragons (Taniwhas).



Saturday, August 2, 2014

Atlantean Warfare in Egypt at the End of the Ice Age

This is a matter we have discussed before on the blog. The date is Younger Dryas and it is subject to a known vacillation in the Carbon-14 proportion. The direct dating of this event is about 10000-11000 BP (and not BC) without using the so-called correction factor, which ignores the known vacillation in C 14 at the time. -DD

The first race war? Scientists investigating after 13,000-year-old bodies are discovered on the edge of the Sahara

  • Skeletons from first human massacre will be displayed at British Museum
  • Remains from 11,000BC found in Jebel Sahaba cemetery in Sahara desert
  • Scientists say mass murder caused by 'environmental disaster' of Ice Age
  • At least 60 individuals found in excavation by American archaeologist
[At the end of the Ice Age and during the Mesolithic we have two sites with clear evidence of invasion and massacre, one in Europe at Ofnet, Bavaria, and this one in the valley of the Nile. Both are associated with the same ethnic type of invaders that are elsewhere identified as Atlanteans. both of them are very telling.-DD]

REFERENCE

150 Mummies of Ancient Unknown Civilisation Discovered in Atacama Desert

http://chauvetdreams.co.uk/2014/07/peru-150-mummies-of-ancient-unknown-civilisation-discovered-in-atacama-desert/
These burials are contemporary with the early Mayan period and the Dark Ages of Europe before the Viking Age. Some of the material is probably even older than that. -DD

peruvian-mummies-6

Peru: 150 Mummies of Ancient Unknown Civilisation Discovered in Atacama Desert


A team of archaeologists from universities in Poland, Peru and Colombia have discovered 150 mummies in the Atacama Desert belonging to an unknown culture that predate the Tiwanaku and Inca civilization by almost 500 years.
The bodies were mummified naturally by being buried directly in the sand with no stone structures, wrapped in cotton veils, reed mats or fishing nets, and radiocarbon dating shows that the oldest mummies came from 4th century AD, while the youngest mummies came from 7th century AD.
Peruvian mummies 1
Mummies of an unknown culture found buried in the Tambo River delta.
One mummy has a bow and all are wrapped in shrouds and mats.Project Tambo, University of Wrocław.
Peruvian mummies 7
Close-up of a mummy buried with some small objectsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
The Tiwanaku civilisation is believed to have existed between 500AD and 1,000 AD, covering much of what is Peru and Chile today.
Under Project Tambo, the team have been excavating in the Tambo River delta in the northern region of the Atacama Desert since 2008 and the first mummies were found in 2012, but it took until March 2014 for the team to make major discoveries.
Peruvian mummies 7
A shroud covering a mummy in the Tambo River deltaProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Peruvian mummies 3
A mummy buried with assorted grave goods, including a beautifully painted potProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Together with the bodies in individual graves, the archaeologists found numerous grave goods, such as weapons like bows and quivers with arrows tipped with obsidian heads, and maces with stone or copper finials.
There were also richly decorated weaving tools, jewellery made from tumbaga (a gold and copper alloy) and copper, reed withes attached to the ears of the dead and beautiful intact pottery.
Peruvian mummies 5
A collection of pottery and other grave goodsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
According to Professor Józef Szykulski, leader of the research project from University of Wrocław, the mummies are of virtually unknown people, and the bows are a particularly interesting find that possibly symbolised power, which could mean that people buried in the Tambo River delta were nobility or the society’s elite.
Peruvian mummies 2
A close-up of the mummy buried with a bow, which is possibly a symbol of powerProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
“Bows are extremely rare among the finds from the area of Peru. We have seen them however, in areas further south like Chile and further east in Amazonia. The issue, however, requires a deeper study,” Szykulski tells IBTimes UK.
In one grave, the archaeologists even found the remains of a llama, which would mean that the animal had been brought to the region much earlier than previously thought.
“Llama burials are quite common in the pre-Columbian cultures,” says Szykulski.
“We learned a lot about what equipment had been used, such as baskets and fishing nets, what these people were doing, which was agriculture and fishing, how they dressed, what ornaments they wore and even how they combed their hair.”
Peruvian mummies 4
Some of the jewellery recovered from the burialsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
The Polish archaeologists will be returning to Peru in October for further excavations, both in the cemetery where they found the unknown mummies, and in an adjacent cemetery where burials belonging to individuals from the Tiwanaku civilisation were found.
The Tiwanaku people were not believed to have ventured as far as the Tambo River delta, and the discovery of these tombs will help to increase understanding of pre-Columbian civilisations in Peru.
Peruvian mummies 6
A mummy in a curled up position, which seems to have an elongated skullProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Project Tambo is a joint effort between University of Wrocław, University of Szczecin, University of Poznań, University of Silesia, the Archaeological Museum in Głogów, Universidad Católica de Santa Maria in Arequipa, Universidad Nacional in Ica, the Universidad Central in Bogota (Colombia), Jagiellonian University and the University of Łódź

Geometric Signs from Genevieve Von Petzinger


Genevieve Von Petzinger has been doing some very exciting work which goes a long way toward confirming my own suspicions derived from independant study (The equivalent material has been lying around my library in unpublished manuscript form for the last 20 years or so). Basically, her thesis is that all rock art worldwide contains certain  regularly recurring symbols which are probable forerunners to later written records, and that they seem to have come Out of Africa along with the last great migration at the beginning of the Cro-Magnon period in Europe.

My additional comments include: The same symbols are also found in Australia and the Americas, from the oldest rock art and carried forward from that point. Some of the signs definitely occurred in the Neolithic as "Pottery signs", some were definitely being used in Egypt from before the development of Hieroglyphics, and some of them were incorporated into later regular alphabets that continue to be used. Several of these symbols are the same as appear on the Azilian pebbles. This does also connect up with Alexander Marshak's theories about astronomical notations since some of the symbols are associated with such notation (Some of them even greatly resemble later Roman Numerals and they include regular and repeated use of the signs I,V and X)
Many of these symbols are associated with Megalithic culture (eg, cupmarks) and it has been suggested that several signs are tracing shapes which appear to the eyes automatically during drug-induced hallucinations and trance states. In early Europe this has been linked to the use of the Amanita muscaria mushroom: in other areas other drugs must have been substituted.
As far as patterns of diffusion go, the distribution includes both TransAtlantic and TransPacific continuities and both were definitely accomplished facts before the end of the Ice Ages in the Younger Dryas event.

For further information please follow these links:
http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/geometric_signs/geometric_signs.php
http://www.ancientlosttreasures.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=171&t=1850






Thursday, July 31, 2014

Re-Examining the Out of Africa Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy

Essentially this says that the European male lineages include a pre-modern "Out Of Africa" component from the Neanderthal age. That would be in the Neanderthal age, and the time distance between the two populations is pretty exactly the span of the Neanderthals in Europe. I don't think any of the reviewers have remarked on that aspect of this yet. The Out of Africa branch as identified here is definitely the "Naked", tropical-African variety of Homo sapiens as we commonly recognise it: the non-African branch here identified would be the "Hairy" component

Re-Examining the "Out of Africa" Theory and the Origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids) in Light of DNA Genealogy

 
ABSTRACT
Seven thousand five hundred fifty-six (7556) haplotypes of 46 subclades in 17 major haplogroups were considered in terms of their base (ancestral) haplotypes and timespans to their common ancestors, for the purposes of designing of time-balanced haplogroup tree. It was found that African haplogroup A (originated 132,000 ± 12,000 years before present) is very remote time-wise from all other haplogroups, which have a separate common ancestor, named β-haplogroup, and originated 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. It includes a family of Europeoid (Caucasoid) haplogroups from F through T that originated 58,000 ± 5000 ybp. A downstream common ancestor for haplogroup A and β-haplogroup, coined the α-haplogroup emerged 160,000 ± 12,000 ybp. A territorial origin of haplogroups α- and β-remains unknown; however, the most likely origin for each of them is a vast triangle stretched from Central Europe in the west through the Russian Plain to the east and to Levant to the south. Haplogroup B is descended from β-haplogroup (and not from haplogroup A, from which it is very distant, and separated by as much as 123,000 years of “lat- eral” mutational evolution) likely migrated to Africa after 46,000 ybp. The finding that the Europeoid haplogroups did not descend from “African” haplogroups A or B is supported by the fact that bearers of the Europeoid haplogroups, as well as all non-African haplogroups do not carry either SNPs M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114, P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs) or M60, M181, P90 (haplogroup B), as it was shown recently in “Walk through Y” FTDNA Project (the reference is incorporated therein) on several hundred people from various haplogroups. 
More Info: Author(s) Anatole A. Klyosov, Igor L. Rozhanskii


A. A. KLYOSOV, I. L. ROZHANSKII
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.84

Introduction

This study concerns the origin of anatomically modern hu-mans, which presumably belong to Y chromosomal haplogroupsA through T according to the classification developed in humangenetics and DNA phylogeny of man. This paper 1) sets forth atimeframe for the origin of Europeoids (Caucasoids); 2) identi-fies their position among all haplogroups (tribes) known todayon the haplogroup tree; and 3) offers evidence to re-examinethe validity of the "Out of Africa" concept.

The principal difference of our approach from those knownin human genetics is that our methodology is based on the iden-tification of branches of haplotypes in each haplogroup and its subclade (each branch is descended from its only common ancestor), and, in each case, is calculated a timespan from a com-mon ancestor of the branch by verifying that the branch is in-deed derived from one common ancestor and by using the crite-ria described in (Klyosov, 2009a; Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011;Rozhanskii, 2011). As a result, we obtained a chronology of allavailable branches in each haplogroup and in their total en-tirety—from A to T (in the current classification). In other words, for each haplotype we successfully identified its place inthe whole multi-haplogroup system of mankind. It is reasonableto assume that haplotypes of the whole of mankind form a con-tinuous system, albeit locally interrupted by "population bot-tlenecks" which essentially disrupt the initially continuous fab-ric of haplotypes. This fabric can be reconstructed based on itsfragments and in the same manner as the kinetics of chemicalreactions can be reconstructed based on relatively few experi-mental points. This analogy is rather close since mutations inhaplotypes obey the same laws of chemical kinetics, this wasdiscussed in the first paper of this series (Rozhanskii & Klyosov,2011).

Thanks largely in part to geneticists, the "Out of Africa"concept was popularized during the last two decades, yet it was never directly proven; however, for many specialists its appealwas undeniably convincing. The concept was based primarilyon the premise that Africa possesses the highest variability, or variance, of the human DNA and its segments. Set apart, it isnot a strong argument because a mix of different DNA lineagesalso results in a high variability and, as we show below, it islargely what occurs in Africa. Moreover, a genomic gap exists between some Africans and non-Africans, which has also beeninterpreted as an argument that the latter descended from Afri-cans. A more plausible interpretation might have been that bothcurrent Africans and non-Africans descended separately from amore ancient common ancestor, thus forming a proverbial fork.A region where this downstream common ancestor arose wouldnot necessarily be in Africa. In fact, it was never proven that helived in Africa.Research into this question has served as the basis for and thesubject of our work. We have found that a great diversity of Y chromosomal haplotypes in Africa is a result of the mixing of several very distant lineages, some of them not necessarilyAfrican, and that Europeiods (at least) do not contain "African"SNPs (those of haplogroups A or B). These important findings put a proverbial dent in the "Out of Africa" theory.

Results and Discussion

The 22 marker haplotypes, which are the "slowest" in termsof their mutation rate constant, described in (Klyosov, 2011a,2011b; Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011) were mainly used in this study. They are best suited for chronological calculations downto 100,000 years and deeper in time. This is because one muta-tion in these haplotypes occurs on average once in 4250 years,while in 67 marker haplotypes, for example, one mutation oc-curs—on average—once in 208 years (ibid). However, the 22marker haplotypes include a part of the last panel of the 67marker haplotypes and hence, 67 marker haplotypes wereneeded for the study.

Haplogroup A

Extended haplotypes of haplogroup A collected in variousdatabases (YSearch, FTDNA Projects), split into at least four different and distinctive DNA lineages, each with its base hap-lotype. This is essentially represented with a series of 32 marker haplotypes ( Figure 1) and 37 marker haplotypes ( Figure 2).In a simple, uncomplicated case, the base haplotype is equi-valent to the ancestral haplotype in the lineage. This is obvious in recent lineages, in which most haplotypes still represent the non-mutated ancestral haplotype. For more ancient lineages the


 

A tree of 141 of 32 marker haplotypes of haplogroup A. Haplotypes were  taken  from  SMGF and  FTDNA’s “Y-Haplogroup A Project”(http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Haplogroup_A/default.aspx?section=yresults).
A series of previously unreported haplotypes from Cameroon was assigned to A1b subclade according to STR values, being nearly identical  to those  found  in  Bahamas ( Simms et al., 2011).
Figure 1
 

A tree of 31 of 37 marker haplotypes of haplogroup A with somesubclades. Haplotypes were taken from YSearch FTDNA’s "African Project"(http://www.familytreedna.com/publicwebsite.aspx?vgroup=African.DNAProject&section=yresults).
 
Figure 2
 
base haplotype is obtained by the minimization of mutations in the haplotype dataset; therefore, the base haplotype represents the deduced ancestral haplotype. The four base haplotypes of haplogroup A in the 22 marker format are as follows:

12 11 11 - 9 11 - 10 - 10 9 12 12 7 10 8 null 13 11 16 1014 9 11 11

12 10 11 - 7 13 - 8 - 10 8 15 17 6 10 9 12 13 11 16 8 1311 11 12

13 11 12 - 10 11 - 16 - 10 9 14 14 8 8 8 9 12 11 12 8 1212 11 11

12 13 10 - 10 11 - 10 - 11 8 15 15 8 9 8 null 10 9 14 8 128 11 12

These base haplotypes have been assigned to subclades A3b2,A1a, A(P97+, SRY10831.1-), and A(M23-, M32-, P108-,SRY10831.1-), respectively. It was calculated that the common ancestors of the branches lived 5500, 5000, 600 years before present (ybp), and the last one is an individual haplotype. It is clear that these four haplotypes are tremendously distant from each other, and this is taking into account the extremely low mutation rates of the markers. The deduced base haplotype for
haplogroup A from the available data is as follows:12 11 11 - 9 11 - 10 - 10 8 14 15 7 10 8 12 13 11 16 8 139 11 12

Since alleles in the four haplotypes above vary significantly,the permutation method was applied (Klyosov, 2009a) for cal-culation of a timespan to their common ancestor. The averagesquared sum of all mutations in the four haplotypes aboveequals to 984, and the number of conditional generations to acommon ancestor is 984/22/2/16/.00027 = 5177. That is,132,000 years to a common ancestor of all the available haplo-types of haplogroup A. In the formula above, 22 is the number of markers in each haplotype; sixteen (16) is the square of thenumber of haplotypes in the dataset, 2 is introduced because thenumber of mutations was counted twice (all permutations),and .00027 is the mutation rate constant per marker in the 22marker haplotypes (Klyosov, 2011a, 2011b). A correction for

back mutations is not required in the permutation method(Klyosov, 2009a).Pairwise calculations of the dataset above give, as it should be, slightly lower values of timespans to a common ancestor.For example, base haplotypes of the A1a and A3b2 subclades (see Figure 2) differ by 25 mutations in all 22 markers, which places their common ancestor at 4167



8576 conditionalgenerations, that is 112,000 ybp. Two haplotypes with null-mutation differ by 27 mutations, which places their commonancestor at 4500



9922 conditional generations, that is127,000 years to a common ancestor (see Materials and Meth-ods for the principles of calculations). This gives an additionalsupport of the obtained "age" of haplogroup A as 132,000 ±20,000 years.

Haplogroup B

A similar approach was applied to haplogroup B, and thefollowing 22 marker base haplotype was obtained for a com-mon ancestor who lived 46,000 ybp (Klyosov, 2011b):11 12 11 - 11 11 - 10 - 11 8 16 16 8 10 8 12 10 11 15 8 1211 12 11It differs from the base 22 marker haplotype of haplogroup A by 18 mutations, which gives 18/.006 = 3000 generations. Witha correction factor (for back mutations) of 1.633, the resultconstitutes 123,000 years between common ancestors of hap-logroup A and B. Because they lived 132 and 46 thousandyears before present, respectively, their common ancestor livedapproximately 150,000 years before present (see Materials andMethods).The ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogy)annual review in 2010 and earlier stated "

The BR haplogroupsplit off from haplogroup A 55,000 years before present ( bp)

.It probably appeared in North East Africa". Since the ISOGG-2012 stated, "The A haplogroup is thought to have been defined about 60,000 years bp

"http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html then haplogroups A and B should be separated by only several thousand years, or by 2 - 3 mutations in their slow 22 marker base haplotypes. It is not so, and between their base haplotypes there are as many as 18 mutations in the 22 markers, which translates to 123 thousand years (see above).This finding indicates that haplogroup B did not descend from haplogroup A. Rather, they both descended from a com-mon ancestor who lived ~150,000 ybp, and he was not necessarily living in Africa. Since he belonged to a haplogroup up-stream from haplogroups  A and B, his haplogroup can be named "alpha-haplogroup". It is a matter of taste and belief to call it "Adam" or not.


Haplogroups C through T
The same methodology was applied to 7415 of 67 marker haplotypes of all known haplogroups and their subclades, re-duced to the slow 22 marker haplotypes, taken from databasesYSearch and SMGF and a multitude of FTDNA Projects (see Appendix). The base haplotypes of principal haplogroups andsome of their subclades, including those of haplogroups A andB, are listed below, and chronology of their appearance is shown in Figure 3

Pairwise calculations of mutation distances between the base haplotype of haplogroup A and each of the base haplotypes of other haplogroups place a common ancestor of the α-haplogroupat 160,000 ± 12,000 years before present. For example, 18 mu-tations between A and B base haplotypes, as it was describedabove, result in 150,000 ybp for their common ancestor. Twenty-one (21) mutations with haplogroup DE base haplotype give167,000 ybp for their common ancestor. Twenty-three (23)mutations with haplogroup H base haplotype result in 171,000ybp for their common ancestor with haplogroup A. For hap-logroup I (21 mutations) it is 161,000 ybp. For haplogroup Q(22 mutations) it is 166,000 ybp. For haplogroup R (21 muta-tions) it is 160,000 ybp. The distance in 19 mutations betweenthe base haplotypes of haplogroup A and β -haplogroup places α-haplogroup at 165,000 ybp. Clearly, the base haplotype of haplogroup A and its subclades is very remote from all other haplogroups.Similar pairwise calculations with the base haplotype of haplogroup B as well with all other haplogroups (besides A) place a common ancestor of beta-haplogroup to 64,000 ± 6000years before present (see Figure 3). This haplogroup is close toor identical with the BT haplogroup according to the currentclassification. Figure 3 shows a topology of the current haplogroup tree. The α-haplogroup which is the ancestral one with respect to both African (left branch) and non-African haplogroups (right branch) arose around 160,000 ybp, and 132,000 ybp gave riseto haplogroup A. Another, quite different branch, had formed afork, then apparently went through a population bottleneck around 70 - 60 thousand ybp (perhaps the Toba event), andgave rise to β -haplogroup, ancestral to non-African haplogroups, 64,000 ± 6000 ybp. Apparently, haplogroup B was initially not of an African origin. It could have migrated to Africa and mixed there with a local population. A common ancestor of the present-day bearers of haplogroup B lived 46,000 ybp. A similar story had occurred with a group of bearers of haplogroup R1b1around 4000 ybp, who ventured to the center of African continent during their westward migration along the African Mediterranean shore, and became a Negroid population having an unusual (for Africa) haplogroup (Cruciani et al., 2010; Klyosov,2012).The Mongoloid and Austronesian haplogroup C split ~36,000 ybp and gradually populated regions of Central Asia, Australia and Oceania. Haplogroup DE split to D and E around 42,000 ybp, and currently populates vast territory from North Africa to the west to Korea and Japan to the east.The family of haplogroup from F through T is largely theEuropeoid (Caucasoid) family. Most of bearers of these hap-logroups remained Europeoids; however, some populations have acquired racial features of the prevailing races in a given region, recently or in the long past.Based on the calculations given in this study, we know thatthe far most bearers of haplogroup A live in Africa, and they lived there probably all or most of those 132,000 years since haplogroup A arose. It cannot be excluded, of course, that hap-logroup A might have been appeared elsewhere and then mi-grated to Africa. However, there is no reason to believe (andfewer reasons to insist) that the Europeoid family originated in Africa.


Lack of the African SNP (Haplogroup A) in Non-Africans
A critical datapoint has emerged that disproves the "Out of Africa" concept; specifically, recent data shows that non-African people have neither M91, P97, M31, P82, M23, M114,P262, M32, M59, P289, P291, P102, M13, M171, M118 (haplogroup A and its subclades SNPs), nor M60, M181, P90 (hap-logroup B SNPs) in their Y-chromosomes.In fact, according to the data obtained from the "Walk Through the Y" (chromosome) international project conducted by Family Tree DNA (Texas and Arizona) [see Appendix] notone non-African participant out of more than 400 individuals inthe Project tested positive to any of thirteen "African" sub-clades of haplogroup A, SNPs for which indicated above. If totake, for example, bearers of R1a haplogroup, they each have the ladder of SNPs from M42 and M139 (haplogroup BT, butnot haplogroup B, which, as it was described above, split andmigrated to Africa around 46,000 ybp or earlier), through M168and M294 (haplogroup CT), P143 (haplogroup CF), M89 andP158 (haplogroup F), L15 and L16 (haplogroup IJK), M9(haplogroup K), М 74, L138, P69, P230, P243, P244, P280,P284, P286 (haplogroup P), М 207, P224, P227, P229, P232,P280, P285 (haplogroup R), P231, P241, P242, Р 245, Р 294haplogroup R1), L145 and L146 (haplogroup R1), L120 and


 

A haplogroup tree of Y chromosome derived from base haplotypes of haplogroups and subclades and their TMRCAs, systemati-cally calculated as described in this study. 7415 haplotypes from 46 subclades of 17 major haplogroups have been considered for the tree design. Timescale on the vertical axis shows thousands of years from the common ancestors of the haplogroups and sub-clades. The tree shows the alpha-haplogroup, which is the ancestral haplogroup of the African and non-African haplogroups, andthe beta-haplogroup, which is the ancestral haplogroup, close or identical with BT haplogroup in the current classification. The left branch represents haplogroup A (arose ~132,000 ybp) and its subclades. The right branch of haplogroups F through R including T) represent Europeoids (Caucasoids) arose ~58,000 years before present. Haplogroup B (arose ~46,000 ybp) migrated to Africa, theMongoloid and Austronesian haplogroup C split ~36,000 ybp, apparently Middle Eastern haplogroups DE split ~42,000 ybp. Aregion of the origin of the alpha-haplogroup ~160,000 ybp remains unknown. The Europeoid family of haplogroups arose appar-ently in the triangle between Central Europe on the west, the Russian Plain (Eastern European Plain) on the east and Levant on the south.
Figure 3


L122 (haplogroup R1a1), L168 (haplogroup R1a1a). In other words, all of the SNP have been identified, which should be found according to the phylogeny of R1a, but SNPs of the all examined subclades of haplogroup A were completely absent.The same pattern was observed with all other bearers of non-African haplogroups. The bearers of haplogroup A were exclusively positive to M91 SNP, characteristic of that haplogroup.

Table 1
List of SNPs identified in haplogroup R1a1 and subclades of haplogroupA. Ancestral and derived alleles are shown. For blank spaces data arenot available. Cont. in Table 2.

SNP R1a1 A1 A1a A1b A2 A3b2V168 (alpha)G

AA G AV171 (alpha)C

GG C G GV221 (alpha)G

TT G G TP108 (alpha)C

TT C C C T T
There are, however, four distinct SNPs which present in both Africans and Europeans of haplogroup R1a1, taken the latter asan example. They seem to be the most ancient SNPs, which aredefined the alpha-haplogroup (see Figure 3 ). Tables 1 and 2 illustrate this statement.The ancestral alleles of the above four SNPs should corre-spond to the alpha haplogroup. All four are mutated in hap-logroup R1a1, and the WTY data show. All four are still ances-tral in the A1 subclade. All other subclades of haplogroup Ashow various combinations of the SNPs which do not matchthose in haplogroup R1a1 (see also Table 2 ).
logroup R1a1, it maintains their ancestral state. Table 2 shows SNPs of five subclades of “African” hap-logroup A. None of those SNPs have been observed in hap-These data, based on the SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism), along with the data based on the STRs (Short Tandem Repeats)

Table 2.
List of alleles of “African” SNPs identified in haplogroup R1a1 andsubclades of haplogroup A. Cont. from Table 1 .
SNP R1a1 A1 A1a A1b A2 A3b2M31 (A1a)G

C G C GV50 (A2)T

C T T CM32 (A3)T

C T T G T CP289 (A3b)C

G CM13 (A3b2)G

C G C

 described in this study, are compatible with each other and undeniably indicate that non-African people, bearersof haplogroups from C to T, did not descend from the “African”haplogroups A or B. Their origin is likely not in Africa. Ahigher variance of the DNA in Africa, which was a cornerstoneof the “Out of Africa” theory, is explained by Figure 3 , in which haplogroup A has been evolving (mutation-wise) for 132,000 years, while the non-European haplogroups are muchyounger. Hence, there is a lower variability in the latter. Thesame is related to language variability, which has also beenused as an argument of the African origin of non-Africans. We believe that those arguments upon which the “Out of Africa”theory was based were, in fact, conjectural, incomplete and notactually data-driven. Therefore, we are left holding the question of the origin of Homo sapiens.Based on palaeoarchaeological evidence, the region, where anatomically modern humans have likely originated, is com- prised of a vast territory from Central Europe in the west to the Russian Plain in the east to Levant in the south. Each of these regions is renowned for discoveries of the oldest skeletal re-mains of modern humans dating back to 42,000 - 44,000 ybp. To date, none of these sub-regions has clear and unequivocal advances in this regard.

Materials and Methods

7556 haplotypes, predominantly 67 marker ones, have been collected in databases FTNDA, YSearch and SMGF (Sorenson Database), and reduced to the slow 22 marker haplotype panels:
DYS426, DYS388, DYS392, DYS455, DYS454, DYS438,DYS531, DYS578, DYS395S1a, DYS395S1b, DYS590, DYS641,DYS472, DYS425, DYS594, DYS436, DYS490, DYS450,DYS617, DYS568, DYS640, DYS492.
The methodology of haplotype datasets analysis was de-scribed in (Klyosov, 2009a, 2009b; Rozhanskii & Klyosov,2011). The most important research component involved dissecting the dataset to branches of haplotypes, each branch descended from one common ancestor. This was examined andverified by the logarithmic method (no mutation counting) cou- pled with the linear method (based on mutation counting), asdescribed in (Klyosov, 2009a; Rozhanskii, 2011). The mutationrate constant for the 22 marker haplotypes equals to .0060 mu-tation/haplotype/conditional generation of 25 years, or .00027mutation/marker/generation (Klyosov, 2011a; Rozhanskii &Klyosov, 2011). Haplotype trees were composed using softwarePHYLIP, Phylogeny Inference Package program (see Klyosov,2009a, 2009b and references therein). Corrections for back mutations were introduced as described in (Klyosov, 2009a;Rozhanskii & Klyosov, 2011). Margins of error were calculatedas described in (Klyosov, 2009a). Permutation method of TMRCA (time to the most recent common ancestor) calculationwas described in (Klyosov, 2009a).Base haplotypes in the dataset were determined by minimi-zation of mutations; by definition, the base haplotype is onewhich has the minimum collective number of mutations in thedataset. The base haplotype is the ancestral haplotype or theclosest approximation to the latter.

Example: Calculation of a timespan to a common ancestor for the base haplotype for haplogroup A (132,000 ybp)
12 11 11 - 9 11 - 10 - 10 8 14 15 7 10 8 12 13 11 16 8 139 11 12 ( A
)and that for the β -haplogroup (64,000 ybp)
11 12 11 - 11 11 - 10 - 11 8 15 16 8 10 8 12 10 12 12 8 1211 11 12 ( β -haplogroup )

19 mutations between the two base haplotypes results in19/.006 = 3167 conditional generations (25 years each) withouta correction for back mutations. The number of mutations per marker is 19/22 = .8636. By employing formula for back mutations (Klyosov, 2009a), we find that a correction for back mutation is 

11exp.86362   = 1.686

Therefore, the “lateral” time difference between two base haplotypes is 3167 × 1.686 = 5340 conditional generations of 25 year, that is 133,500 years. A common ancestor of the both base haplotypes, A and β-haplotype, lived (133,500 + 64,000 +132,000)/2 = 164,750 ybp. Assignments of haplotypes to haplogroups and subclades were based on their SNP classification, as provided in the data- bases. In some instances it was additionally supported by calculating their position of the phylogenic trees from their respective STR data.

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to Dr. Alexander Zolotarev, a par-ticipant of the WTY project, for providing data of the Project,and to Ms. Laurie Sutherland for valuable help with the preparation of the manuscript.

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Appendix

Reference data were selected according to SNP assignmentfrom YSearch database: (http://www.ysearch.org) and public projects of FTDNA
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Haplogroup_A/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/Chaplogroup/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/HaplogroupE1andE/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/E1b1a/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/E3b/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/G-YDNA/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/YHaploGroupH/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/yDNA_I1/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/I2nosubcladeM170P215/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/I2aHapGroup/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-DNA_J/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-Haplogroup-L/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/N%20Y-DNA%20Project/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/o3/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/R1Asterisk/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/R1aY-Haplogroup/default.aspx?
section=yresultshttp://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-Haplogroup-K2/default.aspx?
section=yresults Walk through the Y (International Project)
http://www.familytreedna.com/faq/answers/default.aspx?faqid=27#1324https://gap.familytreedna.com/media/docs/2010-FTDNA-TK.pdf

SOURCE
Scientific Research Publishing .