Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Monday, January 26, 2015

Tonal languages require humidity

Public Release: 
                   Tonal languages require humidity
Languages with a wide range of tone pitches have primarily developed in regions with high levels of humidity   Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 

IMAGE: Languages in humid regions of the Earth (light circles) are more often tonal languages (red) than in dry regions. view more
Credit: MPI f. Psycholinguistics/ Roberts
This news release is available in German.
The weather impacts not only upon our mood but also our voice. An international research team including scientists from the Max Planck Institutes for Psycholinguistics, Evolutionary Anthropology and Mathematics in the Sciences has analysed the influence of humidity on the evolution of languages. Their study has revealed that languages with a wide range of tone pitches are more prevalent in regions with high humidity levels. In contrast, languages with simpler tone pitches are mainly found in drier regions. This is explained by the fact that the vocal folds require a humid environment to produce the right tone.
The tone pitch is a key element of communication in all languages, but more so in some than others. German or English, for example, still remain comprehensible even if all words are intonated evenly by a robot. In Mandarin Chinese, however, the pitch tone can completely change the meaning of a word. "Ma" with a level pitch means "mother," while "ma" with a falling then rising pitch would mean "horse". "Only those who hit the tone pitch correctly can express themselves in tonal languages," explains Seán G. Roberts, a scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen.
However, the climate can become a problem for the speakers of tonal languages, as the vocal folds in the larynx - commonly known as the voice box - suffer as a result. Even a temporary increase in humidity impacts upon the vocal folds: The humidity keeps the mucous membranes moist and makes them more elastic. It also changes the ion balance within the mucous membranes of the vocal folds. With good humidity, the vocal folds can oscillate sufficiently and produce the right tone.
The scientists therefore suspect that tonal languages are less common in dry regions as the wide range of tonal pitches is difficult to produce under these conditions and are more likely to result in misunderstanding. "Modern databases enable us to analyse the properties of thousands of languages. But this also brings problems because languages can also inherit their complex pitches from another language," says Damián E. Blasi, who conducts research at the Max Planck Institutes for Mathematics in the Sciences and for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig. In their study, the scientists have now shown that these effects can be disentangled from the effects of climate.
The researchers investigated the correlation between humidity and the significance of tone pitch in over 3,750 languages from different linguistic families. This indicates that tonal languages are significantly rarer in dry regions. In relatively dry Central Europe, no tonal languages have developed like those found in the Tropics, Subtropical Asia and Central Africa.
Climate apparently shapes the role of pitch tone in a language and therefore how information is exchanged. Even small effects may be amplified over the generations to produce a global pattern. The climate thus determines the development of languages. "If the UK had been a humid jungle, English may also have developed into a tonal language," explains Roberts.
Original publication Climate, vocal folds, and tonal languages: Connecting the physiological and geographic dots
Caleb Everett,Damián E. Blasi, and Seán G. Roberts
PNAS, published online before print January 20, 2015, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1417413112
Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

Paracas Skulls and DNA

This is a story that is currenntly being heavily promoted. It is not only highly misleading, the conclusions being touted as definitive are not only not reliable, they are almost certainly false:

DNA Analysis of the Paracas Skulls Proves They Are Not Human

On the southern coast of Peru lies the desert peninsula of Paracas. This barren landscape is where Peruvian archaeologist Julio Tello made an astounding discovery in 1928. His efforts uncovered a massive and complex graveyard buried under the sand and rocks.
In these tombs Tello found some of the most controversial human(?) remains in history. The bodies had the largest elongated skulls in the world and have since been called the Paracas skulls. Tello found a total of more than 300 skulls and they have been dated at around 3,000 years old. A recent DNA analysis performed on some of those skulls has presented amazing results that could challenge the current perspective of the human evolutionary tree.

Several other cultures have practiced skull elongation or deformation but the techniques they used produced different results. Certain South American tribes used to bind infants’ skulls in order to change their shape. Binding the head between pieces of wood modified the appearance of skulls by applying constant pressure over a long period of time. This type of cranial deformation changed the shape but it did not alter the size, weight or cranial volume; these are all standard characteristics of a regular human skull.
The Paracas skulls are different. Their craniums are 25% larger and 60% heavier than regular human skulls [this claim has been shown to be erroneous, it does not compare averages, it takes extreme measures of the Paracas crania and measures against the average, which is a loaded and fallacious comparison] which led researchers to believe they couldn’t have been modified through binding. They are also structurally different and only have one parietal plate as opposed to the two normally found in human skulls.[This statement is completely false and displays ignorance not only of how human skulls normally grow but even of the standard terminology that should have been used] These differences have deepened the decade-old mystery around the Paracas skulls and researchers haven’t been able to explain their origins.
The director of the Paracas History Museum has sent samples from 5 skulls to undergo genetic testing. The samples consisted of hair, skin, teeth and fragments of skull bones. The genetic laboratory was not informed about the samples’ origins in order to avoid biased or influenced results. The results were fascinating.
The mitochondrial DNA (inherited from the mother) presented mutations unknown to any man, primate or any other animal. The mutations suggested we are dealing with a completely new human-like being, very distant from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals or Denisovans. The Paracas individuals were so biologically different from humans they wouldn’t have been able to interbreed. “I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree”, one ["One and the same"] geneticist added.
The implications of this discovery are huge. Who were the mysterious Paracas people? Did they evolve here on Earth on a path so different from us that they ended up looking drastically different? If not, where did they come from? Are any of them left?
This breakthrough brings up more questions than it answers but counts as another piece of evidence suggesting that we are not alone.

OK, we have a situation here: the Anthropologists cited are not qualified to make the remarks attributed to them, the Anatomists cited are not qualified to make the claims attributed to them and the Geneticist cited is not qualified to make the claims attributed to them.
Human skull bones are not automatically fully formed as the baby comes out of the womb, the skull is made up of a number of smaller disjointed pieces which grow around the edges as the child develops. Some of these separate pieces fuse together as part of the normal process and form single bones from more than one original piece. Fusion of the skull bones is normal to some degree and some skulls can continue the fusion as an adult until the suture lines are grown over by bone. The argument that "There is only one parietal bone" is not only wrong and misleading, it is actually an absurd and ridiculous claim.

The lab which was given the samples knew what they were testing and had already pre-determined what their results would be before the tests were even run. The statements about the DNA test results were made by another source that was in charge of the DNA analysis. I have a Facebook Friend who was formerly associated with the lab and who was closely and personally connected to its director, and the director is the person that issued comments about the DNA not matching anything else. The former associate told me "I really doubt if they ran any tests at all, they already knew the outcome they wanted to announce." The director of this DNA lab has a long long history of not doing the work that was given to them, making misrepresentations about fraudulent business practices and claiming results from DNA tests not actually performed by the lab, and of making exaggerated claims that go against what is already known to be true about how DNA works which have never been verified by anyone else. In this case they are showing their ignorance when they claim that new mutations prove an alien origin: mutations are different from the ancestral DNA anyway, that is why they are mutations. There is no way that you can go from there to say they mean the mutations came from an otherworldly source and you basically have to test the DNA against all other known DNA in order to make the claim that "This DNA does not match anything known on Earth."  We already know this was NOT done and in fact we can take it as a given that there was no way they could have either the time or the resources to even begin to do such a thing.

These are some reconstructions that were done on a  Paracas skull for the National Geographic feature. They are very well done, reliable and authentic, unlike the claims being made about the DNA by the persons cited in the article and the video. I should emphasize here that the unusual claims are originating in only two or three individuals who are merely very vocal in advancing their claims.

Friday, January 16, 2015

70000 Year Old African Settlements


70,000 year-old African settlement unearthed

During ongoing excavations in northern Sudan, Polish archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology in Poznań, have discovered the remains of a settlement estimated to 70,000 years old. This find, according to the researchers, seems to contradict the previously held belief that the construction of permanent structures was associated with the so-called Great Exodus from Africa and occupation of the colder regions of Europe and Asia.
The site known as Affad 23, is currently the only one recorded in the Nile Valley which shows that early Homo sapiens built sizeable permanent structures, and had adapted well to the wetland environment.
This new evidence points to a much more advanced level of human development and adaptation in Africa during the Middle Palaeolithic.
Remnants of the Palaeolithic settlements in Affad. Image: M. Osypińska

Locating the “village”

Discoveries in Affad are unique for the Middle Palaeolithic. Last season, we came across a few traces of light wooden structures. However, during the current research we were able to precisely locate the village and identify additional utility areas: a large flint workshop, and a space for cutting hunted animal carcasses, located at a distance” – explained project director Dr. Marta Osypińska.
The researchers are also working on a list of animal species that these early humans hunted. Despite the relatively simple flint tools produced using the Levallois technique, these humans were able to hunt both large, dangerous mammals such as hippos, elephants and buffalo, as well as small, nimble monkeys and cane rats (large rodents that inhabited the wetlands).

Palaeolithic hunters

This year, the researchers intended to precisely date the time period in which the Palaeolithic hunters lived here, using optically stimulated luminescence.
At this stage we know that the Middle Palaeolithic settlement episode in Affad occurred at the end of the wet period, as indicated by environmental data, including the list of hunted animal species. But in the distant past of the land such ecological conditions occurred at least twice” about 75 millennia and about 25 millennia ago. Determining the time when people inhabited the river bank near today’s Affad is the most important objective of our project “- said prehistory expert Piotr Osypiński.
The Polish team is working with scientists from Oxford Brookes University, who are helping to analyse the geological history of the area. The results will help determine climatic and environmental conditions that prevailed in the Central Nile Valley during the late Pleistocene and hope to identify factors that contributed to the excellent state of preservation at the Affad 23 site.
Source: PAP

These were definitely in place before the post-Toba Out of Africa movement

Possible Direct Evidence for the Atlantis Invasion

I had this map prepared to illustrate the results of the Atlantis Empire invasion that Plato was talking about, but while I had it in storage the text was lost. However these are the two sites that are marked with an asterisk and which seem to indicate the results of a violent invasion at the end of the Ice Age. In the New World the effects are less obvious archaeologically but there are clear signs that the male side of the descendants came from a transatlantic R Y-DNA group that replaced whatever older males that might have been present in the older populations.

The middle aged Sicilian woman was struck by arrows from the side
 about 10000 years ago during the Epipaleolithic (reconstruction at the local museum)

Skeletons-from-Jebel-Sahaba-Sahara,  two victims of the massacre of at least 24 people at the same time in a conflict between two distinct ethnic groups and which resulted in the introduction of a new farming and herding economy at the end of the last Ice Age

Two late Paleolithic (Epigravettian at ca 11000 BC) bodies of this kind are known from Italy. One, from San Teodoro cave in Sicily, was a woman with a flint point in her right iliac crest. This artifact was designed as a triangle and was most probably an arrow point. The other was a child with a flint in its thoracic vertebra, found in late Epigravettian layers of the Grotta dei Fanciulli (the famous Grotte des Enfants) at Balzi-Rossi / Grimaldi, on the LIgurian Italian / French border.
The most remarkable discovery of late Paleolithic Age comes from Jebel Sahaba, a few kilometers north of Wadi Halfa on the east bank of the Nile. A graveyard (ca 10000 BC) containing 59 burials was located on a hill overlooking the Nile. Twenty-four skeletons had flint projectile points that were either embedded in the bones or found within the grave fill in positions which indicated they had penetrated the bodies. The excavator of the site, Fred Wendorf (The prehistory of Nubia, II p. 991) wrote: ” The most impressive feature is the high frequency of unretouched flakes and chips. In a normal assemblage all of these would be classified as debitage or debris and none would considered tools. Yet many of these pieces were recovered from positions where their use as parts of weapons were irrefutable”. joteIn total, more than 40% of the men, woman and children in the commentary had died by violence.  Fred Wendorf, suggested that environmental pressure and vanishing resources on the end of the Pleistocene were the causes of violence, but this remains only one hypothesis. A detailed analysis of the skeletons with nowadays methods (dna-analysis, stable isotopes) is missing till now. If war is defined as organized aggression between autonomous social units, the archaeological record at Jebel Sahaba may indeed indicate the presence of an early war.
Coming back to the European Record, at Ofnet cave in Bavaria two pits contained the skulls and vertebrae of thirty-eight individuals, all stained with red ochre, dating to around 8-9000 BC (Orschiedt 1998). The Ofnet finding most probably represents a massacre, which wiped out a whole community and was followed by the ceremonial burial of skulls. Most of the victims of deadly attacks were children; two-thirds of the adults were females, which led to the suggestion, that a temporary absence of males may have been the precipitating cause of the attack. Half the individuals were wounded before death by blunt mace-like weapons, with males and females and children all injured, but males having the most wounds.
(The dates are not all the same but they are all in the same ballpark
 and they all do represent the same cultural level-DD)

And at least in the Sudan we know what their boats looked like (from Wikipedia but Charles Berlitz also mentions the situation)

Tiwanucu (Tiahuanaco)

Some materials about Tiwanucu (Tiahuanaco) that had been in storage on the blog. I am releasing them now but the text that went with the pictures has been lost

Two examples of Mesoamerican polished black zoomorphic pottery


Administrative Notice

This blog has been hacked and I have not been able to add anything or edit it for most of the calendar year 2014. Nor have I been able to get into the comments to read them or approve them

We can just say I've been on Sabbatical since I started writing on most of these subjects in Yahoo discussion groups and that was at least seven years ago.

If I can get the blogs going again I shall be doing extensive editing of older posts and rewriting. Currently the blogs are being run on Facebook. I shall have to see if I can get the regular blogs on blogger back under control again.

My readers are still in there and showing much support. I am grateful for that part
Thank you.

Sunday, August 3, 2014

Resource: Younger Dryas Impact

From the PNAS in 2012. This has the same Carbon-14 dating problem that everything else from that horizon has and there is a strong possibility that such an impact drastically altered the atmospheric balance of Carbon isotopes :

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America      
PNAS July 10, 2012 vol. 109 no. 28

Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago

  1. James P. Kennettq
  1. Edited by* Steven M. Stanley, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, and approved April 30, 2012 (received for review March 19, 2012)


It has been proposed that fragments of an asteroid or comet impacted Earth, deposited silica-and iron-rich microspherules and other proxies across several continents, and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling episode 12,900 years ago. Although many independent groups have confirmed the impact evidence, the hypothesis remains controversial because some groups have failed to do so. We examined sediment sequences from 18 dated Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) sites across three continents (North America, Europe, and Asia), spanning 12,000 km around nearly one-third of the planet. All sites display abundant microspherules in the YDB with none or few above and below. In addition, three sites (Abu Hureyra, Syria; Melrose, Pennsylvania; and Blackville, South Carolina) display vesicular, high-temperature, siliceous scoria-like objects, or SLOs, that match the spherules geochemically. We compared YDB objects with melt products from a known cosmic impact (Meteor Crater, Arizona) and from the 1945 Trinity nuclear airburst in Socorro, New Mexico, and found that all of these high-energy events produced material that is geochemically and morphologically comparable, including: (i) high-temperature, rapidly quenched microspherules and SLOs; (ii) corundum, mullite, and suessite (Fe3Si), a rare meteoritic mineral that forms under high temperatures; (iii) melted SiO2 glass, or lechatelierite, with flow textures (or schlieren) that form at > 2,200 °C; and (iv) particles with features indicative of high-energy interparticle collisions. These results are inconsistent with anthropogenic, volcanic, authigenic, and cosmic materials, yet consistent with cosmic ejecta, supporting the hypothesis of extraterrestrial airbursts/impacts 12,900 years ago. The wide geographic distribution of SLOs is consistent with multiple impactors.

More associated references:

Additional information on Metallurgy and "Prospectores"

 [reprinted article]

A physico-anthropological study of skeletal material from Neolithic age to Hellenistic times in Central Greece and surrounding region

I have located the text of George Panagiaris important 1993 doctoral thesis on Greek skeletal material. This may be one of the most comprehensive efforts to study the Ancient Greek population from a physical anthropological perspective (413 male and 354 female crania, using 65 biometric characters as well odontological traits).

Panagiaris' conclusions in English can be found in p.10 of the document. He confirms that the greater period of discontinuity in the material is observed during the Helladic period (=Bronze Age in Greek archaeology), where broad-headed incoming groups appear, side by side with the older Mediterranean population. He attributes this to the arrival of such people from the highlands Pindos range, although he sees the possibility of Anatolian influences as well, but has no comparative data. He cites the tendency for broader skulls in higher latitudes, although this general trend in H. sapiens probably does not explain the local trend within Caucasoids where the key difference is between mountaineers (where the Alpine, Dinaric, Armenoid, and Pamir-Ferghana types are well-represented) and lowland folk. Perhaps, if various ancient DNA projects manage to study some Greek material we may be able to ascertain the events that were taking place in Greece at that time.

Of course, the issue cannot be seen in isolation, because at this time we see an increase in brachycephalic types in Crete and Anatolia, the appearance of the intrusive brachycephalic Bell Beaker folk in Western Europe, and perhaps even the presence of the interfluvial type (Pamir-Ferghana type) in the eastern Saka. 

Personally, I see something importantin these developments: why would broad-headed mountaineers make their appearance in the lowlands at this time in history? I am strongly leaning towards the idea that this has to do with metallurgical innovation during this time. According to Roberts et al. (2009), from which the figure on the left [above]is taken:

Metallurgy in Eurasia originated in Southwest Asia due to the widespread adoption of, and experimentation in, pyrotechnology and the desire for new materials to serve as aesthetic visual displays of identity, whether of a social, cultural or ideological nature. This can be demonstrated through the early use of metal for jewellery and the use of ore-based pigments along with the continued use of stone, bone, and other materials for most tools. The subsequent appearance of metals throughout Eurasia is due to the acquisition of metal objects by individuals and communities re-inventing traditions of adornment, even in regions hundreds of kilometres from the nearest sources of native metals or ores. The movement of communities possessing metallurgical expertise to new ore sources and into supportive societies led to the gradual transmission of metallurgy across the Eurasian landmass. By the second millennium BC, metallurgy had spread across Eurasia, becoming firmly rooted in virtually all inhabitable areas (Sherratt 2006). The ability to smelt different ores, create different metals or increase metal production did not occur in a linear evolutionary fashion throughout Eurasia, but rather appeared sporadically over a vast area – a result of regional innovations and societal desires and demands. 

There is no evidence to suggest that metallurgy was independently invented in any part of Eurasia beyond Southwest Asia. The process of metallurgical transmission and innovation created a mosaic of (frequently diverse) metallurgical traditions distinguished by form, composition and production techniques. It is within this context that innovations such as the earliest working of gold in the Balkans or the sudden emergence of distinctive tin-bronze working in Southeast Asia should be seen. 
[This ignores the independent evidence for copper and gold metallurgy in Western Europe, especially the Southern Iberian Peninsula, where some of the evidence has been stated to be equally as old. I do also note that in the second map the Southern Iberian area has been darkened (is older) and is indicated to be separate from the larger areas of activity in the East-DD]

The richest ore deposits were found in mountain areas as Thornton (2009) makes clear:

Models for the development of metallurgy in Southwest Asia have for a long time been focussed on research carried out in the lowland regions of the Levant and Mesopotamia. These models do not take into account the different developmental trajectories witnessed in the resource-rich highlands of Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iran. In this paper, the beginnings of the use and production of metals in Iran will be juxtaposed with a cursory overview of the lowland model (the ‘Levantine Paradigm’) in order to highlight these differences. By synthesizing data from a number of current research projects exploring the early metallurgy of the Iranian Plateau, this paper demonstrates how at least one of the highland regions of Southwest Asia was at the very forefront of technological innovation from the seventh through the second millennium BC.  
I had planned to write a separate post on the interplay between metallurgy and the rise in social complexity that led to the spread of (at least some branches of-) Indo-European and Semitic during time, but this is probably as good a place as any to summarize the argument:

The practice of metallurgy launched the first globalization: in order to produce high quality metal objects, one needed a variety of specialized workers: prospectors, miners, metalworkers. The necessary ores do not occur everywhere on the map, and production requires a complex logistic operation to manage resources and talent. One needed, in addition, to establish a network of traders and warriors to carry out and supervise the trade, since demand for metal objects was wide and not limited to the vicinity of their production.

Production and trade networks facilitated the flow of ideas, and necessitated the flow of peoples, both because expertise was non-local, and also because the producers wanted to supervise their profitable business. There is an advantage to being an early adopter of new technology; many of the shifts in power in world history depended on a technology differential (European guns in the New World, mounted archers on the Eurasian steppe, triremes in the Mediterranean, Macedonian long-spears vs. Persian light infantry being some examples).

The technology differential eventually dissipates as everyone gets access to the new inventions. This process may take several centuries, but in the meantime those monopolizing them enjoy a triple advantage:

  1. There is demand for their product
  2. They have the better weapons
  3. They are part of broader communities that can muster resources against anyone who crosses them
It is no accident that the Bronze Age started with technological innovation and ended up in a series of military conflicts. What began as a transformation of Neolithic communities by monopolizing guilds of the bearers of the new technologies ended up with everyone having access to them, and of course they went to war.

Getting back to the topic of Panagiaris' dissertation, I might try my hand at translating some interesting portions. These will be posted as updates in the space below.

Olmec Tikis

Above is an Olmec "Potbellied" figure and looking very similar to statues associated with the Megalithic period of Southeast Asia and then again more recent "tiki" statues of Polynesia: similar statues also appear in the Archaeological record of South America.

I had just been noticing stylistic similarities between the Olmecs and older Polynesians in the jade work when I started seeing that some of the themes and subject matter were also the same. For one thing, some of the little jade human figures were evidently meant to represent fetuses (as are also the Hei Tikis of New Zealand) and some of the jade spirals were meant to be dragons (Taniwhas).

Saturday, August 2, 2014

Atlantean Warfare in Egypt at the End of the Ice Age

This is a matter we have discussed before on the blog. The date is Younger Dryas and it is subject to a known vacillation in the Carbon-14 proportion. The direct dating of this event is about 10000-11000 BP (and not BC) without using the so-called correction factor, which ignores the known vacillation in C 14 at the time. -DD

The first race war? Scientists investigating after 13,000-year-old bodies are discovered on the edge of the Sahara

  • Skeletons from first human massacre will be displayed at British Museum
  • Remains from 11,000BC found in Jebel Sahaba cemetery in Sahara desert
  • Scientists say mass murder caused by 'environmental disaster' of Ice Age
  • At least 60 individuals found in excavation by American archaeologist
[At the end of the Ice Age and during the Mesolithic we have two sites with clear evidence of invasion and massacre, one in Europe at Ofnet, Bavaria, and this one in the valley of the Nile. Both are associated with the same ethnic type of invaders that are elsewhere identified as Atlanteans. both of them are very telling.-DD]


150 Mummies of Ancient Unknown Civilisation Discovered in Atacama Desert
These burials are contemporary with the early Mayan period and the Dark Ages of Europe before the Viking Age. Some of the material is probably even older than that. -DD


Peru: 150 Mummies of Ancient Unknown Civilisation Discovered in Atacama Desert

A team of archaeologists from universities in Poland, Peru and Colombia have discovered 150 mummies in the Atacama Desert belonging to an unknown culture that predate the Tiwanaku and Inca civilization by almost 500 years.
The bodies were mummified naturally by being buried directly in the sand with no stone structures, wrapped in cotton veils, reed mats or fishing nets, and radiocarbon dating shows that the oldest mummies came from 4th century AD, while the youngest mummies came from 7th century AD.
Peruvian mummies 1
Mummies of an unknown culture found buried in the Tambo River delta.
One mummy has a bow and all are wrapped in shrouds and mats.Project Tambo, University of Wrocław.
Peruvian mummies 7
Close-up of a mummy buried with some small objectsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
The Tiwanaku civilisation is believed to have existed between 500AD and 1,000 AD, covering much of what is Peru and Chile today.
Under Project Tambo, the team have been excavating in the Tambo River delta in the northern region of the Atacama Desert since 2008 and the first mummies were found in 2012, but it took until March 2014 for the team to make major discoveries.
Peruvian mummies 7
A shroud covering a mummy in the Tambo River deltaProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Peruvian mummies 3
A mummy buried with assorted grave goods, including a beautifully painted potProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Together with the bodies in individual graves, the archaeologists found numerous grave goods, such as weapons like bows and quivers with arrows tipped with obsidian heads, and maces with stone or copper finials.
There were also richly decorated weaving tools, jewellery made from tumbaga (a gold and copper alloy) and copper, reed withes attached to the ears of the dead and beautiful intact pottery.
Peruvian mummies 5
A collection of pottery and other grave goodsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
According to Professor Józef Szykulski, leader of the research project from University of Wrocław, the mummies are of virtually unknown people, and the bows are a particularly interesting find that possibly symbolised power, which could mean that people buried in the Tambo River delta were nobility or the society’s elite.
Peruvian mummies 2
A close-up of the mummy buried with a bow, which is possibly a symbol of powerProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
“Bows are extremely rare among the finds from the area of Peru. We have seen them however, in areas further south like Chile and further east in Amazonia. The issue, however, requires a deeper study,” Szykulski tells IBTimes UK.
In one grave, the archaeologists even found the remains of a llama, which would mean that the animal had been brought to the region much earlier than previously thought.
“Llama burials are quite common in the pre-Columbian cultures,” says Szykulski.
“We learned a lot about what equipment had been used, such as baskets and fishing nets, what these people were doing, which was agriculture and fishing, how they dressed, what ornaments they wore and even how they combed their hair.”
Peruvian mummies 4
Some of the jewellery recovered from the burialsProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
The Polish archaeologists will be returning to Peru in October for further excavations, both in the cemetery where they found the unknown mummies, and in an adjacent cemetery where burials belonging to individuals from the Tiwanaku civilisation were found.
The Tiwanaku people were not believed to have ventured as far as the Tambo River delta, and the discovery of these tombs will help to increase understanding of pre-Columbian civilisations in Peru.
Peruvian mummies 6
A mummy in a curled up position, which seems to have an elongated skullProject Tambo, University of Wrocław
Project Tambo is a joint effort between University of Wrocław, University of Szczecin, University of Poznań, University of Silesia, the Archaeological Museum in Głogów, Universidad Católica de Santa Maria in Arequipa, Universidad Nacional in Ica, the Universidad Central in Bogota (Colombia), Jagiellonian University and the University of Łódź

Geometric Signs from Genevieve Von Petzinger

Genevieve Von Petzinger has been doing some very exciting work which goes a long way toward confirming my own suspicions derived from independant study (The equivalent material has been lying around my library in unpublished manuscript form for the last 20 years or so). Basically, her thesis is that all rock art worldwide contains certain  regularly recurring symbols which are probable forerunners to later written records, and that they seem to have come Out of Africa along with the last great migration at the beginning of the Cro-Magnon period in Europe.

My additional comments include: The same symbols are also found in Australia and the Americas, from the oldest rock art and carried forward from that point. Some of the signs definitely occurred in the Neolithic as "Pottery signs", some were definitely being used in Egypt from before the development of Hieroglyphics, and some of them were incorporated into later regular alphabets that continue to be used. Several of these symbols are the same as appear on the Azilian pebbles. This does also connect up with Alexander Marshak's theories about astronomical notations since some of the symbols are associated with such notation (Some of them even greatly resemble later Roman Numerals and they include regular and repeated use of the signs I,V and X)
Many of these symbols are associated with Megalithic culture (eg, cupmarks) and it has been suggested that several signs are tracing shapes which appear to the eyes automatically during drug-induced hallucinations and trance states. In early Europe this has been linked to the use of the Amanita muscaria mushroom: in other areas other drugs must have been substituted.
As far as patterns of diffusion go, the distribution includes both TransAtlantic and TransPacific continuities and both were definitely accomplished facts before the end of the Ice Ages in the Younger Dryas event.

For further information please follow these links: