Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Monday, July 21, 2014

The Valley of the Neanderthal People

[Reprinted article from an intermediate source but credited to David A Claerr]

The Valley of the Neanderthal People
Does Evidence of Human-Neanderthal Hybrids Exist?

Lucien Camille Claerr, my grandfather, was born in the mid- 1800's, in Alsace Lorraine, located in the portion of the Alps that border France, Germany and Italy. Situated in the heart of the Alps, the Alsatian ranges are some of the most inaccessible in Europe. The region has many moderate to large mountain peaks that surround secluded Alpine Valleys. My grandfather lived in a small village in one such valley. The villagers were hardy mountain pastoralists, farming the lower slopes and grazing livestock in the mountain pastures.
Lucien learned mountaineering arts at an early age, and when he was as a young adult, he explored the Alps during the summer months. With a bedroll and a backpack, he traveled about, climbing summits and visiting the remote villages. Often he would offer to work for food and shelter, or sometimes, a small sum of money.
He related this story to me of an adventure he had near the border of France and Italy. One day, deep in the interior, he happened across an isolated village that was peculiar in many respects.
The first thing he noticed was that the building construction was different. Thatched houses and barns had supports made of rough-hewn trunks with some of the big branches left on the trunk, to form arches that supported the ceiling beams. The men of the village were all burly and barrel-chested, bushy-haired and coarse featured, with enormous beards. They wore leather breeches and homespun shirts. The women were staying indoors, and he didn't see any for the first few days.
The men spoke with an usual accent and he could not understand some of them at all, though he spoke both French and German fluently. But one man, speaking fragmented bits of both languages befriended him. He offered him food, and lodging in his barn, in return for helping to build an irrigation sluice, fashioned from halves of hollowed-out logs. My grandfather was good with an ax, and after a week of solid labor, the man complemented him on his skillful work and invited him to dinner at his house, suggesting that he introduce him to his daughter. On the appointed evening, he went to their house.
When dinner was served, the daughter came out of the kitchen carrying a tray of food. Lucien was shocked to see that her "bare" arms were totally covered with the same thick, woolly hair that her father and the other men had on theirs, and that there seemed to be sideburns under her long shaggy hair. When she leaned forward to set the tray down, he perceived that she had more hair on her chest than he did! He was so disturbed that he had to fight to swallow down the food.
After the meal the men retired to the porch to smoke pipes. Lucien's host invited him to sleep in their house that night. Lucien accepted, but found himself lying awake half the night, tossing and turning. He remembered hearing stories about rural customs that required a man to be engaged to a bride after staying at her house for a night. In a fit, he finally got up and, quietly as possible, left the house. He went to the barn and hurriedly packed up his belongings. Fortunately, the night was brightly lit by the full moon, so he hastily hiked out of the valley, traveling many miles before even stopping a moment to rest.
Recently, I was reading about the successful sequencing of the Neanderthal genome. Consequent to the gene mapping, DNA sequences specific to the Neanderthals were identified in the DNA of a fair percentage of modern Europeans. I remembered my grandfather's story, which I had always thought of as a quaint and amusing tale. But his description of the people of that remote village could easily fit a geographically isolated population of Human-Neanderthal hybrids who had only infrequent contact with outsiders before the 20th century. Since many genetic researchers are currently sampling gene pools from distinct geographic areas, I would suggest this region as a possible target for gathering comparative data on Human-Neanderthal inter-species contact.
The narrative account was transcribed from a verbal account by Lucien Camille Claerr by the author, David A. Claerr. The image is a digital illustration by David A. Claerr and copyrighted in his name, 
Published by David Claerr
[The originating source is probably
And David A Claerr seems to have ceased putting up articles on the subject since the recent scandals involving the hoax about "Hank" and bad publicity about Bigfoot that resulted from that.-DD]

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Clovis Map

Just as a general reference, here is a map of finds of Clovis points and Clovis-like points. They definitely seem to be most common in the East and thin out heading Westward.

New Guinea Mu 2

I had mentioned before that some of the ideas about the size and position about the "Lost Continent of Mu" was probably based on false impressions based on early maps of New Guinea. Here is one such early map sometimes claimed as a "Lost Mu Map" and an overlay for the approximate given position for New Guinea on a standard modern Mercator projection map. This does correspond very closely to the coordinates given by James Churchward for The Lost Continent of Mu.

I may need to add a reminder that in Hawaiian Mythology, "Mu" referred to a race of black Pygmies and that New Guinea was in fact rumoured to have Pygmies living in the interior.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

The Spread of the Beaker culture and the Spread of Mitochondrial DNA H

National Geographic: "Modern Europe's Genetic History Starts in Stone Age"

Family tree of much of modern European population has Stone Age roots.

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from 39 ancient skeletons from central Germany has shown that several distinct waves of people swept across ancient Europe. Anthropologists noted that today’s western European population is genetically dominated by a mid-Stone Age (Neolithic) population conventionally dated 4,000 to 4,500 years ago, though contributions from Early Neolithic, Late Neolithic, and later Bronze Age groups.

Researchers report the correlation of genomic markers with dated skeletons has allowed them to "reconstruct the recent evolutionary history" of European people.
Skeletons such as that of the "Beaker folk," late Neolithic people named for their waisted pottery, belong to the same genomic grouping as much of the native population of Spain and Portugal.

Anthropologists had thought that Europe, after the demise of Neanderthals and infiltration by the first early modern humans (conventionally dated about 30,000 to 40,000 years ago), was populated by only few or even just one migratory event. But findings suggest successive waves swept western Europe, though the reasons remain completely unknown. Each group left its genetic footprint in the modern population. Furthermore, those genetically distinct groups correspond to archaeological changes, showing that cultural changes in Europe were not a matter of changes among people themselves but rather the influx or upsurgence of different people groups.

Researchers were gratified to note that the changes in DNA haplogroups do correlate with archaeological differences such as different sorts of pottery and artifacts suggesting different lifestyles, explains Spencer Wells, the National Geographic representative involved with the study. "In this study we show that changes in the European archaeological record are accompanied by genetic changes, suggesting that cultural shifts were accompanied by the migration of people and their DNA." Archaeologists have long debated whether cultural changes—such as being hunter-gatherers versus being farmers—represent an influx of new people or a change in the characteristics of existing populations. Many anthropologists view farmers as more evolutionarily advanced.

"This is the first high-resolution genetic record of these lineages through time, and it is fascinating that we can directly observe both human DNA evolving in ‘real-time,’ and the dramatic population changes that have taken place in Europe," says joint lead author Wolfgang Haak. "We can follow over 4,000 years of prehistory, from the earliest farmers through the early Bronze Age to modern times."11

"The record of this maternally inherited [mitochondrial] genetic group, called Haplogroup H," explains another of the joint lead authors, Paul Brotherton, "shows that the first farmers in Central Europe resulted from a wholesale cultural and genetic input via migration, beginning in Turkey and the Near East where farming originated and arriving in Germany around 7,500 years ago."

[Actually the mtDNA haplogroup H is native to the area of Northern Spain and Southern France and is closely related to the people of Halogroup V, in the Basque country. The "First Farmers from Turkey and the Near East" were the OTHER group under discussion, the ancestors of the LBK pottery makes, and they were both genetically distinctive and overwritten by the mtDNA haplogroup H population, as this article subsequently goes on to show-DD]

"This population moves in around 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, but where it came from remains a mystery, as we can't see anything like it in the areas surrounding Europe," says Alan Cooper, director of the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD), which did the work. "The genetics show that something around that point caused the genetic signatures of previous populations to disappear. However, we don't know what happened or why, and [the mid-Neolithic] has not been previously identified as [a time] of major change." Researchers also do not know where this Neolithic population that leaves its genetic marker in over 40% of western Europeans came from. "About [4,500] years ago, you start seeing a diversity and composition of genetic signatures that are beginning to look like modern [Central] Europe," Cooper says. "This composition is then modified by subsequent cultures moving in, but it's the first point at which you see something like the modern European genetic makeup in place."

The Neolithic "linear B" pottery culture (LBK) is believed to be predominantly farmers, named for their characteristic pottery decorations. The previous inhabitants seemed to be a hunter-gatherer population, and their genetic signatures differ.

Yet the genetic turnover in western Europe’s population wasn’t finished yet. Mitochondrial DNA also suggests that this "linear B" pottery (LBK) population eventually diminished to be replaced by yet another wave of immigrants sweeping across the continent. "The extent or nature of this genetic turnover are not clear, and we don't know how widespread it is," Cooper says. "If this turnover were widespread, it could have been prompted by climate change or disease. All we know is that the descendants of the LBK farmers disappeared from Central Europe about 4,500 years ago, clearing the way for the rise of populations from elsewhere, with their own unique H signatures."

The study, published in Nature Communications, also suggested the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate was 45% higher than previously thought.

Which is to say that mtDNA group H was dispersed across Europe in the form of the native Spanish/Iberian females of the Beaker people or Beaker Folk trading conglomerate.

In the popularization by B. Sykes, the ancestress of mtDNA clan H is called Helena
 and is closely related to V (Velda) Westward in Spain as of 15000 BC

It would appear that in the case of possible transatlantic cultural contacts to the Beaker culture, the Iberian females were not involved in the transaction

Although many were in evidence in Europe where they were
the female contingent in a population of wealthy merchants and metallurgists,
And we have found their graves and grave goods so we can tell this.

Recent analyses have made significant inroads to understanding the Beaker phenomenon, mostly by analysing each of its components separately.[10][11] They have concluded that the Bell Beaker phenomenon was a synthesis of elements, representing “an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background.”[12]
Radiocarbon dating seems to support that the earliest "Maritime" Bell Beaker design style is encountered in Iberia, specifically in the vibrant copper-using communities of the Tagus estuary in Portugal around 2800-2700 BC and spread from there to many parts of western Europe.[3][13] An overview of all available sources from southern Germany concluded that Bell Beaker was a new and independent culture in that area, contemporary with the Corded Ware culture.[14][15]

The inspiration for the Maritime Bell Beaker is argued to have been the small and earlier Copoz beakers that have impressed decoration and which are found widely around the Tagus estuary in Portugal.[16] Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of seaborne contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BCE.[17] However, radiocarbon dating from North African sites is lacking for the most part.
AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from pre-Beaker period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern and Central Europe.[18]
Furthermore, the burial ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites was intrusive into Western Europe. Individual burials, often under tumuli burials, with the inclusion of weapons contrast markedly to the preceding Neolithic traditions of often collective, weaponless burials in Atlantic/Western Europe. Such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions,[17] although instead of ‘battle-axes’, Bell Beaker individuals used copper daggers. 

The initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime.[3] A southern move led to the Mediterranean where 'enclaves' were established in south-western Spain and southern France around the Golfe du Lion and into the Po valley in Italy probably via ancient western Alpine trade routes used to distribute Jadeite axes.[3] A northern move incorporated the southern coast of Armorica with further, less well defined, contacts extending to Ireland and possibly to central southern Britain.[3] The earliest copper production in Ireland, identified at Ross Island in the period 2400-2200 BC, was associated with early Beaker pottery.[3][19] Here the local sulpharsenide ores were smelted to produce the first copper axes used in Britain and Ireland.[3] The same technologies were used in the Tagus region and in the west and south of France.[3][20] The evidence is sufficient to support the suggestion that the initial spread of Maritime Bell Beakers along the Atlantic and into the Mediterranean, using sea routes that had long been in operation, was directly associated with the quest for copper and other rare raw materials
Important point, the jadeite must have come from Central America since there are no sources in Europe, We have discussed the sources of the different jade minerals earlier on this blog.-DD

     Distribution of H1 subgroup, thinning out from the Atlantic seaboard headed Eastward. H2 is
     more common in the East

Languages most often associated with these areas Archaeologically include Basque and Celtic.

According to (Learning about mtDNA haplogroup H). H2 is most frequent in eastern Europe and Caucus. And its subclade H2a about 6.5% in eastern Europe mimics the distribution of R1a in Asia(specifically R1a1a1b2 Z93). Probably from eastern European Yamna culture starting about 5,000 BP (3000 BC) which spread Indo European languages Tocharian and Indo Iranian throughout Asia (Which means the R1 males and H females were the main components of this expansion)

According to the same source, H4 and H5 seem to have originated in Europe and began diffusing to Turkey and the Mid-East about 500-6000 BC. This could have some connection to the Black Sea Flood, since the date is significant for that.

      Continued spread of mtDNA H into Asia and Africa is illustrated below. The concentration in Madagascar is interesting

Consulting one of the older references on this yields the following information (Currently stated to be outmoded in most modern universities):
The evidence of the racial composition of the Copper Age sailors who reached Italy and the Italian islands is simple and direct. The moderately tall, long-headed, mid narrow-nosed Megalithic people who were implanted, during the Late Neolithic, upon the smaller Mediterranean type which had preceded them, were followed, during the Aeneolithic by other, of the same kind, in the company of equally tall brachycephals. The latter resembled the people of the same Dinaric head form in Cyprus, Crete, and the Aegean, and without doubt formed a westward extension of the same movement.

In Sicily, which probably received metal earlier than most of the mainland or the islands farther west, Copper Age skulls of one series from Isnello28 are all of general Mediterranean type, with the Megalithic variety predominant, as shown by excessive skull lengths, moderate vault heights, and narrow noses. The mean stature for twenty-four males, presumably of this type, was 169 cm. Other Sicilian series, however, do include brachycephals, as at Chiusella and Villafratti, with cranial indices ranging as high as 91.29' These form, however, no more than one-third of the total Aeneolithic series from Sicily. In the true Bronze Age which followed, the incidence of these brachycephals increased.

In Sardinia a large series of sixty-three Copper Age skulls from Anghelu Ruju30 includes sixteen per cent, or ten individuals, of the new brachycephalic type, while the others resemble the long heads of Sicily. The group as a whole, irrespective of head form, was tall.31 The racial composition of Corsica during these periods is known only through the presence of one small, short-statured, long-headed female skeleton of either Neolithic or Aeneolithic age, and two brachycephalic crania from the Bronze Age.32

It would be interesting to supplement this survey of the Italian islands with a study of the crania found in the elaborate burial chambers of Malta, of late Neolithic or early Metal Age date, but the excavators of these vaults, professional and otherwise, literally threw away what was probably the longest unified series of human crania ever found, numbering over seven thousand. We are told that these early Maltese were "Mediterraneans," and know little else about them.33

On the mainland of Italy, Aeneolithic skeletons, which are found mostly on the western side of the central portion of the peninsula, belong to the same types found on the islands, but brachycephals are more abundant, being equal in number to the dolichoand mesocephals.34 Some of the Aeneolithic Italians of the Campagna and of Latium were very tall and large headed, with both mesocephalic and brachycephalic fortes.35 In Istria, at the head of the Adriatic, the Dinaric population which is dominant in that peninsula today had begun to arrive in the Copper and Bronze Ages,36 judging by a series of six female crania which bear definite indications of this type, such as flattening of the occiput, narrow face, and projecting nasal bones. The new invaders may, therefore, have travelled up the Adriatic as well as over the Tyrrhenian Sea.37

Reviewing the Italian material, on both metrical and morphological grounds we may determine that the round-headed racial type which came into the middle Mediterranean with the introduction of metal was of a general Dinaric character, and without doubt came from Asia Minor and the Aegean, where it first appeared in the last centuries of the third millennium B.C. Since the metal ages of the middle and Nvestern Mediterranean were later than those farther east, the chronological aspect of this theory presents no contradictions.

The Balearic Islands, Spain, and Portugal were, of course, the next stops in the westward spread of the metal-carrying seafarers through the Mediterranean. During the Early Copper Age in Spain, the distinctive Bell Beaker culture arose, which was soon to spread northward and eastward into central Europe, and eventually to Britain, as an important racial movement; and another culture of equal local importance, that of Los Millares in Almería, developed from eastern beginnings, with an emphasis on the importation of Egyptian and Near Eastern materials, such as hippopotamus ivory, ostrich egg shells, and actual Near Eastern pottery.38 The center of Early Bronze Age civilization again lay in AImeria, with el Argar as the principal site, and began about 2000 B.C. During this period, which lasted until the Iron Age, there was again much Egyptian and Aegean influence.

Unfortunately, in the Iberian Peninsula, as elsewhere, the human record is not sufficient to support the complexity of the cultural. The craniologist cannot keep pace with the archaeologist; we cannot, without more numerous and more accurately correlated skeletons, tell in all cases what physical types went with each archaeological entity.

In the Balearic Islands, for a beginning, a few dolichocephalic crania, and one brachycephal, have been found in the talayots, or corbelled stone towers resembling the Sardinian nuraghes and Scottish brochs, which were first built in the Copper Age but which were used until the advent of iron.39 Fifty-eight adult and five juvenile crania with long bones from a naveta, or long barrow, in Menorca, are said to have represented a homogeneous group of people with short stature, long-heads (all cranial indices being under 75), low faces, prominent, aquiline noses, and projecting chins. The form of the scapulae and humeri of the males showed that they had developed great shoulder and arm muscles from slinging, the activity from which the islands derived their name. Three other skulls from an ossuary at Biniatap are brachycephalic.40

In the Copper Age groups from mainland Spain and Portugal, the old long-headed types overwhelmingly prevail: out of one hundred and thirtyfour crania, which represent all that could be assembled for this survey, only fifteen, or nine per cent, were brachycephalic.41 If one includes Ariège, Basses Pyrenees, and Aveyron in the south of France, twenty-eight crania may be added, of which only two are brachycephalic.42 One of these, from a site near the city of Narbonne, possesses all of the cranial and facial features typical of the Bronze Age brachycephals of Cyprus, Italy, and the Italian islands. In few of the Spanish instances are extensive details given, but it is probable that the brachycephalic crania there are also of the same type.

Many of the dolichocephalic Copper Age skulls are of Megalithic or Long Barrow type, while others are of a smaller, less rugged, Mesolithic or Neolithic Mediterranean variety. Among the mesocephalic crania, some may again be small Mediterraneans, while others, with larger vault dimensions, may in many instances be mixtures between Megalithic and brachycephalic types. The statures of the large dolichoceplialic group average about 167 or 168 cm.; taller than most living Spaniards and as tall as the Neolithic Long Barrow population in Britain. Other dolichocephalic crania go with short stature, with a mean of about 160 cm. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine the approximate proportions of Megalithic and Mediterranean types, but the former seem to be at least one-half of the total.

A special development of the Copper Age in Spain was the Bell Beaker culture, about which more will be said later, since its chief influence in the racial sense fell upon areas in other parts of Europe. It is at present the general belief of archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture arose in central Spain, shortly before 2000 B.C., from local beginnings.43 A North African origin is rendered unlikely by the supposed absence of a Bronze Age south of Gibraltar, although recent work in Morocco has revealed some supposedly early metal.44 Where Bell Beaker burials are found in central Europe, the skeletons are almost always of the same tall brachycephalic type which we have already studied in the eastern Mediterranean and Italy. In Spain, however, they are frequently of the Megalithic race. The basis for the belief that the Bell Beaker people of Spain were Dinarics rests largely upon three cranial fragments from the type site of this culture at Ciempozuelos, near Madrid, and upon one complete mesocephalic skull from Cerro de Tomillo some forty miles away.45

The measurements of the three fragments are uncertain, and their allocation to a definite type impossible.46 However, all three fragments appear to be brachycephalic, and one to have a high vault. One has strong, another weak, browridges. One seems to have a slight lambdoid flattening. In the only fragment which possesses facial bones, the orbits are high and the nose narrow. The Cerro de Tomillo skull is not, however, a pure dolichocephal, and does resemble, in a partial sense, the Dinaric brachycephalic variety which was common in the Mediterranean at that time.

Although there seems to be little doubt in the minds of the archaeologists that the Bell Beaker culture developed in Spain, and although eastern Mediterranean brachycephals came there at about the same time, the manner in which the physical type and the culture became identified with each other is still obscure.

During the Early Bronze Age, after the efflorescence of the Bell Beaker people, Spain became a great center of metallurgy and trading activity, rivalling the Aegean in importance. The colonists from the east, who had originally located themselves in Spain merely as miners and forwarding agents of metal, now settled down to producing the finished products of the Bronze Age in Spain itself, for local sale, since disorders in the Mycenaean and Minoan realms had apparently cut them off from their homelands.47 Furthermore, the introduction of fresh cultural elements from the east suggests that new people had joined them.

The principal site of the Early Bronze Age, el Argar in the province of Almeria, is located near the silver mines of Herrerias, which were worked in ancient times. From some thirteen hundred flexed urn burials, seventy skulls have been recovered, of which twenty-nine are those of adult males, and forty of adult females.48 The el Argar series shows quite definitely that the Early Bronze Age people of Almeria were not descendants of previous inhabitants, but to a large extent a new population, with definite Near Eastern relationships, as one might suppose from the cultural indications.

The series as a whole is one of small people, with a mean male stature of 158 to 160 cm.; the earlier Copper Age immigrants, for the most part, were ten centimeters taller. The skulls gravitate around the indices of 76 and 77; for sixty per cent of male and fifty-eight per cent of female crania are mesocephalic. Of the remaining skulls, long heads outnumber round heads two to one. The series is not very homogeneous, and the cranial index and most other criteria of form show modalities which make it certain that the el Argar people included at least two types which had not become completely amalgamated.

The principal cranial element is a normal, rather small variety of Mediterranean, which seems to resemble, both metrically and in description, predynastic or early dynastic Egyptian forms, or at the same time, elements which entered Spain in the Neolithic. Prominence of the browridges at glabella, and a considerable nasion depression, make this type of Mediterranean rather unlike the Cappadocian variety common in Asia Minor, although metrically there is nothing to prevent such a relationship.

The second type is the new brachycephalic element, which seems to have been the dominant one politically, in that two female skulls found wearing silver crowns both belonged to it. It was apparently some form of Near Eastern brachycephal with which we are already in a General way familiar - the skull is short, rather than broad; the vault is medium or low; the forehead is narrow, the lambdoid region often flattened, while the greatest breadth of the vault comes well to the rear. The nose is high and narrow, and the nasal bones join the frontal with little depression, while a smooth glabella heightens the impression of a high-bridged Near Eastern type of nose. Although the units are high and rounded, the face is rather low, but the mandible is surprisingly broad, often with everted gonial angles. There is also a perceptible amount of alveolar prognathism.

Although this is not exactly the brachycephalic type which we met in the Copper Age, and which became identified with the Bell Beaker people, it is, nevertheless, definitely a Near Eastern variety of brachycephal which is familiar in Asia Minor and Syria today. The el Argar people represent a mixture of elements which could be duplicated in the modern Near East, but not one with which, in our ignorance of most of that end of the Mediterranean, we are already familiar. Some of the Mediterranean racial contingent may well have been of earlier Spanish derivation, but if so the absence of Megalithic and Copper Age forms is surprising.

In other parts of Spain no such change of population as that of Almeria is manifest. Mediterraneans, both large and small, are carried over from the Neolithic and Copper Ages, while the larger variety of brachycephal also continues." Out in Mallorca and Menorca, the dolichocephalic element seems to remain as the exclusive or predominant one, for the most part tall and of Long Barrow vault form.50

The westward migrations of peoples from the Aegean and the eastern end of the Mediterranean, during the Late Neolithic, the Aeneolithic, and the Early Bronze Age, must have affected the populations of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearics, and the Iberian Peninsula to a considerable degree. These were real colonizations which added new racial elements to the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Mediterranean sub-stratum. By the middle of the Bronze Age, the central and western N-fediterranean lands had assumed the racial characteristics which they still, for the most part, bear. Except for northern and central Italy, later migrations were to bring little that was new.

See Also:

Atlantis City Plan

An excellent summary of the description of Atlantis as given by Plato
From the Atlantis Bolivia website.
Unfortunately since this is a very good representation of Atlantis as described by Plato,
we can say with a pretty high egree of certainty there was nothing in the Archaeology of South America that closely corresponds to it, although there are several sites that were similar in part.

Another Transplant from India to Mexico 1500 BC

Statuette of a male practicing Yoga, of a similar physical type to the very many female statuettes that suddenly show up in Mexico at about the same time (about the end of the Indus Civilization) and along with a sudden influx of a physical type much resembling natives of India (as far as the skulls indicate)

Monday, July 14, 2014

The Mound Giants

I have a Facebook Friend named Kay Hearle who does marvelous artwork reconstructing the life appearance of the giant skeletons that are found in Mound burials. Typically these burials belong to the Adena culture out of the several cultures which are all called Mound Builders less accurately.

I have hypothesized that the giant population comes from the same old European population that still resurfaces from time to time. In ancient times they were typically warriors, guards and gladiators. In more modern times, people of this size and body type can be found as professional fighters and wrestlers.

Including famously Andre the Giant

There are a couple of distinctive genetic strains that are behind this and they have distinctive types of skulls. The basic population was identified by Carleton Coon as deriving from a very old mixture of CroMagnon and Neanderthal remnants at the end of the Ice Age, and he called the modern ones "Upper Paleolithic Survivals"
This large-bodied type and the distiunctively roundheaded, distinctively very tall Dinaric types from Europe seem to have fed into what became the Beaker Folk in Europe (Associated with Stonehenge and other such sites) and the Adenas in North America (Below is a reconstruction of an Adena man, typically 7 feet tall or more according to the older reference books)


The European populations were famously associated with mining and trading copper in Europe (and later trading in tin and bronze). In North America there is a parallel in the Old Copper Culture. in both areas there was a peculiar form of hafting made by curling the base into open sockets: by the bronze age in Europe regular complete sockets became common.

The descendants of the Adenas were said to be very tall and very strong people that bore more than a passing resemblance to white Europeans. They also had a fondness for tattooing themselves, in patterns reminiscent of Old World tattoo patterns.

An Adena skull below, he has a wolf jaw and probably was buried wearing a wolfskin overe his head. In Europe the special set of warriors known to wear woldf and bear skins to invoke greater ferocity in battle were known as Berserks (Berserkers)


The giant warrior cult was Trans-Atlantic and miraculous though it may sound, the giant warriors themselves were a valuable commodity to be traded over long distances. They started showing up in all the wealthier markets including in Mexico, Peru, Egypt and Phoenicia. And any army that included them could pretty much expect to go unchallenged.

A Giant Skeleton. Typically they were buried bundled up into minor megalithic monuments called Cists but hollowed out log coffins were also very commonly used when there was sufficient available timber around. Log Coffins seem to have been introduced by the builders of large ships.

Bronze age trade brought conspicuous consumption of luxury goods to a clearly affluent aristocracy. In order to keep well supplied, raw resources from a very large area had to be regularly exploited and then shipped over a large area. (At the same time some of the poorer European hunters and farmers were still making do with plainer and cheaper wood, stone and antler tools)
For most of the later Bronze Agge in the Mediterranean, the tin for bronze came from Britain. And American copper was regularly shipped in to Europe, we know that because the chemical composition was different  (European copper was typically "Dirtier" with more impurities in it)

And some of the weapons during the Bronze age must have required giant-sized handlers.

(Giant-sized Two Headed axes from a Greek museum exhibit)

The Adena ground stone and pottery industries were much like the European ones in the early Megalthic age. The use of the ground stone axheads (celts) and cord-marked or incised pottery is especially notable. Trade in nephrite jade is also notable in Europe at this time.

   European "Beaker" Pottery

Some of the Adena Weapons were strikingly outsized and much to heavy for men of normal strength to wield them. Below a stone warhammer head. I have a similar one at home myself.

Very large outsized bronze age weapons: the Biblical Goliath was probably armed with a spearhead like this

  American conical or round Adena ound above and European counterpart below.

Roundhouses and round or conical mounds of similar design were built on both sides of the Atlantic by these peoples

The appearance of the gigantic European warriors was also similar to the American ones, and the European Giant warriors were commonly tattooed and wore war paint.
These depictions are meant to show the Picts of Scotland and Britain

The Adena are marked by the use of especially large stone spearheads at their time.
Some of the same outsized spearheads also show up in the adjacent Woodlands cultural area


The Mound Giant Warriors became the stuff of legend and the stories kept getting more and more exaggerated. But the legend never did die. People still recall the giants of old to this day.

Below, Legendary Giant in artwork to the Left and a Giant Skeleton to the Right. From a creationist site which collects and archives reports on Giant skeletons.

Bigfoot Shootings Chronology

Robert Lindsay has posted a new revised chronological listing of Bigfoot shooting incidents, leaving out the now obvious recent hoaxes:

Sunday, July 13, 2014

Eastern Bigfoot Portraits

Below is a variety of representations for Eastern Bigfoot as depicted by various artists and compounded from two or three prior but similar charts posted on Facebook. I do not have access to all of the sources and I apologise if I fail to give credit to any of the artists, but if you see your work included and you want me to give credit, by all means send me a personal email and I shall fix it.

I wanted to draw attention to the fact that while there is some  variation on appearance and especially in the hairiness of the face, some common features do stand out. One is that most are basically human-like and the placement of the eyes, nose and mouth are always pretty consistent. Although it ios not always shown as such, the brow ridges are often of the characteristic double-arched kind that the Neanderthals had, and there is generally some degree of forehead showing (Although hair can fall in front of it). Also the brain case is fairly large and is often curved, domed, and bulges up on top. If there is a peak to the top of the head it is usually in back vertically behind the ears. The ears are ordinarily small and the mouth is ordinarily wide with big teeth. The eyes are often very large and very dark, and contrast to normal human eyes.

I think we have sevaeral indicators placing this series as close to the Neanderthal and Heidelburg types of fossil humans anatomically, and hence they assort with the ancestors of modern people. This means that they are basically hairy people and there is no especially big mystery to it. There is no new species to be discovered here, unless in the future some expert decides the sense organs are sufficiently different to warrant such a decision. That is not a determination which has happened yet and so for the tie being they remain simply as hairy people.

I believe this is another one from Rob Roy Menzies and it is another
excellent example of the "Caveman" or Wudewasa type.

Above, early-Classical period representation of a Satyr or Wildman from Italy. Below is a sensationalized newspaper illustration of a Wildman carrying off a woman. The facial features of the same type and so is the shape of the head on top, which does form a slight rise in the back but does not form a steep cone shape.